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DFT and TD-DFT insights, photolysis and photocatalysis investigation of three dyes with similar structure under UV irradiation with and without TiO as a catalyst: Effect of adsorption, pH and light intensity.

TiO-mediated photocatalytic degradation of three triphenylmethane dyes (basic fuchsin, acid fuchsin and Gentian violet), was investigated in aqueous suspensions in the presence and the absence of titanium dioxide P25 Degussa as photocatalyst. The photodegradation process was investigated using UV-A (365nm) and UV-C (254nm) light alone and UV-A in the presence of TiO·The effects of various operational parameters were investigated such as: the effect of adsorption in the dark, the influence of pH, the influence of irradiation wavelength and the effect of light intensity. The study of the effect of various parameters reveals that the photolysis of dyes increases with the increase of light intensity, the degradation rate under UV-C (254nm) was found better than under UV-A 365nm. The photocatalytic degradation was found to follow the same order of adsorption. The decolorization and the degradation kinetics were found to follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The mineralization of dye was found to follow the same order of disappearance as the photocatalytic degradation and depended directly to its functional groups and its number of carbons. Additionally, density functional theory (DFT) was applied for calculations of both electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of the studied compounds, where the obtained results of the three dyes show that the theoretical electronic spectra and the experimental UV-visible ones are similar in shapes, positions and intensities.

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Functional chitosan-stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron used to remove acid fuchsine with the assistance of ultrasound.

Chitosan-stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (CS-nZVI) was prepared and used for the removal of acid fuchsine (AF) from aqueous solution with the assistance of ultrasound. More than 98.9% of AF was removed using CS-nZVI, aged CS-nZVI (exposed to air for 2 months), while only 14.6% removal efficiency was achieved after 15 min by chitosan alone with the assistance of ultrasound. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that chitosan polymers were arranged in a homocentric layered structure. Thus, the polymer can prevent the aggregation of nZVI and increase their anti-oxidation capacity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) also suggested that the chitosan used in synthesis may protect nZVI nanoparticles from air oxidation. Different factors impacting on the removal of AF using CS-nZVI showed that the reduction increased when dosage and temperature increased, but decreased when pH and initial concentration rose. Kinetic studies revealed that the removal of AF fitted well to the pseudo-first-order model. The apparent activation energy was 55.34 kJ/mol, indicating a chemically controlled reaction. Finally, the application of CS-nZVI in dyeing wastewater led to a removal efficiency of 99% of AF, while the reuse test confirmed that AF's removal efficiency declined from 99.6 to 39.3% after seven cycles.

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Efficient photocatalytic degradation of acid fuchsin in aqueous solution using separate porous tetragonal-CuFe2O4 nanotubes.

To develop a new promising magnetic photocatalyst, homogeneous tetragonal-CuFe2O4 (t-CuFe2O4) nanotubes were successfully synthesized via the electrospinning technique followed by heating treatment. The detailed investigation of chemical phase and microstructure reveals that the obtained samples are inversely spinel CuFe2O4 nanotubes with an average diameter of about 272±2nm, which are assembled by numerous CuFe2O4 single crystal nanoparticles with regular polyhedron structure and possess a very outstanding porous feature. Furthermore, element mapping, UV-vis adsorption spectrum, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and magnetic hysteresis loop indicate that these t-CuFe2O4 nanotubes have uniform component distribution, strong light response in the range of 200 nm-800 nm, considerable specific surface area of 12.8 m(2)/g and porosity of 15.5 nm, and enough magnetization of about 18 emu/g. Therefore, the t-CuFe2O4 nanotubes show an excellent catalytic activity and durability for the photodecomposition of acid fuchsin dye in aqueous solution under a simulated sunlight source. Furthermore, these CuFe2O4 nanotubes could be acted as an eco-friendly and recyclable photocatalyst because they can be efficiently separated from the residual solution. Finally, a mechanism is presented for the significant photocatalytic performance of the porous CuFe2O4 nanotubes.

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Acid Fuchsin Solution (0 Acid Fuchsin Solution (0 Acid Fuchsin (Aqueous) Acid Fuchsin (Aqueous) Biebrich Scarlet Acid Fu Biebrich Scarlet Acid Fu Biebrich Scarlet Acid Fu Acetic Acid Solution (0. Acetic Acid Solution (0. Acetic Acid Solution (0. Acetic Acid Solution (0. Acetic Acid Solution (1%

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Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of Fuchsin acid on nickel oxide nanoparticles.

NiO nanoparticle was used to adsorb fuchsin acid (FA) from aqueous solution. In the used concentration range of FA, its adsorption isotherms on NiO nanoparticles were three-region. NiO nanoparticle was prepared via the thermal decomposition of the tris(ethylenediamine)Ni(II) nitrate complex as a new precursor. In this work, effects of temperature, concentration, particle size, shaking rate, contact time, pH of the solution were investigated. Adsorption process was exothermic in the first and second regions and endothermic in the third region. Adsorption kinetics was studied by a number of equations including the KASRA, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, Avrami and pore-diffusion equations. Adsorption acceleration and adsorption velocity values of this process were obtained by the KASRA equation and it was shown that with increase in FA concentration or temperature or shaking rate, initial adsorption velocity values of process increase.

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Acid Fuchsin Solution (0 Acid Fuchsin Solution (0 Acid Fuchsin (Aqueous) Acid Fuchsin (Aqueous) Biebrich Scarlet Acid Fu Biebrich Scarlet Acid Fu Biebrich Scarlet Acid Fu Androst-4-ene-3,17-dion-1 Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Nicotinic acid N oxide CA Bcl-2 Oncoprotein; Clone Bcl-2 Oncoprotein; Clone

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Dye-loaded porous nanocapsules immobilized in a permeable polyvinyl alcohol matrix: a versatile optical sensor platform.

In this work we report on a versatile sensor platform based on encapsulated indicator dyes. Dyes are entrapped in hollow nanocapsules with nanometer-thin walls of controlled porosity. The porous nanocapsules retain molecules larger than the pore size but provide ultrafast access to their interior for molecules and ions smaller than the pore size. Dye-loaded nanocapsules are immobilized in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix with high solvent permeability and rapid analyte diffusion. This approach provides robust sensing films with fast response and extended lifetime. To demonstrate the performance characteristics of such films, pH-sensitive indicator dyes were entrapped in vesicle-templated nanocapsules prepared by copolymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. As pH sensitive dyes, Nile blue A, bromophenol blue, and acid fuchsin were tested. Time-resolved absorbance measurements showed that the rate of the color change is controlled by the rate of diffusion of protons in the hydrogel. The pH-induced color change in a ~400 μm thick film is complete within 40 and 60 s. The porous nanocapsule loaded films showed excellent stability and reproducibility in long-term monitoring experiments. Compartmentalization of the indicator dyes within the nanocapsules increased their stability. The matrix caused a shift in the position of the color change of the dye compared to that in an aqueous buffer solution. The encapsulation/immobilization protocol described in this account is expected to be broadly applicable to a variety of indicator dyes in optical sensor applications.

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The color purple: from royalty to laboratory, with apologies to Malachowski.

The components of the blood stain, eosin and methylene blue, were introduced by Baeyer and Caro, respectively. Methylene blue was used primarily for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis until Ehrlich in 1880 mixed methylene blue with acid fuchsin to produce what he termed a "neutral stain," which allowed differentiation of blood cells. Eight years later, Chęciń ski changed the acidic component of the dye to eosin. Plehn subsequently altered the proportions of eosin and methylene blue to produce a greater range of red and blue hues. In 1891, Malachowski and Romanowsky independently developed stains composed of eosin and "ripened" methylene blue that not only differentiated blood cells, but also demonstrated the nuclei of malarial parasites. A number of "ripening" or "polychroming" techniques were investigated by different groups, but the aqueous dye solutions produced were unstable and precipitated rapidly. Subsequently, methanol was introduced as a solvent for the dye precipitate and techniques were developed that utilized the fixative properties of the methanolic solution prior to aqueous dilution for staining. This avoided the troublesome process of heat fixation of blood films. Giemsa further improved these techniques by using more controlled methods of methylene blue demethylation. In addition, he used measured amounts of known dyes and increased dye stability by adding glycerol to the methanol solvent. With the outbreak of World War I, it became difficult to obtain German dyes outside of Germany; during the World War II, it became impossible. In their effort to improve the inferior American versions of Giemsa's stain, Lillie, Roe, and Wilcox discovered that the best staining results were obtained using pure methylene blue, one of its breakdown products (azure B) and eosin. These three substituents remain the major components of the stain to this day.

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Optimal conditions for visualizing water-conducting pathways in a living tree by the dye injection method.

To elucidate the water-conducting pathways in living trees by the dye injection method, suitable sample preparation procedures are needed. We evaluated quantitatively the properties and concentrations of three dyes (acid fuchsin, basic fuchsin and safranin) widely used for this purpose, and determined the optimal conditions required to avoid artifacts after dye injection into the sap stream of Pieris japonica D. Don. Among the dyes tested, an aqueous solution of acid fuchsin at a concentration of 0.1% or more was the most useful for delineating water movement. In non-transpiring stem segments, the vertical movement of acid fuchsin by capillarity and diffusion from the dye injection site was limited. However, acid fuchsin moved rapidly in the horizontal direction by capillarity and diffusion, and most xylem cells were stained within 2 h. A delay of more than 2 h between dye injection and examination of the tissues greatly reduces the precision of the method. Use of the dye injection method without appropriate, well-defined experimental procedures may give rise to misleading information about the functional water-conducting pathway in living trees.

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Visualizing water-conduction pathways of living trees: selection of dyes and tissue preparation methods.

To visualize water-conduction pathways in living trees, we introduced aqueous solutions of safranin and acid fuchsin into stems of Populus sieboldii Miquel. To examine the spread of each dye in the trees, we compared several techniques for preparing tissue for light microscopy. Acid fuchsin was distributed more rapidly and more widely than safranin, reflecting differences between the dye molecules in state of ionization. We prepared some sections without allowing the dye to redissolve after it had been stabilized by freeze-drying. In these sections, the dye was observed in vessels and in some of the adjacent ray parenchyma cells. Other sections were prepared without stabilizing the dye. In these sections, acid fuchsin in the sap stream left cell walls unstained, whereas safranin stained wood fibers in the vicinity of vessels, as well as the vessels themselves, provided that the sections were mounted in glycerin, which dissolves safranin. Although stained with safranin, the wood fibers contained no water. The results indicate that stabilization of the introduced dye and subsequent preparation of tissues under conditions that avoid dye resolublilization allow accurate visualization of water-conduction pathways at the cellular level.

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Differential staining of two subpopulations of Purkinje neurons in rat cerebellum with acid dyes.

We present a new method that stains differently two subpopulations of Purkinje cells in the adult rat. Deparaffinized sections of cerebella, fixed by perfusion with buffered glutaraldehyde or Bouin's fluid were stained with 0.5% light green in 50% ethanol (10-30 min). The excess dye was removed with saturated aqueous picric acid (10-30 min). At this point some Purkinje cells appeared as lightly stained neurons, while others were strongly stained. Slides were immersed in 0.5% aqueous acid fuchsin for approximately 1 min until the lightly stained neurons acquired a red color. Following immersion in 1% phosphotungstic acid, slides were rapidly dehydrated in ethanol, passed to xylene and mounted in Canada balsam. Two subpopulations of Purkinje cells differing in their protein content in somata and proximal dendrites stained differentially by this method. They occurred in all coronal and sagittal sections and in patches or stripes. Their relative proportion varied from lobule to lobule. A second staining method used potassium permanganate as the sole staining reagent. The staining reagent can be used on sections previously stained with the acid dyes. Purkinje cells appeared as subsets of brownish to deep brown stained neurons, the latter ones corresponding to green stained cells in the dichromic method. The results obtained indicated that the subpopulations reflect real differences among individual neurons and are not artifacts. The technique holds promise for identifying and localizing sub-sets of Purkinje cells differing in their protein content under normal and experimental conditions and for their further characterization by combined staining and histochemical procedures.

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Van Gieson's picrofuchsin. The staining mechanisms for collagen and cytoplasm, and an examination of the dye diffusion rate model of differential staining.

The staining mechanism of van Gieson's picrofuchsin was studied by use of simple protein model systems and tissue sections, and by spectrophotometry and dialysis experiments. At the endpoint of the staining reaction (equilibrium) cytoplasm is yellow. Dye dilution experiments demonstrated that the highest affinity in the tissue section--picrofuchsin system is between binding sites in cytoplasmic protein and acid fuchsin. Nevertheless sections that were first stained in acid fuchsin (AcF) and then in picrofuchsin ended up with cytoplasm stained yellow. It was concluded that differences in the dye diffusion rates and differences in the permeability of tissue components cannot be invoked to explain the differential staining result. Model experiments with dissolved proteins demonstrated a positive relationship between protein concentration and uptake of picric acid (PA) from picrofuchsin. From this and experiments with additives (sodium dodecylsulphate, urea etc.) and organic solvents, it is proposed that coagulant interchain cross-linking at the high protein concentration of the cytoplasm masks potential dye-binding sites. This affects high affinity dyes with multiple binding sites more than small dyes, and so puts AcF at a disadvantage compared to PA. Staining of non-collagen proteins is mainly by hydrophobic bonding, involving ionic attractions, apolar bonds, and release of water. This mode of binding is relatively strong, decreases swelling and leads to slow dye exchange. Dye binding to collagen is mostly by hydrogen bonds, but in aqueous dye solvent nonpolar residues and charged residues may also participate. This structure remains relatively open during and after dye-binding, and the bound dye ions are therefore easily exchanged for other dye ions.

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