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           Search results for: 2-Amino-5,6-dichloro-3,4-dihydroquinazoline Hydrobromide C8H8BrCl2N3 CAS: 327602-34-6    

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Discovery of novel propargylamine-modified 4-aminoalkyl imidazole substituted pyrimidinylthiourea derivatives as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

A series of novel propargylamine-modified pyrimidinylthiourea derivatives (1-3) were designed and synthesized as multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy, and their potential was evaluated through various biological experiments. Among these derivatives, compound 1b displayed good selective inhibitory activity against AChE (vs BuChE, IC = 0.324 μM, SI > 123) and MAO-B (vs MAO-A, IC = 1.427 μM, SI > 35). Molecular docking study showed that the pyrimidinylthiourea moiety of 1b could bind to the catalytic active site (CAS) of AChE, and the propargylamine moiety interacted directly with the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) of MAO-B. Moreover, 1b demonstrated mild antioxidant ability, good copper chelating property, effective inhibitory activity against Cu-induced Aβ aggregation, moderate neuroprotection, low cytotoxicity, and appropriate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in vitro and was capable of ameliorating scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice. These results indicated that 1b has the potential to be a multifunctional candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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Scopolamine disrupts place navigation in rats and humans: a translational validation of the Hidden Goal Task in the Morris water maze and a real maze for humans.

Development of new drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires valid paradigms for testing their efficacy and sensitive tests validated in translational research.

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Differential role of ventral tegmental area acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in cocaine-seeking.

Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Cues evoke burst firing of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons and phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Cholinergic and glutamatergic input to the VTA is suggested to gate phasic DA activity. However, the role of VTA cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in regulating phasic dopamine release and cue-induced drug-seeking in cocaine experienced subjects is not known. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, we found that VTA inactivation strongly inhibited, while VTA stimulation promoted, cocaine-seeking behavior during early withdrawal. Blockade of phasic activated D1 receptors in the NAc core also strongly inhibited cue-induced cocaine-seeking--suggesting an important role of phasic DA activity in the VTA to NAc core circuit. Next, we examined the role of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating both NAc core phasic DA release and cue-induced cocaine-seeking. In cocaine naïve subjects, VTA infusion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antagonist mecamylamine, the muscarinic AChR antagonist scopolamine, or the NMDAR antagonist AP-5, led to robust attenuation of phasic DA release in the NAc core. During early cocaine withdrawal, VTA infusion of AP-5 had limited effects on NAc phasic DA release and cue-induced cocaine-seeking while VTA infusion of mecamylamine or scopolamine robustly inhibited both phasic DA release and cocaine-seeking. The results demonstrate that VTA AChRs, but not NMDARs, strongly regulate cue-induced cocaine-seeking and phasic DA release during early cocaine withdrawal.

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Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly 1-Acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2-me 1-Acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2-me 3-(2-Aminoethyl)-N-methyl 2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrid 2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrid 3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrid 3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrid 3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrid D,L-7-Aza-3-indolylglycin Nuclear Membrane Receptor (3R)-3-[[2-(1,3-Benzodiox

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Investigation into the in vivo effects of five novel tacrine/ferulic acid and beta-carboline derivatives on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in rats using radial maze paradigm.

Two tacrine-ferulic acid hybrids (1 A, 1 B) and three beta-carboline derivatives (BCs; 2A, 2B, 2C) were tested in vivo on 3-month-old female rats as multi-potent anti-Alzheimer drug candidates. In vitro, the two tacrine-ferulic acid hybrids show higher acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and comparable butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity compared to tacrine (CAS 1684-40-8). However, in vivo both substances have no beneficial effect on scopolamine (CAS 51-34-3) induced cognition impairment. On the contrary, 1B even worsen the scopolamine induced cognition impairment. The beta-carboline derivatives 2A, 2B, and 2 C, the inhibitory potency of which at AChE reaching tacrine activity does not antagonize scopolamine induced impairment of cognition in rats measured in radial maze paradigm. Compounds 2A and 1B might act as positive allosteric modulators of scopolamine action at the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. On the basis of these results it can be concluded that both ferulic acid- (CAS 537-98-4) and BC-derivatives are not qualified as cognition improving drugs and further studies in this field should be focussed on other pharmaceutical leads to find effective anti-Alzheimer drugs.

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Influence of age on cognition and scopolamine induced memory impairment in rats measured in the radial maze paradigm.

The influence of age on (1) cognition and (2) scopolamine (CAS 51-34-3) induced memory impairment in female rats was measured in the radial maze paradigm (RAM). (1) First training trials were done with 3 and 12 months old rats. Rats were trained to find all eight food baits in the RAM without errors and within 1 min. Both 3- and 12-month old rats need about 15 trials for the first-time learning of the RAM task. After intervals of 3 6 months, respectively, initially young rats were re-trained with an age of 6 and 12 months. Surprisingly, re-trained rats successfully completed the maze runs already after one re-training trial. Thus the phenomenon of preserved spatial memory was approved for female rats. (2) Memory impairment by scopolamine in the RAM was tested for the time in rats with an age of 3 months. first rats with thesame After a control run,the rats received an i.p. injection of either scopolamine hydrochloride (0.05 mg/100 g b. wt.) or saline vehicle. The effect of scopolamine on working memory was measured 20 min after administration. Training procedure and scopolamine administration were repeated at an age of 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in the same manner. The cognition impairment after scopolamine (number of errors: control: <1; scopolamine: 5-6) remains constant between 3 and 24 months of age. The only significant difference was the increase in run time in rats older than 18 months caused by degenerative changes developing with age.

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Different effects of scopolamine on the retrieval of spatial memory and fear memory.

Retrieval of memory is fundamental for our life as individuals. The participation of cholinergic system in memory consolidation process has been extensively studied, but there are few data concerning the function of this system in memory retrieval process. In the current study, we inject non-selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine peripherally 20 min before training or testing to see whether cholinergic modulation has effects on the acquisition or retrieval of spatial memory by water maze task and fear memory by inhibitory avoidance task. We find that the cholinergic system is essential for the acquisition of both spatial memory and fear memory. As for the memory retrieval, the cholinergic system has a positive role in the retrieval of spatial memory, because mice injected with scopolamine 20 min before the testing in the water maze show impaired spatial memory retrieval. Whereas injection of scopolamine 20 min before the testing in the inhibitory avoidance task does not cause memory retrieval deficits. That indicates the cholinergic system is not essential for the retrieval of fear memory.

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A new way of data interpretation for cognition tests in rats used to characterise six choline esterase inhibitors with heterocyclic nitrogen bridgehead structure. Application in Alzheimer therapy.

Six new tri- and tetracyclic nitrogen bridgehead compounds known to be moderate to potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in vitro were tested in vivo as experimental therapeutics for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive impairment in rats was reversibly induced by scopolamine (CAS 51-34-3). The effect of the new substances was evaluated in an eight-arm radial maze and run times (1), errors (2), correct choices (3), correct choices per second (4), speed (5), and running distance (6) were recorded. For optimisation of data analysis a new strategy was used: A score was created on the basis of the 6 parameters described with score 1 for controls and score 4 for scopolamine rats. Scores above 4 indicate an impairment of cognition function compared to scopolamine. After equimolar dosage compared to the reference drug rivastigmine (CAS 123441-03-2), two of the new substances slightly improved cognition in rats, but only to a significantly lower degree compared to the irreversible inhibitor rivastigmine. Surprisingly, the other four compounds did not improve or even worsened the scopolamine effect on working memory.

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Pharmacological effects of imidafenacin (KRP-197/ONO-8025), a new bladder selective anti-cholinergic agent, in rats. Comparison of effects on urinary bladder capacity and contraction, salivary secretion and performance in the Morris water maze task.

Imidafenacin (CAS 170105-16-5, KRP-197, ONO-8025) has been developed for the treatment of overactive bladder as a new anti-cholinergic with high affinities for muscarinic acetylcholine M3 and M1 receptors. The pharmacological profiles of imidafenacin on the urinary bladder function by determining carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced decrease in bladder capacity and distention-induced rhythmic bladder contraction in conscious rats were investigated. In addition, effects of imidafenacin on CCh-induced salivary secretion and performance in the Morris water maze task in rats were investigated to evaluate side effects, such as dry mouth and cognitive dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). Imidafenacin prevented the CCh-induced decrease in bladder capacity dose-dependently with an ID50 of 0.055 mg/kg. On the distention-induced rhythmic bladder contraction, imidafenacin, propiverine, tolterodine, oxybutynin and darifenacin showed inhibitory effects with ID30's of 0.17, 15, 3.0, 3.2 and 0.85 mg/kg, respectively. The rank order of inhibitory potency was: imidafenacin > darifenacin > tolterodine > or = oxybutynin > propiverine. Imidafenacin, propiverine, tolterodine, oxybutynin and darifenacin showed inhibitory effects on the CCh-stimulated salivary secretion with ID50's of 1.5, 14, 15, 4.4 and 1.2 mg/kg, respectively. The rank order of inhibitory potency was: darifenacin > or = imidafenacin > oxybutynin > propiverine > or = tolterodine. Imidafenacin at the doses of 1 and 10 mg/ kg did not affect the escape latencies in the Morris water maze task compared with those in vehicle controls. Oxybutynin at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant increase in the escape latencies, but propiverine at the dose of 100 mg/kg did not induce significant changes. These results suggest that imidafenacin inhibits urinary bladder contraction to a greater extent than the salivary secretion (compared with the M3 receptor selective antagonist, darifenacin, and the non-selective antagonists, propiverine, tolterodine and oxybutynin) or the CNS functions, such as performance in the Morris water maze task (compared with oxybutynin). In conclusion, imidafenacin has organ selectivity for the bladder over the salivary gland, without influence on the central nervous system such as spatial learning and memory.

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Effect of dextromethorphan on reference memory assessed in rats by a three-panel runway task.

The effects of dextromethorphan (DM, CAS 6700-34-1), a common over-the-counter cough suppressant, on the reference memory have been investigated by a three-panel runway setup in rats. This study was designed by using a repeated acquisition procedure such as a radialarm maze task or a water maze task. DM (20-40 mg/kg i.p.) produced a significant decrease in the number of errors (pushes made on the two incorrect panels of the three panel gates at four choice points) and latency. Systemically administered scopolamine (CAS 114-49-8) (1 mg/kg i.p.) impaired the performance on both parameters. DM (40 mg/kg i.p.) was effective in reversing the reference memory deficit induced by administration of scopolamine. DM acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Our results suggest that inhibition of NMDA receptors by DM supports its potential positive properties. This finding might present an oppurtunity for the evaluation of this old antitussive drug.

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Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of galantamine and galantamine-related radioactivity after single intravenous and oral administration in the rat.

The plasma kinetics and tissue distribution of galantamine hydrobromide [4aS-(4a alpha,6beta,8aR*)]-4a,5,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-3-methoxy-11-methyl-6H-benzofuro-[3a,3,2-ef] [2benzazepin-6-ol hydrobromide, CAS-1953-04-4], a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, were studied in male and female non-pregnant and pregnant SPF Wistar rats and in male Fisher x Copenhagen pigmented rats. Most studies were performed using 3H-labelled galantamine hydrobromide, measuring unchanged drug (UD) and non-volatile radioactivity (NVR) in plasma and tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid scintillation counting and quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA). Plasma levels after single intravenous administration of UD (1.25-2.5 mg/kg) declined bi- or triphasically, with an elimination half-life of 3.5 h in male, and 5.1 h in female rats. The plasma clearance (Cl) averaged 1.9 l/kg/h (male rats) and 0.9 l/kg/h (female rats), and the volume of distribution (VdSS) was about 5 l/kg for both male and female rats. Following oral administration (2.5-10 mg/kg), galantamine was rapidly absorbed in both sexes, with an absolute oral bioavailability of 77%. Distribution studies after oral administration of 3H-galantamine showed an almost immediate equilibrium between plasma and tissues, with highest tissue levels of NVR and UD in liver, kidney, salivary glands, adrenal glands and, for the female rat, spleen, and lowest in white fat. To most tissues and especially to brain, the distribution of UD was more pronounced than that of its metabolites. Tissue concentrations of UD and NVR declined at a similar rate as plasma, showing no undue retention. QWBA in the pigmented rat showed the same distribution and elimination pattern of NVR. Only in hair follicles and choroid some retention of NVR was seen, but the calculated half-life was less than one day. In the female pregnant SPF Wistar rat, maternal tissue distribution of NVR was similar to that of the non-pregnant rat. NVR tissue levels in the foetus were similar to those found in maternal blood during the whole experiment, indicating a rapid equilibrium without accumulation.

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