Search results for: Acrolein-d4 DISCONTINUED C3D4O CAS: 33984-05-3
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Isotopic evidence for enhanced fossil fuel sources of aerosol ammonium in the urban atmosphere.The sources of aerosol ammonium (NH) are of interest because of the potential of NH to impact the Earth's radiative balance, as well as human health and biological diversity. Isotopic source apportionment of aerosol NH is challenging in the urban atmosphere, which has excess ammonia (NH) and where nitrogen isotopic fractionation commonly occurs. Based on year-round isotopic measurements in urban Beijing, we show the source dependence of the isotopic abundance of aerosol NH, with isotopically light (-33.8‰) and heavy (0 to +12.0‰) NH associated with strong northerly winds and sustained southerly winds, respectively. On an annual basis, 37-52% of the initial NH concentrations in urban Beijing arises from fossil fuel emissions, which are episodically enhanced by air mass stagnation preceding the passage of cold fronts. These results provide strong evidence for the contribution of non-agricultural sources to NH in urban regions and suggest that priority should be given to controlling these emissions for haze regulation. This study presents a carefully executed application of existing stable nitrogen isotope measurement and mass-balance techniques to a very important problem: understanding source contributions to atmospheric NH in Beijing. This question is crucial to informing environmental policy on reducing particulate matter concentrations, which are some of the highest in the world. However, the isotopic source attribution results presented here still involve a number of uncertain assumptions and they are limited by the incomplete set of chemical and isotopic measurements of gas NH and aerosol NH. Further field work and lab experiments are required to adequately characterize endmember isotopic signatures and the subsequent isotopic fractionation process under different air pollution and meteorological conditions.
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Multicoloured fluorescent indicators for live-cell and in vivo imaging of inorganic mercury dynamics.Engineered fluorescent indicators for visualizing mercury ion (Hg) are powerful tools to illustrate the intracellular distribution and serious toxicity of the ion. However, the sensitive and specific detection of Hg in living cells and in vivo is challenging. This paper reported the development of fluorescent indicators for Hg in green or red color by inserting a circularly permuted fluorescent protein into a highly mercury-specific repressor. These sensors provided a rapid, sensitive, specific, and real-time read-out of Hg dynamics in solutions, bacteria, subcellular organelles of mammalian cells, and zebrafish, thereby providing a useful new method for Hg detection and bioimaging. In conjunction with the hydrogen peroxide sensor HyPer, we found mercury uptake would trigger subcellular oxidative events at the single-cell level, and provided visual evidence of the causality of mercury and oxidative damage. These sensors would paint the landscape of mercury toxicity to cell functions.
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The Network Structure of Schizotypal Personality Traits.Elucidating schizotypal traits is important if we are to understand the various manifestations of psychosis spectrum liability and to reliably identify individuals at high risk for psychosis. The present study examined the network structures of (1) 9 schizotypal personality domains and (2) 74 individual schizotypal items, and (3) explored whether networks differed across gender and culture (North America vs China). The study was conducted in a sample of 27001 participants from 12 countries and 21 sites (M age = 22.12; SD = 6.28; 37.5% males). The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) was used to assess 74 self-report items aggregated in 9 domains. We used network models to estimate conditional dependence relations among variables. In the domain-level network, schizotypal traits were strongly interconnected. Predictability (explained variance of each node) ranged from 31% (odd/magical beliefs) to 55% (constricted affect), with a mean of 43.7%. In the item-level network, variables showed relations both within and across domains, although within-domain associations were generally stronger. The average predictability of SPQ items was 27.8%. The network structures of men and women were similar (r = .74), node centrality was similar across networks (r = .90), as was connectivity (195.59 and 199.70, respectively). North American and Chinese participants networks showed lower similarity in terms of structure (r = 0.44), node centrality (r = 0.56), and connectivity (180.35 and 153.97, respectively). In sum, the present article points to the value of conceptualizing schizotypal personality as a complex system of interacting cognitive, emotional, and affective characteristics.
BACTERIOLOGY BACTEROIDES TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Single Strand DNA Ligase, Single Strand DNA Ligase, Anti CML Monoclonal Antib Anti CML Monoclonal Antib
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The Somatic Marker Hypothesis and Sexual Decision Making: Understanding the Role of Iowa Gambling Task Performance and Daily Sexual Arousal on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men.The sexual decision-making literature suggests that sexual arousal and behavior are associated. The somatic marker hypothesis suggests that individual neuropsychological differences in decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), may moderate these associations; however, this hypothesis has yet to be tested with event-level sexual behavior data.
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Heterotrophic N2-fixation contributes to nitrogen economy of a common wetland sedge, Schoenoplectus californicus.A survey of the ecological variability within 52 populations of Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey.) Soják across its distributional range revealed that it is commonly found in nitrogen (N) limited areas, but rarely in phosphorus limited soils. We explored the hypothesis that S. californicus supplements its nitrogen demand by bacterial N2-fixation processes associated with its roots and rhizomes. We estimated N2-fixation of diazotrophs associated with plant rhizomes and roots from several locations throughout the species' range and conducted an experiment growing plants in zero, low, and high N additions. Nitrogenase activity in rhizomes and roots was measured using the acetylene reduction assay. The presence of diazotrophs was verified by the detection of the nifH gene. Nitrogenase activity was restricted to rhizomes and roots and it was two orders of magnitude higher in the latter plant organs (81 and 2032 nmol C2H4 g DW-1 d-1, respectively). Correspondingly, 40x more nifH gene copies were found on roots compared to rhizomes. The proportion of the nifH gene copies in total bacterial DNA was positively correlated with the nitrogenase activity. In the experiment, the contribution of fixed N to the plant N content ranged from 13.8% to 32.5% among clones from different locations. These are relatively high values for a non-cultivated plant and justify future research on the link between N-fixing bacteria and S. californicus production.
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Risk of developing open-angle glaucoma in patients with carotid artery stenosis: A nationwide cohort study.Whether carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is an independent risk factor for open-angle glaucoma remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between CAS and the development of open-angle glaucoma in the Taiwanese population-based cohort derived from a longitudinal database containing claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) program; this study enrolled 2093 patients with CAS and 8372 patients without CAS matched by age and sex from 1999 to 2010. Diagnoses of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) were identified during a follow-up period lasting through December 31, 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) for OAG in the CAS cohort compared with the matched cohort. We found that the HR for open-angle glaucoma in the CAS cohort compared with the matched cohort. The adjusted HR for OAG in the CAS cohort was 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.02, P = .008). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the CAS cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of OAG than did the matched cohort during the follow-up period (log-rank test, P < .001). We concluded that CAS is a significantly independent risk factor for the development of OAG. Our finding is clinically important for the aging population, which has an increasing prevalence of CAS.
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Lipid Nanoparticles Enabling Gene Therapies: From Concepts to Clinical Utility.Genetic drugs based on RNA or DNA have remarkable therapeutic potential as virtually any disease can be treated by silencing a pathological gene, expressing a beneficial protein, or by editing defective genes. However, therapies based on nucleic acid polymers require sophisticated delivery systems to deliver these macromolecules to the interior of target cells. In this study, we review progress in developing nonviral lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery systems that have attractive properties, including ease of manufacture, reduced immune responses, multidosing capabilities, larger payloads, and flexibility of design. LNP systems represent the most advanced delivery systems for genetic drugs as it is expected that an LNP-short interfering RNA (siRNA) formulation will receive clinical approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2018 for treatment of the hereditary condition transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis, a fatal condition for which there is currently no treatment. This achievement is largely due to the development of optimized ionizable cationic lipids, arguably the most important factor in the clinical success of LNP-siRNA. In addition, we highlight potential LNP applications, including targeting tissues beyond the liver and therapeutic approaches based on messenger RNA or Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas.
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A Durable Nickel Single-Atom Catalyst for Hydrogenation Reactions and Cellulose Valorization under Harsh Conditions.Hydrothermally stable and acid-resistant nickel catalysts are highly desired in industrially important hydrogenation reactions. Yet, such catalyst remains absent due to the inherent vulnerability of nickel under acidic reaction media. In this work, we have developed an ultra-durable Ni-N-C single-atom catalyst (SAC) that possesses a remarkable Ni content (7.5 wt%) required for practical usage. This SAC shows not only high activities for hydrogenation of various unsaturated substrates but also unprecedented durability for the one-pot conversion of cellulose under very harsh conditions (245 oC, 60 bar H2, presence of tungstic acid in hot water). Using integrated spectroscopy characterization and computational modeling, we have identified the active site structure as (Ni-N4)…N, where significantly distorted octahedral coordination and pyridinic N constitute a frustrated Lewis pair for the heterolytic dissociation of dihydrogen, and the robust covalent chemical bonding between Ni and N atoms accounts for its ultrastability.
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Soybean Lecithin-Mediated Nanoporous PLGA Microspheres with Highly Entrapped and Controlled Released BMP-2 as a Stem Cell Platform.Injectable polymer microsphere-based stem cell delivery systems have a severe problem that they do not offer a desirable environment for stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation because it is difficult to entrap a large number of hydrophilic functional protein molecules into the core of hydrophobic polymer microspheres. In this work, soybean lecithin (SL) is applied to entrap hydrophilic bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) into nanoporous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microspheres by a two-step method: SL/BMP-2 complexes preparation and PLGA/SL/BMP-2 microsphere preparation. The measurements of their physicochemical properties show that PLGA/SL/BMP-2 microspheres had significantly higher BMP-2 entrapment efficiency and controlled triphasic BMP-2 release behavior compared with PLGA/BMP-2 microspheres. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo stem cell behaviors on PLGA/SL/BMP-2 microspheres are analyzed. Compared with PLGA/BMP-2 microspheres, PLGA/SL/BMP-2 microspheres have significantly higher in vitro and in vivo stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization abilities. Therefore, injectable nanoporous PLGA/SL/BMP-2 microspheres can be potentially used as a stem cell platform for bone tissue regeneration. In addition, SL can be potentially used to prepare hydrophilic protein-loaded hydrophobic polymer microspheres with highly entrapped and controlled release of proteins.
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Semiconducting Polymer Nanocavities: Porogenic Synthesis, Tunable Host-Guest Interactions, and Enhanced Drug/siRNA Delivery.Nanocavities composed of lipids and block polymers have demonstrated great potential in biomedical applications such as sensors, nanoreactors, and delivery vectors. However, it remains a great challenge to produce nanocavities from fluorescent semiconducting polymers owing to their hydrophobic rigid polymer backbones. Here, we describe a facile, yet general strategy that combines photocrosslinking with nanophase separation to fabricate multicolor, water-dispersible semiconducting polymer nanocavities (PNCs). A photocrosslinkable semiconducting polymer is blended with a porogen such as degradable macromolecule to form compact polymer dots (Pdots). After crosslinking the polymer and removing the porogen, this approach yields semiconducting polymer nanospheres with open cavities that are tunable in diameter. Both small molecules and macromolecules can be loaded in the nanocavities, where molecular size can be differentiated by the efficiency of the energy transfer from host polymer to guest molecules. An anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) is loaded into the nanocavities and the intracellular release is monitored in real time by the fluorescence signal. Finally, the efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence gene expression without affecting cell viability is demonstrated. The combined features of bright fluorescence, tunable cavity, and efficient drug/siRNA delivery makes these nanostructures promising for biomedical imaging and drug delivery.
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