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           Search results for: 3-Acetoxy-3-methylpentane-1,5-dioic Acid Anhydride C8H10O5 CAS: 87894-65-3   

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Concerted expression of a cell cycle regulator and a metabolic enzyme from a bicistronic transcript in plants.

Eukaryotic mRNAs frequently contain upstream open reading frames (uORFs), encoding small peptides that may control translation of the main ORF (mORF). Here, we report the characterization of a distinct bicistronic transcript in Arabidopsis. We analysed loss-of-function phenotypes of the inorganic polyphosphatase TRIPHOSPHATE TUNNEL METALLOENZYME 3 (AtTTM3), and found that catalytically inactive versions of the enzyme could fully complement embryo and growth-related phenotypes. We could rationalize these puzzling findings by characterizing a uORF in the AtTTM3 locus encoding CELL DIVISION CYCLE PROTEIN 26 (CDC26), an orthologue of the cell cycle regulator. We demonstrate that AtCDC26 is part of the plant anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), regulates accumulation of APC/C target proteins and controls cell division, growth and embryo development. AtCDC26 and AtTTM3 are translated from a single transcript conserved across the plant lineage. While there is no apparent biochemical connection between the two gene products, AtTTM3 coordinates AtCDC26 translation by recruiting the transcript into polysomes. Our work highlights that uORFs may encode functional proteins in plant genomes.

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Cell cycle antibody array Cell Cycle Phospho-Specif Cell Cycle Control Phosph Cultrex In Vitro Angiogen Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Skin squamous cell carcin Rabbit Anti-Cell death in cell cycle progression 2 Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri High density non small ce Cervix squamous cell carc Cultrex 24 Well Laminin I

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Microenvironment-Induced In Situ Self-Assembly of Polymer-Peptide Conjugates That Attack Solid Tumors Deeply.

In cancer treatment, the unsatisfactory solid-tumor penetration of nanomaterials limits their therapeutic efficacy. We employed an in vivo self-assembly strategy and designed polymer-peptide conjugates (PPCs) that underwent an acid-induced hydrophobicity increase with a narrow pH-response range (from 7.4 to 6.5). In situ self-assembly in the tumor microenvironment at appropriate molecular concentrations (around the IC values of PPCs) enabled drug delivery deeper into the tumor. A cytotoxic peptide KLAK, decorated with the pH-sensitive moiety cis-aconitic anhydride (CAA), and a cell-penetrating peptide TAT were conjugated onto poly(β-thioester) backbones to produce PT-K-CAA, which can penetrate deeply into solid tumors owing to its small size as a single chain. During penetration in vivo, CAA responds to the weak acid, leading to the self-assembly of PPCs and the recovery of therapeutic activity. Therefore, a deep-penetration ability for enhanced cancer therapy is provided by this in vivo assembly strategy.

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Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu C646, p300 CBP Inhibitor; Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Caspase-3 Inhibitor Q-DEV DPP IV Inhibitor, NVP DPP C Peptide ELISA Kit, Rat Myeloperoxidase Inhibitor Influenza A (H5N1) NS1 Pe Aurora Kinase B Inhibitor Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon L JNK Peptide Inhibitor I Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu

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Photo-crosslinkable, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-encapsulating hydrogel based on collagen for osteogenic differentiation.

Many patients suffer from bone injury and self-regeneration is not effective. Developing new strategies for effective bone injury repair is highly desired. Herein, collagen, an important component of the extracellular matrix, was modified with glycidyl methacrylate. The water solubility and photochemical cross-linking ability of the resulting collagen derivative was then improved. Thereafter, BMSC-laden hydrogel was fabricated using collagen modified with glycidyl methacrylate and hyaluronic acid modified with methacrylic anhydride under UV light in the presence of I 2959. The physicochemical properties were characterized suggesting that the hydrogel had great potential for enhancing cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, without adding the bone morphogenetic protein-2, the collagen also promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs within the hydrogel. Altogether, this hydrogel system provides a general strategy to fabricate cell-encapsulating hydrogel based on collagen and could be used as 3D scaffold for bone injury repair.

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Ost Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cell Rat Tail Type I Collagen Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adi Bovine Type I Collagen ba Normal bone marrow tissue MarkerGeneTM Fluorescent Growth Differentiation Fa Normal bone marrow tissue Anti-BMP-1 (Bone Morphoge Rat Mesenchymal Cells Epidermal Growth Factor (

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Delivery of small interfering RNA against Nogo-B receptor via tumor-acidity responsive nanoparticles for tumor vessel normalization and metastasis suppression.

Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) plays fundamental roles in regulating angiogenesis, vascular development, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. However, the therapeutic effect of NgBR blockade on tumor vasculature and malignancy is unknown, investigations on which requires an adequate delivery system for small interfering RNA against NgBR (NgBR siRNA). Here a surface charge switchable polymeric nanoparticle that was sensitive to the slightly acidic tumor microenvironment was developed for steady delivery of NgBR siRNA to tumor tissues. The nanoformulation was constructed by conjugating 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (DMMA) molecules to the surface amines of micelles formed by cationic co-polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylenimine) and subsequent absorption of NgBR siRNAs. The nanoparticles remained negatively charged in physiological condition and smartly converted to positive surface charge due to tumor-acidity-activated shedding of DMMA. The charge conversion facilitated cellular uptake of siRNAs and in turn efficiently depleted the expression of NgBR in tumor-bearing tissues. Silencing of NgBR suppressed endothelial cell migration and tubule formation, and reverted the EMT process of breast cancer cells. Delivery of the nanoformulation to mice bearing orthotopic breast carcinoma showed no effect on tumor growth, but led to remarkable decrease of distant metastasis by normalizing tumor vessels and suppressing the EMT of breast cancer cells. This study demonstrated that NgBR is a promising therapeutic target in abnormal tumor vasculature and aggressive cancer cells, and the tumor-responsive nanoparticle with the feature of charge transformation offers great potential for tumor-specific delivery of gene therapeutics.

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Amino Acids as Building Blocks for Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a superfamily of metalloenzymes widespread in all life, classified into seven genetically different families (α⁻θ). These enzymes catalyse the reversible hydration of carbonic anhydride (CO₂), generating bicarbonate (HCO₃) and protons (H⁺). Fifteen isoforms of human CA (hCA I⁻XV) have been isolated, their presence being fundamental for the regulation of many physiological processes. In addition, overexpression of some isoforms has been associated with the outbreak or progression of several diseases. For this reason, for a long time CA inhibitors (CAIs) have been used in the control of glaucoma and as diuretics. Furthermore, the search for new potential CAIs for other pharmacological applications is a very active field. Amino acids constitute the smallest fundamental monomers of protein and, due to their useful bivalent chemical properties, are widely used in organic chemistry. Both proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids have been extensively used to synthesize CAIs. This article provides an overview of the different strategies that have been used to design new CAIs containing amino acids, and how these bivalent molecules influence the properties of the inhibitors.

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GC-MS determination of nitrous anhydrase activity of bovine and human carbonic anhydrase II and IV.

The most widely recognized activity of the large family of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrases (CAs) is the diffusion-controlled hydration of CO to HCO and one proton, and the less rapid dehydration of HCO to CO: CO + HO ⇆ HCO + H. CAs also catalyze the reaction of water with other electrophiles such as aromatic esters, sulfates and phosphates, thus contributing to lending to CAs esterase, sulfatase and phosphatase activity, respectively. Renal CAII and CAIV are involved in the reabsorption of nitrite, the autoxidation product of the signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO): 4 NO + O + 2 HO → 4 ONO + 4 H. Bovine and human CAII and CAIV have been reported to exert nitrite reductase and nitrous anhydride activity: 2 NO + 2 H ⇆ [2 HONO] ⇆ NO + HO. In the presence of L-cysteine, NO may be formed. In the literature, these issues are controversial, mainly due to analytical shortcomings, i.e., the inability to detect authentic HONO and NO. Here, we present a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assay to unambiguously detect and quantify the nitrous anhydrase activity of CAs. The assay is based on the hydrolysis of NO in HO to form ONO and ONO. After pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization and electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization of the pentafluorobenzyl nitro derivatives, quantification is performed by selected-ion monitoring of the anions with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 46 (ONO), m/z 48 (ONO and ONO), m/z 50 (ONO) and m/z 47 (ONO, internal standard).

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Gold Nanoparticles Grafted with PLL--PNIPAM: Interplay on Thermal/pH Dual-Response and Optical Properties.

Narrowly distributed poly(l-lysine---isopropylacrylamide) (PLL--PNIPAM) was prepared through ring-opening polymerization of ε-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine -carboxy-α-amino anhydride and atom transfer radical polymerization of NIPAM, followed with the removal of ε-benzyloxycarbonyl group. Then gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) grafted with PLL--PNIPAM (PNIPAM-PLL-AuNPs) were obtained by the reduction of chloroauric acid with sodium citrate in the presence of PLL--PNIPAM. PNIPAM-PLL-AuNPs and its precursors were thoroughly characterized by proton magnetic resonance spectroscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, UV-vis spectroscope, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, and circular dichroism. The obtained PNIPAM-PLL-AuNPs exhibited high colloid stability even at strong alkaline (pH = 12) and acidic (pH = 2) conditions. The thermal and pH dual-responsive behaviors of the grafting PLL--PNIPAM chains was observed to be affected by AuNPs, while not for the secondary structure of PLL chains. Correspondingly, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AuNPs was found to be sensitive to both pH value and temperature. A blue shift in the SPR happened both with increasing pH value and increasing temperature. The stimuli-response was reversible in heating-cooling cycles. The gold nanoparticles with both pH and temperature response may have potential applications in biomedical areas and biosensors.

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Rabbit Anti-Phospho-MLK3( Rabbit Anti-phospho-LEF1( Rabbit Anti-phospho-MAP3K Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Phospho-Ricto Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-phospho-TIRAP Rabbit Anti-Phospho-NDRG1 Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Phospho-MAP2( Rabbit Anti-Phospho-WNK1( Rabbit Anti-phospho-CstF6

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Zn(OAc)₂-Catalyzing Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides for the Synthesis of Well-Defined Polypeptides.

Despite notable progress, the fabrication of well-defined polypeptides via controlled ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of α-amino acid -carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) using convenient catalysts under mild conditions in a relatively short polymerization time is still challenging. Herein, an easily obtained catalyst system composed of zinc acetate and aniline was explored to mediate the fast ROP of γ-benzyl-l-glutamate--carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) monomer, to produce poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamates) (PBLGs) with controllable molecular weights and narrow dispersity. Considering the excellent cooperative action of zinc acetate and a broad scope of aniline derivatives with different functional groups to control ROP of BLG-NCA, this method may offer a useful platform enabling the rapid generation of end-functionalized PBLG and block copolymers for numerous biomedical applications.

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Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Mouse PAI-1 (wild type ac Rat Anti-CCT theta Antibo 6-Amino-1-benzyl-3-methyl Rabbit PAI-1 (wild type l Uroguanylin (circulating 5-Acetyl-d3-amino-6-formy Multiple lung carcinoma ( Formalin Solution (20%) 3-Formylindol-1-yl-acetic Sheep Anti-Theophylline 3 SensiMix SYBR & Fluoresce

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Poly(vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride)-Doped PEG-PLA Nanoparticles for Oral Paclitaxel Delivery To Improve Bioadhesive Efficiency.

Bioadhesive nanoparticles based on poly(vinyl methyl ether/maleic anhydride) (PVMMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (mPEG-b-PLA) were produced by the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Paclitaxel was utilized as the model drug, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 90.2 ± 4.0%. The nanoparticles were uniform and spherical in shape and exhibited a sustained drug release compared with Taxol. m-NPs also exhibited favorable bioadhesive efficiency at the same time. Coumarin 6 or DiR-loaded nanoparticles with/without PVMMA (C6-m-NPs/DiR-m-NPs or C6-p-NPs/DiR-p-NPs) were used for cellular uptake and intestinal adhesion experiments, respectively. C6-m-NPs were shown to enhance cellular uptake, and caveolae/lipid raft mediated endocytosis was the primary route for the uptake of the nanoparticles. Favorable bioadhesive efficiency led to prolonged retention in the intestine reflected by the fluorescence in isolated intestines ex vivo. In a ligated intestinal loops model, C6-m-NPs showed a clear advantage for transporting NPs across the mucus layer over C6-p-NPs and free C6. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of PTX-m-NPs through Caco-2/HT29 monolayers was 1.3- and 1.6-fold higher than PTX-p-NPs and Taxol, respectively, which was consistent with the AUC of different PTX formulations after oral administration in rats. PTX-m-NPs also exhibited a more effective anticancer efficacy, with an IC of 0.2 ± 1.4 μg/mL for A549 cell lines, further demonstrating the advantage of bioadhesive nanoparticles. The bioadhesive nanoparticles m-NPs demonstrated both mucus permeation and epithelial absorption, and thus, this bioadhesive drug delivery system has the potential to improve the bioavailability of drugs that are insoluble in the gastrointestinal environment.

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pCAMBIA1105.1R Vecotr (Gu pCAMBIA1304 Vector (gusA pCAMBIA1381Z Vector (gusA pCAMBIA2301 Vector (gusA N Methyl N nitroso p tolu 6-Acetoxymethyl-4-methoxy Cyclic AMP Total EIA Kit Oral squamous cell cancer Formaldehyde Detection Ki pCAMBIA0305.2 Vector (Sec TOOS (3 (N Ethyl 3 methyl pCAMBIA1301 Vector (gusA

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Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Regio- and Stereoselective Carboxylation of Allylic Alcohols with Formic Acid.

Formic acid is efficiently used as a C1 source to directly carboxylate allylic alcohols in the presence of a low loading of palladium catalyst and acetic anhydride as additive to afford β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with excellent chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. The reaction proceeds through a carbonylation process with in situ-generated carbon monoxide under mild conditions, avoiding the use of high-pressure gaseous CO. A bisphosphine ligand with a large bite angle (4,5-bis{diphenylphosphino}-9,9-dimethylxanthene, Xantphos) was found to be uniquely effective for this transformation. The regio- and stereoconvergence of this reaction is ascribed to the thermodynamically favored isomerization of the allylic electrophile in the presence of the palladium catalyst.

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Androst-4-ene-3,17-dion-1 Chromic Acid Solution 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-car Rabbit Anti-ASM Acid sphi Pyridine 4 boronic acid p Sodium valproate (2 Propy Acetic Acid (50 mM)2 ml 3-[(Aminoiminomethyl)thio Native Lipoteichoic Acid 5-Sulfosalicylic acid dih Trithiocyanuric acid CAS EDANS sodium salt [5 ((2

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