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           Search results for: (R)-2-Amino-2-carboxyethylmethanethiosulfonate C4H9NO4S2 CAS: 351422-29-2   

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Vestibular signals in primate cortex for self-motion perception.

The vestibular peripheral organs in our inner ears detect transient motion of the head in everyday life. This information is sent to the central nervous system for automatic processes such as vestibulo-ocular reflexes, balance and postural control, and higher cognitive functions including perception of self-motion and spatial orientation. Recent neurophysiological studies have discovered a prominent vestibular network in the primate cerebral cortex. Many of the areas involved are multisensory: their neurons are modulated by both vestibular signals and visual optic flow, potentially facilitating more robust heading estimation through cue integration. Combining psychophysics, computation, physiological recording and causal manipulation techniques, recent work has addressed both the encoding and decoding of vestibular signals for self-motion perception.

2426 related Products with: Vestibular signals in primate cortex for self-motion perception.

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The involvement of phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit1 (MYPT1) and MYPT1 isoform expression in NO/cGMP mediated differential vasoregulation of cerebral arteries compared to systemic arteries.

Constitutive release of NO blunts intrinsic and stimulated contractile activity in cerebral arteries (CA). Here, we explored the involvement of phosphorylation and expression levels of the PKG sensitive, leucine zipper positive (LZ ) splice variants of the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and whether its expression is associated with higher cGMP sensitivity.

1511 related Products with: The involvement of phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit1 (MYPT1) and MYPT1 isoform expression in NO/cGMP mediated differential vasoregulation of cerebral arteries compared to systemic arteries.

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Hypertension, risk factors and coronary artery stenosis: A case-control study.

Although hypertension is introduced as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), our knowledge about the nature of the association is hindered. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent associations of several factors including serologic, anthropometric and coronary artery stenosis (CAS) with blood pressure. This is a case-control study on 163 hypertensive patients (SBP > 140 mmHg or DBP > 80 mmHg) and 227 healthy participants. All participants underwent angiography due to classic symptoms of CVDs. Controlling for other study variables, significant associations between CAS (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.18-3.34 P = 0.006), BMI (kg/m) (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03-1.14, P = 0.002) and age (year) (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 1.005-1.05, p = 0.01) with hypertension were found. However, according to the results of the stratified analysis, no such associations were found among those with significant CAS. BMI and age were the only significant predictors of hypertension among participants with no CAS. Abdominal obesity was not remained in the final model regardless of the presence or absence of stenosis. As expected, stenosis itself was significantly associated with hypertension. This study suggested that BMI and age are the most powerful predictors of hypertension among those without CAS. As the result, it can be concluded that CAS alters the association between several factors and hypertension.

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Field-Driven Quantum Criticality in the Spinel Magnet ZnCr_{2}Se_{4}.

We report detailed dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities, specific heat, and thermal conductivity measurements on the frustrated magnet ZnCr_{2}Se_{4}. At low temperatures, with an increasing magnetic field, this spinel material goes through a series of spin state transitions from the helix spin state to the spiral spin state and then to the fully polarized state. Our results indicate a direct quantum phase transition from the spiral spin state to the fully polarized state. As the system approaches the quantum criticality, we find strong quantum fluctuations of the spins with behaviors such as an unconventional T^{2}-dependent specific heat and temperature-independent mean free path for the thermal transport. We complete the full phase diagram of ZnCr_{2}Se_{4} under the external magnetic field and propose the possibility of frustrated quantum criticality with extended densities of critical modes to account for the unusual low-energy excitations in the vicinity of the criticality. Our results reveal that ZnCr_{2}Se_{4} is a rare example of a 3D magnet exhibiting a field-driven quantum criticality with unconventional properties.

1278 related Products with: Field-Driven Quantum Criticality in the Spinel Magnet ZnCr_{2}Se_{4}.

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Bell Test over Extremely High-Loss Channels: Towards Distributing Entangled Photon Pairs between Earth and the Moon.

Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between Earth and the Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is as follows. One can perform the Bell test with human supplying the random measurement settings and recording the results while still maintaining spacelike intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for one of the ultimate tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics.

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Revealing the Link between Structural Relaxation and Dynamic Heterogeneity in Glass-Forming Liquids.

Despite the use of glasses for thousands of years, the nature of the glass transition is still mysterious. On approaching the glass transition, the growth of dynamic heterogeneity has long been thought to play a key role in explaining the abrupt slowdown of structural relaxation. However, it still remains elusive whether there is an underlying link between structural relaxation and dynamic heterogeneity. Here, we unravel the link by introducing a characteristic time scale hiding behind an identical dynamic heterogeneity for various model glass-forming liquids. We find that the time scale corresponds to the kinetic fragility of liquids. Moreover, it leads to scaling collapse of both the structural relaxation time and dynamic heterogeneity for all liquids studied, together with a characteristic temperature associated with the same dynamic heterogeneity. Our findings imply that studying the glass transition from the viewpoint of dynamic heterogeneity is more informative than expected.

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Experimental Observation of a Generalized Thouless Pump with a Single Spin.

Adiabatic cyclic modulation of a one-dimensional periodic potential will result in quantized charge transport, which is termed the Thouless pump. In contrast to the original Thouless pump restricted by the topology of the energy band, here we experimentally observe a generalized Thouless pump that can be extensively and continuously controlled. The extraordinary features of the new pump originate from interband coherence in nonequilibrium initial states, and this fact indicates that a quantum superposition of different eigenstates individually undergoing quantum adiabatic following can also be an important ingredient unavailable in classical physics. The quantum simulation of this generalized Thouless pump in a two-band insulator is achieved by applying delicate control fields to a single spin in diamond. The experimental results demonstrate all principal characteristics of the generalized Thouless pump. Because the pumping in our system is most pronounced around a band-touching point, this work also suggests an alternative means to detect quantum or topological phase transitions.

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The anti-inflammatory effect of microRNA-383-3p interacting with IL1R2 against homocysteine-induced endothelial injury in rat coronary arteries.

MicroRNAs (miRs) are widely reported to be novel biomarkers involved in the process of coronary atherosclerosis (CAS). Hence, this study aims to explore the function of miR-383-3p targeting IL1R2 on inflammatory injury of coronary artery endothelial cells (CAECs) in CAS. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of miR-383-3p were analyzed in concert with the treatment of miR-383-3p mimics, miR-383-3p inhibitors, and the combination of miR-383-3p inhibitors and siRNA against IL1R2 in homocysteine (HCY)-induced CAECs. MTT, Hoechst 33258 staining, and tube formation assay were employed in order to measure cell viability, apoptosis, and tube formation, respectively. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 were determined by ELISA. IL1R2 was verified as the target gene of miR-383-3p by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. MiR-383-3p was down-regulated in myocardial tissues of AS rats while IL1R2 was the reciprocal. The up-regulation of miR-383-3p decreased the levels of IL1R2, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 expressions, as well as cell apoptosis rate in the HCY-induced CAECs, while IL-10 expression, cell viability, and tube formation ability were increased. These results were contraindicated in the HCY-induced CAECs treated by miR-383-3p inhibitors. In conclusion, miR-383-3p mediating IL1R2 prevents HCY-induced apoptosis and inflammation injury in CAECs through the inhibition of the activation of inflammasome signaling pathway. These findings highly indicate that miR-383-3p may be beneficial in the prevention of CAS and other cardiovascular diseases.

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A novel cell-type deconvolution algorithm reveals substantial contamination by immune cells in saliva, buccal and cervix.

An outstanding challenge in epigenome studies is the estimation of cell-type proportions in complex epithelial tissues.

1806 related Products with: A novel cell-type deconvolution algorithm reveals substantial contamination by immune cells in saliva, buccal and cervix.

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Biosynthesis of the 15-membered ring depsipeptide neoantimycin.

Antimycins are a family of natural products possessing outstanding biological activities and unique structures, which have intrigued chemists for over a half century. Of particular interest are the ring-expanded antimycins that show promising anti-cancer potential and whose biosynthesis remains uncharacterized. Specifically, neoantimycin and its analogs have been shown to be effective regulators of the oncogenic proteins GRP78/BiP and K-Ras. The neoantimycin structural skeleton is built on a 15-membered tetralactone ring containing one methyl, one hydroxy, one benzyl and three alkylmoieties, as well as an amide linkage to a conserved 3-formamidosalicylic acid moiety. Although the biosynthetic gene cluster for neoantimycins was recently identified, the enzymatic logic that governs the synthesis of neoantimycins has not yet been revealed. In this work, the neoantimycin gene cluster is identified and an updated sequence and annotation is provided delineating a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase (NRPS/PKS) hybrid scaffold. Using cosmid expression and CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing, several heterologous expression strains for neoantimycin production are constructed in two separate Streptomyces species. A combination of in vivo and in vitro analysis is further used to completely characterize the biosynthesis of neoantimycins including the megasynthases and trans-acting domains. This work establishes a set of highly tractable hosts for producing and engineering neoantimycins and their C11 oxidized analogs, paving the way for neoantimycin-based drug discovery and development.

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