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           Search results for: 6-Amino-1,3-dibutyluracil C12H21N3O2 CAS: 41862-16-2   

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Advanced strategies to improve nitrification process in sequencing batch reactors - A review.

The optimization of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in sequencing batch reactors has become the aim of researchers worldwide in order to increase efficiency and reduce energy and operating costs. This research has focused on the nitrification phase as the limiting reaction rate of BNR. This paper analyzes different strategies and discusses different tools such as: factors for achieving partial nitrification, real-time control and monitoring for detecting characteristic patterns of nitrification/denitrification as end-points, use of modeling based on activated sludge models, and the use of data-driven modeling for estimating variables that cannot be easily measured experimentally or online. The discussion of this paper highlight the properties and scope of each of these strategies, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, which can be integrated into future works using these strategies according to legal and economic restrictions for a more stable and efficient BNR process in the long-term.

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Two macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum: Molecular characterization, localization and enzymatic activities.

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an evolutionarily ancient cytokine-like factor and plays a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, two MIFs (designed as RpMIF-1 and RpMIF-2, respectively) were identified and characterized from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of RpMIF-1 and RpMFI-2 consisted of 531 and 722 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 113 and 114 amino acid residues, respectively. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both RpMIF-1 and RpMIF-2 belonged to the MIF family. The conserved catalytic-site Pro for tautomerase activity was identified in the deduced amino acid sequences of RpMIFs. Both RpMIF-1 and RpMIF-2 transcripts were constitutively expressed in examined tissues of R. philippinarum with dominant expression in hepatopancreas, gills and hemocytes. Immunolocalization analysis showed that RpMIF-1 and RpMIF-2 proteins were expressed in examined tissues with the exception of adductor muscle and foot. After Vibrio anguillarum and Micrococcus luteus challenge, the mRNA expression of RpMIFs was significantly modulated in hemocytes, gills and hepatopancreas. Recombinant RpMIF-1 and RpMIF-2 proteins possessed significant tautomerase activity and oxidoreductase activity, indicating that these two proteins was perhaps involved in inflammatory responses. In summary, our results suggested that RpMIF-1 and RpMIF-2 played an important role in the innate immunity of R. philippinarum.

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Mindfulness-based relapse prevention combined with virtual reality cue exposure for methamphetamine addiction: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE, in comparison to MBRP alone or treatment as usual, on craving and emotional responses in people with methamphetamine use disorders.

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DDX1 regulates alternative splicing and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

DEAD-box helicase 1 (DDX1) is a multifunction protein involved in diverse cellular processes including transcription, viral replication, mRNA/miRNA processing, and tRNA splicing. Here, we report a novel function of DDX1 in mRNA alternative splicing in pancreatic β cells. By performing integrated data analysis of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and cross-linking and immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (CLIP-Seq), we identify hundreds of alternative splicing genes that are targeted by DDX1. These DDX1-targeted alternative splicing genes are mainly associated with calcium ion binding, high voltage-gated calcium channel, and transmembrane transporter. Functionally, silencing DDX1 impairs calcium influx and insulin secretion in the pancreatic β cells. These results reveal an important role for DDX1 in the regulation of gene alternative splicing and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

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Hepatitis B virus evasion from cGAS sensing in human hepatocytes.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer worldwide. The mechanisms of viral genome sensing and the evasion of innate immune responses by HBV infection are still poorly understood. Recently, the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was identified as a DNA sensor. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional role of cGAS in sensing of HBV infection and elucidate the mechanisms of viral evasion. We performed functional studies including loss- and gain-of-function experiments combined with cGAS effector gene expression profiling in an infectious cell culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice. Here we show that cGAS is expressed in the human liver, primary human hepatocytes and human liver chimeric mice. While naked relaxed-circular HBV DNA is sensed in a cGAS-dependent manner in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes, host cell recognition of viral nucleic acids is abolished during HBV infection, suggesting escape from sensing, likely during packaging of the genome into the viral capsid. While the hepatocyte cGAS pathway is functionally active, as shown by reduction of viral cccDNA levels in gain-of-function studies, HBV infection suppressed cGAS expression and function in cell culture models and humanized mice.

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Spatiotemporal Imaging of Cellular Energy Metabolism with Genetically-Encoded Fluorescent Sensors in Brain.

The brain has very high energy requirements and consumes 20% of the oxygen and 25% of the glucose in the human body. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying how the brain metabolizes substances to support neural activity is a fundamental issue for neuroscience studies. A well-known model in the brain, the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle, postulates that glucose uptake and glycolytic activity are enhanced in astrocytes upon neuronal activation and that astrocytes transport lactate into neurons to fulfill their energy requirements. Current evidence for this hypothesis has yet to reach a clear consensus, and new concepts beyond the shuttle hypothesis are emerging. The discrepancy is largely attributed to the lack of a critical method for real-time monitoring of metabolic dynamics at cellular resolution. Recent advances in fluorescent protein-based sensors allow the generation of a sensitive, specific, real-time readout of subcellular metabolites and fill the current technological gap. Here, we summarize the development of genetically encoded metabolite sensors and their applications in assessing cell metabolism in living cells and in vivo, and we believe that these tools will help to address the issue of elucidating neural energy metabolism.

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Author Correction: Optimizing the fragment complementation of APEX2 for detection of specific protein-protein interactions in live cells.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

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The receptor-like kinase AtVRLK1 regulates secondary cell wall thickening.

During the growth and development of land plants, some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, undergo secondary cell wall thickening. Secondary cell walls contain additional lignin, compared with primary cell walls, thus providing mechanical strength and potentially improving defenses against pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms that initiate wall thickening are unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, encoded by AtVRLK1 (Vascular-Related RLK 1), that is specifically expressed in cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening. Suppression of AtVRLK1expression resulted in a range of phenotypes that included retarded early elongation of the inflorescence stem, shorter fibers, slower root growth, and shorter flower filaments. In contrast, upregulation of AtVRLK1 led to longer fiber cells, reduced secondary cell wall thickening in fiber and vessel cells, and defects in anther dehiscence. Molecular and cellular analyses showed that downregulation of AtVRLK1 promoted secondary cell wall thickening and upregulation of AtVRLK1 enhanced cell elongation and inhibited secondary cell wall thickening. We propose that AtVRLK1 functions as a signaling component in coordinating cell elongation and cell wall thickening during growth and development.

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Hollow mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanostructures; Smart nanocarriers with high drug loading and controlled releasing features.

We report the development of effective drug loaded nanocarriers to combat multidrug resistant infection especially in case of osteomyelitis. The hollow mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (hmHANPs) and solid/non-hollow hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (sHANPs) were synthesized by core-shell and co-precipitation techniques respectively. High encapsulation of the drug (ciprofloxacin) was observed in hmHANPs as compared to sHANPs, which may be due to the hollow porous structure of hmHANPs. These nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), N adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Approximately 80% of the encapsulated drug was released at pH 4.5 within 5 days in case of hmHANPs while at pH 7.4, a sustained drug release profile was obtained and only 48.73% of the drug was released after 9 days. The results of kinetic drug release revealed that drug loaded hmHANPs showed fickian diffusion and anomalous drug diffusion mechanism at pH 4.5 and 7.4 respectively. Owing to their porous structure and high drug loading capacity, hmHANPs showed enhanced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (drug resistant strains of osteomyelitis) in comparison to that with sHANPs. In addition, hmHANPs showed a pH sensitive drug release profile, high surface area (105.33 m/g) with increased pore volume (0.533 cm/g) and superior antimicrobial activity against osteomyelitis as compared to sHANPs.

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A versatile polar-embedded polyphenyl phase for multimodal separation in liquid chromatography.

A new polar-embedded aromatic stationary phase has been prepared by covalently attaching p-biphenylacetamide silane to silica spheres. The retention behavior of this phase was compared with an alkylamide counterpart and octadecyl phases using different classes of analytes, including geometric isomers and congeners from Standard Reference Materials 869b, 870 and 1647e, positional isomers of electron-deficient benzenes, as well as alkylbenzenes and alkylbiphenyls. The relationship between shape selectivity and surface chemistry of stationary phase was comparatively studied. Influences of the embedded group and ligand length and/or size on the chromatographic selectivity towards various congeners were established. The new polar-embedded aromatic phase possessed unique benzenoid affinity, enhanced aromatic selectivity, distinct charge-transfer properties, as well as good water-wettablity, as a result it can be employed in normal phase, reversed-phase and per-aqueous modes.

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