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           Search results for: 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5α-androstanone C21H31BrO3 CAS: 6173-35-9   

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#29054074   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Temperature dependence of bioelectrochemical CO2 conversion and methane production with a mixed-culture biocathode.

This study evaluated the effect of temperature on methane production by CO2 reduction during microbial electrosynthesis (MES) with a mixed-culture biocathode. Reactor performance, in terms of the amount and rate of methane production, current density, and coulombic efficiency, was compared at different temperatures. The microbial properties of the biocathode at each temperature were also analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that the optimum temperature for methane production from CO2 reduction in MES with a mixed-culture cathode was 50°C, with the highest amount and rate of methane production of 2.06±0.13mmol and 0.094±0.01mmolh(-1), respectively. In the mixed-culture biocathode MES, the coulombic efficiency of methane formation was within a range of 19.15±2.31% to 73.94±2.18% due to by-product formation at the cathode, including volatile fatty acids and hydrogen. Microbial analysis demonstrated that temperature had an impact on the diversity of microbial communities in the biofilm that formed on the MES cathode. Specifically, the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium became the predominant archaea for methane production from CO2 reduction, while the abundance of the aceticlastic methanogen Methanosaeta decreased with increased temperature.

1530 related Products with: Temperature dependence of bioelectrochemical CO2 conversion and methane production with a mixed-culture biocathode.

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#29054062   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

The chemostat metabolite spectra of alkaline mixed culture fermentation under mesophilic, thermophilic, and extreme-thermophilic conditions.

Alkaline mixed culture fermentation (MCF) is a promising technology for reducing organic waste and producing biochemicals. However, chemostat metabolite spectra that are necessary for constructing a model and analyzing factors are seldom reported. In the present study, the effects of pH on the metabolites distribution in mesophilic (35 °C), thermophilic (55 °C), and extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) alkaline MCF were demonstrated. A chemical oxygen demand balance above 80% was achieved, and the main metabolites included acetate, ethanol, propionate, lactate, and formate. The yields of ethanol and formate increased as pH was increased from 7.5 to higher pH under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, while the yields of acetate, lactate, and/or propionate decreased. The yields of ethanol, acetate, and formate increased under extreme-thermophilic conditions as pH was increased from 7.5 to 9.0, whereas lactate and hydrogen yields decreased. Low biomass yield under thermophilic and extreme-thermophilic conditions benefited higher metabolite production and minimized the accumulation of sludge.

1145 related Products with: The chemostat metabolite spectra of alkaline mixed culture fermentation under mesophilic, thermophilic, and extreme-thermophilic conditions.

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#29053606   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Lung Toxicity of Condensed Aerosol from E-CIG Liquids: Influence of the Flavor and the In Vitro Model Used.

The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer). This suggests that more experimental evidences are needed to support the regulatory frameworks. The present study aims to contribute in this field by testing the effects of condensed aerosols (CAs) from three main e-liquid categories (tobacco, mint, and cinnamon as food-related flavor), with (18 mg/mL) or without nicotine. Two in vitro models, represented by a monoculture of human epithelial alveolar cells and a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture of alveolar and lung microvascular endothelial cells were used. Cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and alveolar-blood barrier (ABB) integrity were investigated as inhalation toxicity endpoints. Results showed that nicotine itself had almost no influence on the modulation of the toxicity response, while flavor composition did have. The cell viability was significantly decreased in monoculture and ABB after exposure to the mints and cinnamon CAs. The barrier integrity was significantly affected in the ABB after exposure to cytotoxic CAs. With the exception of the significant IL-8 release in the monoculture after Cinnamon exposure, no increase of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and MCP-1) release was observed. These findings point out that multiple assays with different in vitro models are able to discriminate the acute inhalation toxicity of CAs from liquids with different flavors, providing the companies and regulatory bodies with useful tools for the preliminary screening of marketable products.

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#29052811   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Four Saccharomyces species differ in their tolerance to various stresses though they have similar basic physiological parameters.

Saccharomyces species, which are mostly used in the food and beverage industries, are known to differ in their fermentation efficiency and tolerance of adverse fermentation conditions. However, the basis of their difference has not been fully elucidated, although their genomes have been sequenced and analyzed. Five strains of four Saccharomyces species (S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. bayanus, and S. paradoxus), when grown in parallel in laboratory conditions, exhibit very similar basic physiological parameters such as membrane potential, intracellular pH, and the degree to which they are able to quickly activate their Pma1 H(+)-ATPase upon glucose addition. On the other hand, they differ in their ability to proliferate in media with a very low concentration of potassium, in their osmotolerance and tolerance to toxic cations and cationic drugs in a growth-medium specific manner, and in their capacity to survive anhydrobiosis. Overall, S. cerevisiae (T73 more than FL100) and S. paradoxus are the most robust, and S. kudriavzevii the most sensitive species. Our results suggest that the difference in stress survival is based on their ability to quickly accommodate their cell size and metabolism to changing environmental conditions and to adjust their portfolio of available detoxifying transporters.

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#29052312   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Bleomycin-induced chromosomal damage and shortening of telomeres in peripheral blood lymphocytes of incident cancer patients.

Disruption of genomic integrity due to deficient DNA repair capacity and telomere shortening constitute hallmarks of malignant diseases. Incomplete or deficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is manifested by chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and their frequency reflects inter-individual differences of response to exposure to mutagenic compounds. In this study, we investigated chromosomal integrity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from newly diagnosed cancer patients, including 47 breast (BC) and 44 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 90 matched healthy controls. Mutagen sensitivity was evaluated by measuring chromatid breaks (CTAs) induced by bleomycin and supplemented by the chemiluminescent measurement of γ-H2AX phosphorylation in 19 cancer patients (11 BC, 8 CRC). Relative telomere length (RTL) was determined in 22 BC, 32 CRC and 64 controls. We observed statistically significant increased level of CTAs (p=0.03) and increased percentage of aberrant cells (ACs) with CTAs (p=0.05) in CRC patients compared to controls after bleomycin treatment. No differences were observed between BC cases and corresponding controls. CRC and BC patients with shorter RTL (below median) exhibited significantly higher amount of ACs (p=0.02), CTAs (p=0.02) and cells with high frequency of CTAs (≥12 CTAs/PBL; p=0.03) after bleomycin treatment. No such associations were observed in healthy controls. γ-H2AX phosphorylation after bleomycin treatment in PBL did not differ between CRC and BC patients. Our results suggest that altered DSB repair measured by sensitivity towards mutagen in PBL occurs particularly in CRC carcinogenesis. Irrespective of cancer type, telomere shortening may be associated with a decreased capacity to repair DSB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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#29051852   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Single Near-Infrared Emissive Polymer Nanoparticles as Versatile Phototheranostics.

Attaining consistently high performance of diagnostic and therapeutic functions in one single nanoplatform is of great significance for nanomedicine. This study demonstrates the use of donor-acceptor (D-A) structured polymer (TBT) to develop a smart "all-five-in-one" theranostic that conveniently integrates fluorescence/photoacoustic/thermal imaging and photodynamic/photothermal therapy into single nanoparticle. The prepared nanoparticles (TBTPNPs) exhibit near-infrared emission, high water solubility, excellent light resistance, good pH stability, and negligible toxicity. Additionally, the TBTPNPs exhibit an excellent singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yield (40%) and high photothermal conversion efficiency (37.1%) under single-laser irradiation (635 nm). Apart from their two phototherapeutic modalities, fluorescence, photoacoustic signals, and thermal imaging in vivo can be simultaneously achieved because of their enhanced permeability and retention effects. This work demonstrates that the prepared TBTPNPs are "all-five-in-one" phototheranostic agents that can exhibit properties to satisfy the "one-fits-all" requirement for future phototheranostic applications. Thus, the prepared TBTPNPs can provide fundamental insights into the development of PNP-based nanoagents for cancer therapy.

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#29051847   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Symbiotic bacteria associated with puffer fish Gastrophysus spadiceus and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities.

The present study reports the diversity of culturable bacteria associated with the puffer fish Gastrophysus spadiceus. During the study, a total of 31 strains affiliated to the genera Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Rahnella, and Psychrobacter were isolated from liver, intestines, and flesh of G. spadiceus. These strains exhibited a diverse range of metabolites as indicated by the HPLC and TLC profiles of the chemical extracts of their fermentation products. Some of these crude extracts showed strong antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacterial strains. In addition, few crude extracts exhibit insecticidal activity against Artemia salina.

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#29051223   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

CRISPR/Cas9-based screening of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in macrophages with an NF-kappa B reporter.

The innate immune system protects against infections by initiating an inducible inflammatory response. NF-kappa B (NF-KB) is one of the critical transcription factors controlling this complex response, but some aspects of its regulation remain unclear. For example, although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to critically regulate gene expression, only a fraction of these have been functionally characterized, and the extent to which lncRNAs control NF-KB expression is unknown. Here, we describe the generation of a GFP-based NF-KB reporter system in immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (iBMDMs). Activation of this reporter, using Toll-like receptor ligands, resulted in GFP expression, which could be monitored by flow cytometry. We also established a CRISPR/Cas9 gene deletion system in this NF-KB reporter line, enabling us to screen for genes that regulate NF-KB signaling. Our deletion-based approach identified two long intergenic noncoding (linc)RNAs, lincRNA-Cox2 and lincRNA-AK170409, that control NF-KB signaling. We demonstrate a potential novel role for lincRNA-Cox2 in promoting IkBA degradation in the cytoplasm. For lincRNA-AK170409, we provide evidence that this nuclear-localized lincRNA regulates a number of inflammation-related genes. In conclusion, we have established an NF-KB-GFP iBMDM reporter cell line and a line that stably expresses Cas9. Our approach enabled identification of lincRNA-Cox2 and lincRNA-AK170409 as NF-KB regulators and this tool will be useful for identifying additional genes involved in regulating this transcription factor critical for immune function.

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#29051075   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

The evolution and functional characterization of lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) CCKs involved in fasting and thermal stress response.

The peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate appetite and feeding behaviour. In the present study, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of two CCK precursors were cloned and analysed in the Syngnathidae fish, the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Both CCK1 and CCK2 in the seahorse consist of four exons. The sequence of the octapeptide of seahorse CCK1 (DYMGWMDF) was the same as that of the chicken and human, while the octapeptide of seahorse CCK2 (DYEGWMDF) was unique among vertebrates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, two types of CCKs were produced by teleost-specific genome duplication (TGD). Both CCK1 and CCK2 were highly expressed in the brain, while detectable amounts of CCK1 mRNA in the brood pouch and CCK2 mRNA in the intestine were also found. Both CCK1 and CCK2 mRNA levels significantly increased during the transition from endogenous to exogenous nutrition. Additionally, fasting induced a significant increase in the CCK1 mRNA expression in the brain of juvenile seahorses but had no effect on CCK2 transcript levels. In addition, the CCK1 and CCK2 mRNA levels in the seahorse brain significantly increased after a high-temperature treatment. Thus, the mRNA expression of CCK had obvious tissue specificities and this preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulations of CCK in the transition from endogenous to exogenous nutrition, food intake regulation and metabolism in the seahorse.

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#29051014   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Furan fatty acids - Beneficial or harmful to health?

Furan fatty acids are found in plants, algae, and fish, and reported to have some positive health benefits, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and inhibition of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation. A major metabolite of furan fatty acids, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), has been reported to be increased in patients who progress from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, although CMPF is not necessarily associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Other studies report that CMPF levels are lower in subjects with diabetes than control subjects. Plasma CMPF levels increase in subjects who consume fish or fish oil, and in patients with renal failure. It is not known where furan fatty acids are converted to CMPF and it is speculated that this might be a result of microbiome activity. The plasma levels reported for CMPF in healthy, diabetic and patients with renal disease vary by factors of more than 100-fold within each of these three groups, so measurement error appears to be limiting the ability to interpret studies. This review explores these controversies and raises questions about whether CMPF is a marker for healthy diets or indeed associated with diabetes and renal health. The review concludes that, on balance, furan fatty acids are beneficial for health.

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