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#28881798   2017/09/08 Save this To Up

Role of A-Kinase anchor protein (AKAP4) in growth and survival of ovarian cancer cells.

Ovarian cancer represents one of the most common malignancies among women with very high mortality rate worldwide. A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4), a unique cancer testis (CT) antigen has been shown to be associated with various malignant properties of cancer cells. However, its involvement in various molecular pathways in ovarian cancer remains unknown. In present investigation, employing gene silencing approach, we examined the role of AKAP4 in cell cycle, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further, we also investigated the effect of ablation of AKAP4 on tumor growth in SCID mice ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model. Our results showed that ablation of AKAP4 resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. AKAP4 knockdown lead to degradation of protien kinase A (PKA) which was rescued by proteosome inhibitor MG-132. ROS quencher N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment rescued cell cycle arrest and resumed cell division. Subsequently, increased expression of pro-apoptotic molecules and decreased expression of pro-survival/anti-apoptotic factors was observed. As a result of AKAP4 depletion, DNA damage response proteins p-γH2AX, p-ATM and p21 were upregulated. Also, knockdown of CREB resulted in similar findings. Further, PKA inhibitor (H89) and oxidative stress resulted in similar phenotype of ovarian cancer cells as observed in AKAP4 ablated cells. Collectively, for the first time our data showed the involvement of AKAP4 in PKA degradation and perturbed signaling through PKA-CREB axis in AKAP4 ablated ovarian cancer cells.

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#28846868   2017/08/28 Save this To Up

Transcription coupled repair deficiency protects against human mutagenesis and carcinogenesis: Personal Reflections on the 50th anniversary of the discovery of xeroderma pigmentosum.

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients who lack the main damage recognition protein for global genome repair (GGR), XPC, have greatly increased skin cancer rates and elevated mutation frequencies originating from unrepaired ultraviolet photoproducts in the nontranscribed regions of the genome and in nontranscribed strands of expressed genes. But they show no increased mutations in transcribed strands. In contrast, cancer is absent from Cockayne syndrome (CS) patients that have defective transcription coupled repair (TCR) despite severe photosensitivity, CS patients remarkably show no elevation of UV induced mutagenesis implying that defective TCR may be protective against mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Mutation avoidance in CS is postulated to occur through arrested transcription that generates a tripled stranded R loop consisting of DNA double strands and a nascent mRNA strand. R loops result in S phase apoptosis or activation of ATM kinase that causes a delay in DNA replication until TCR, or transcript cleavage by TFIIS or RNAaseH, relieves the transcription block. Resumption of replication then occurs on repaired DNA without concomitant mutagenesis.

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#28835017   2017/08/24 Save this To Up

Cariporide Enhances the DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Acid-tolerable Malignant Mesothelioma H-2452 Cells.

The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger is responsible for maintaining the acidic tumor microenvironment through its promotion of the reabsorption of extracellular Na(+) and the extrusion of intracellular H(+). The resultant increase in the extracellular acidity contributes to the chemoresistance of malignant tumors. In this study, the chemosensitizing effects of cariporide, a potent Na(+)/H(+)-exchange inhibitor, were evaluated in human malignant mesothelioma H-2452 cells preadapted with lactic acid. A higher basal level of phosphorylated (p)-AKT protein was found in the acid-tolerable H-2452AcT cells compared with their parental acid-sensitive H-2452 cells. When introduced in H-2452AcT cells with a concentration that shows only a slight toxicity in H-2452 cells, cariporide exhibited growth-suppressive and apoptosis-promoting activities, as demonstrated by an increase in the cells with pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, annexin V-PE(+) staining, a sub-G0/G1 peak, and a G2/M phase-transition delay in the cell cycle. Preceding these changes, a cariporide-induced p-AKT down-regulation, a p53 up-regulation, an ROS accumulation, and the depolarization of the mitochondrial-membrane potential were observed. A pretreatment with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 markedly augmented the DNA damage caused by the cariporide, as indicated by a much greater extent of comet tails and a tail moment with increased levels of the p-histone H2A.X, p-ATM(Ser1981), p-ATR(Ser428), p-CHK1(Ser345), and p-CHK2(Thr68), as well as a series of pro-apoptotic events. The data suggest that an inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling is necessary to enhance the cytotoxicity toward the acid-tolerable H-2452AcT cells, and it underlines the significance of proton-pump targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome the acidic-microenvironment-associated chemotherapeutic resistance.

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#28833137   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) - enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) network regulates lipid metabolism and DNA damage responses in glioblastoma.

Elevated expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3K27 methyltransferase, was observed in gliomas harboring telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations. Given the known involvement of TERT and EZH2 in glioma progression, the correlation between the two and subsequently its involvement in metabolic programming was investigated. Inhibition of human telomerase reverse transcriptase either pharmacologically or through genetic manipulation not only decreased EZH2 expression, but also (i) abrogated FASN levels, (ii) decreased de novo fatty acid accumulation, and (iii) increased ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation levels. Conversely, diminished TERT and FASN levels upon siRNA-mediated EZH2 knockdown indicated a positive correlation between TERT and EZH2. Interestingly, ATM kinase inhibitor rescued TERT inhibition-mediated decrease in FASN and EZH2 levels. Importantly, TERT promoter mutant tumors exhibited greater microsatellite instability, heightened FASN levels and lipid accumulation. Coherent with in vitro findings, pharmacological inhibition of TERT by costunolide decreased lipid accumulation and elevated ATM expression in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. By bringing TERT-EZH2 network at the forefront as driver of dysregulated metabolism, our findings highlight the non-canonical but distinct role of TERT in metabolic reprogramming and DNA damage responses in glioblastoma.

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#28814980   2017/08/17 Save this To Up

Cooperative effect of chidamide and chemotherapeutic drugs induce apoptosis by DNA damage accumulation and repair defects in acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells.

Many conventional chemotherapeutic drugs are known to be involved in DNA damage, thus ultimately leading to apoptosis of leukemic cells. However, they fail to completely eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSCs) due to their higher DNA repair capacity of cancer stem cells than that of bulk cancer cells, which becomes the root of drug resistance and leukemia recurrence. A new strategy to eliminate LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is therefore urgently needed.

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#28790064   2017/08/09 Save this To Up

ATM deficiency generating genomic instability sensitizes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to therapy-induced DNA damage.

Pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDAC) harbour recurrent functional mutations of the master DNA damage response kinase ATM which has been shown to accelerate tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To study how ATM deficiency affects genome integrity in this setting, we evaluated the molecular and functional effects of conditional Atm deletion in a mouse model of PDAC. ATM deficiency was associated with increased mitotic defects, recurrent genomic rearrangements and deregulated DNA integrity checkpoints, reminiscent of human PDAC. We hypothesized that altered genome integrity might allow synthetic lethality-based options for targeted therapeutic intervention. Supporting this possibility, we found that the PARP inhibitor olaparib or ATR inhibitors reduced the viability of PDAC cells in vitro and in vivo associated with a genotype-selective increase in apoptosis. Overall, our results offered a preclinical mechanistic rationale for the use of PARP and ATR inhibitors to improve treatment of ATM-mutant PDAC.

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#28780388   2017/08/06 Save this To Up

Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) modulates manganese homeostasis and manganese-induced cell signaling in a murine striatal cell line.

In a recent study, we found that blocking the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) with the small molecule inhibitor (SMI) KU-55933 can completely abrogate Mn-induced phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 (p-p53) in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated striatal neuroprogenitors. However, in the immortalized mouse striatal progenitor cell line STHdh(Q7/Q7), a concentration of KU55933 far exceeding its IC50 for ATM was required to inhibit Mn-induced p-p53. This suggested an alternative signaling system redundant with ATM kinase for activating p53 in this cell line- one that was altered by KU55933 at these higher concentrations (i.e. mTORC1, DNApk, PI3K). To test the hypothesis that one or more of these signaling pathways contributed to Mn-induced p-p53, we utilized a set of SMIs (e.g. NU7441 and LY294002) known to block DNApk, PI3K, and mTORC1 at distinct concentrations. We found that the SMIs inhibit Mn-induced p-p53 expression near the expected IC50s for PI3K, versus other known targets. We hypothesized that inhibiting PI3K reduces intracellular Mn and thereby decreases activation of p53 by Mn. Using the cellular fura-2 manganese extraction assay (CFMEA), we determined that KU55933/60019, NU7441, and LY294002 (at concentrations near their IC50s for PI3K) all decrease intracellular Mn (∼50%) after a dual, 24-h Mn and SMI exposure. Many pathways are activated by Mn aside from p-p53, including AKT and mTOR pathways. Thus, we explored the activation of these pathways by Mn in STHdh cells as well as the effects of other pathway inhibitors. p-AKT and p-S6 activation by Mn is almost completely blocked upon addition of NU7441(5μM) or LY294002(7μM), supporting PI3K's upstream role in the AKT/mTOR pathway. We also investigated whether PI3K inhibition blocks Mn uptake in other cell lines. LY294002 exposure did not reduce Mn uptake in ST14A, Neuro2A, HEK293, MEF, or hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors. Next, we sought to determine whether inhibition of PI3K blocked p53 phosphorylation by directly blocking an unknown PI3K/p53 interaction or indirectly reducing intracellular Mn, decreasing p-p53 expression. In-Cell Western and CFMEA experiments using multiple concentrations of Mn exposures demonstrated that intracellular Mn levels directly correlated with p-p53 expression with or without addition of LY294002. Finally, we examined whether PI3K inhibition was able to block Mn-induced p-p53 activity in hiPSC-derived striatal neuroprogenitors. As expected, LY294002 does not block Mn-induced p-p53 as PI3K inhibition is unable to reduce Mn net uptake in this cell line, suggesting the effect of LY294002 on Mn uptake is relatively specific to the STHdh mouse striatal cell line.

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#28771906   2017/08/03 Save this To Up

Cdk1-interacting protein Cip1 is regulated by the S phase checkpoint in response to genotoxic stress.

In eukaryotic cells, a surveillance mechanism, the S phase checkpoint, detects and responds to insults that challenge chromosomal replication, arresting cell cycle progression and triggering appropriate events to prevent genomic instability. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mec1/ATM/ATR, and its downstream kinase, Rad53/Chk2, mediate the response to genotoxic stress. In this study, we place Cip1, a recently identified Cdk1 inhibitor (CKI), under the regulation of Mec1 and Rad53 in response to genotoxic stress. Cip1 accumulates dramatically in a Mec1- and Rad53-dependent manner upon replication stress. This increase requires the activity of MBF, but not the transcriptional activator kinase Dun1. At the protein level, stabilization of replication stress-induced Cip1 requires continued de novo protein synthesis. In addition, Cip1 is phosphorylated at an S/TQ motif in a Mec1-dependent manner. Deletion of Cip1 affects proliferation in hydroxyurea-containing plates. Significantly, the sensitivity is increased when the dosage of the G1 cyclin CLN2 is increased, compatible to a role of Cip1 as a G1-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. In all, our results place Cip1 under the S phase checkpoint response to genotoxic stress. Furthermore, Cip1 plays a significant role to preserve viability in response to insults that threaten chromosome replication.

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#28753653   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

Induction of Sphk1 activity in obese adipose tissue macrophages promotes survival.

During obesity, adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are increased in concert with local inflammation and insulin resistance. Since the levels of sphingolipid (SLs) in adipose tissue (AT) are altered during obesity we investigated the potential impact of SLs on ATMs. For this, we first analyzed expression of SL metabolizing genes in ATMs isolated from obese mice. A marked induction of sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression was observed in obese ATM when compared to lean ATM. This induction was observed in both MGL-ve (M1) and MGL1+ve (M2) macrophages from obese WAT. Next, RAW264.7 cells were exposed to excessive palmitate, resulting in a similar induction of Sphk1. This Sphk1 induction was also observed when cells were treated with chloroquine, a lysosomotropic amine impacting lysosome function. Simultaneous incubation of RAW cells with palmitate and the Sphk1 inhibitor SK1-I promoted cell death, suggesting a protective role of Sphk1 during lipotoxic conditions. Interestingly, a reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes was detected in obese ATM and was found to be associated with elevated Sphk1 expression. Altogether, our data suggest that lipid overload in ATM induces Sphk1, which promotes cell viability.

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#28655787   2017/06/28 Save this To Up

Cytosine Deaminase APOBEC3A Sensitizes Leukemia Cells to Inhibition of the DNA Replication Checkpoint.

Mutational signatures in cancer genomes have implicated the APOBEC3 cytosine deaminases in oncogenesis, possibly offering a therapeutic vulnerability. Elevated APOBEC3B expression has been detected in solid tumors, but expression of APOBEC3A (A3A) in cancer has not been described to date. Here, we report that A3A is highly expressed in subsets of pediatric and adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We modeled A3A expression in the THP1 AML cell line by introducing an inducible A3A gene. A3A expression caused ATR-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 and cell-cycle arrest, consistent with replication checkpoint activation. Further, replication checkpoint blockade via small-molecule inhibition of ATR kinase in cells expressing A3A led to apoptosis and cell death. Although DNA damage checkpoints are broadly activated in response to A3A activity, synthetic lethality was specific to ATR signaling via Chk1 and did not occur with ATM inhibition. Our findings identify elevation of A3A expression in AML cells, enabling apoptotic sensitivity to inhibitors of the DNA replication checkpoint and suggesting it as a candidate biomarker for ATR inhibitor therapy. Cancer Res; 77(17); 4579-88. ©2017 AACR.

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