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           Search results for: Active Human Calpain I   

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#28361181   2017/03/31 Save this To Up

Putting a brake on synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

In chemical synapses, action potentials evoke synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane at the active zone to release neurotransmitter. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) then follows exocytosis to recapture vesicle proteins and lipid components for recycling and the maintenance of membrane homeostasis. Therefore, SVE plays an essential role during neurotransmission and is one of the most precisely regulated biological processes. Four modes of SVE have been characterized and both positive and negative regulators have been identified. However, our understanding of SVE regulation remains unclear, especially the identity of negative regulators and their mechanisms of action. Here, we review the current knowledge of proteins that function as inhibitors of SVE and their modes of action in different forms of endocytosis. We also propose possible physiological roles of such negative regulation. We believe that a better understanding of SVE regulation, especially the inhibitory mechanisms, will shed light on neurotransmission in health and disease.

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#28267204   2017/03/07 Save this To Up

C-terminal truncation of GSK-3β enhances its dephosphorylation by PP2A.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is the major tau kinase. Its phosphorylation at Ser9 suppresses the activity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, GSK-3β is truncated at the C terminus by overactivated calpain I, leading to an increase in its activity. However, the effect of truncation on its phosphorylation is unknown. We found here that in AD brain and in cultured cells, C-terminally truncated GSK-3β is less phosphorylated at Ser9 than the full-length enzyme. The truncation promotes GSK-3β nuclear translocation and enhances its interaction with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to dephosphorylation. Thus, the truncation of GSK-3β may enhance its activity through Ser9 dephosphorylation by PP2A. Our findings shed new light on the role of calpain-GSK-3β-PP2A in tau pathogenesis of AD.

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Mouse Anti-PP2A C-termina PP2A R4 Goat Anti-Human, Mouse, R MOUSE ANTI HUMAN DYSTROPH Rat procollagen Ⅰ N-ter PP2A alpha antibody Host Beta Amyloid (40) ELISA K Beta Amyloid (1 42) ELISA Rabbit Anti-Tenascin C (C Rabbit Anti-Tenascin C (C Rabbit Anti-Tenascin C (C Rabbit Anti-Tenascin C (C

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#28235949   2017/02/25 Save this To Up

BMP4 inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis via PKA-mediated inhibition of calpain-2 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

In the present study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) on PDGF-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Normal human PASMCs were incubated with and without PDGF-BB in the absence and presence of BMP4 for 0.5 to 24 h. The protein levels of collagen-I, p-Smad2/3, p-Smad1/5, and intracellular active TGF-β1, calpain activity, and cell proliferation were then measured. The results showed that BMP4 induced an increase in p-Smad1/5 but had no effect on the protein levels of collagen-I, p-Smad2/3, and intracellular active TGF-β1 and calpain activity in control PASMCs. Nevertheless, BMP4 attenuated increases in cell proliferation and protein levels of collagen-I, p-Smad2/3, and intracellular active TGF-β1 and calpain activity in PASMCs exposed to PDGF-BB. Moreover, BMP4 increased PKA activity and inhibition of PKA prevented the inhibitory effects of BMP4 on PDGF-BB-induced calpain activation in normal PASMCs. The PKA activator forskolin recapitulated the suppressive effect of BMP4 on PDGF-induced calpain activation. Furthermore, BMP4 prevented a PDGF-induced decrease in calpain-2 phosphorylation at serine-369 in normal PASMCs. Finally, BMP4 did not attenuate PDGF-induced increases in cell proliferation, collagen-I protein levels, and calpain activation and did not induce PKA activation and did not prevent a PDGF-induced decrease in calpain-2 phosphorylation at serine-369 in PASMCs from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. These data demonstrate that BMP4 inhibits PDGF-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis via PKA-mediated inhibition of calpain-2 in normal PASMCs. The inhibitory effects of BMP4 on PDGF-induced cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, and calpain-2 activation are impaired in PASMCs from PAH patients, which may contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH.

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Actin, Alpha-Smooth Musc Human Epstein-Barr Virus Calpain Inhibitor Z-LLY-F Calpain Inhibitor Z-LLY-F Calpain Inhibitor Z LLY F Calpain Inhibitor Z LLY F Mouse Epstein-Barr Virus Cultrex 24 Well Collagen Cultrex 24 Well Collagen T-2 Toxin Mycotoxins ELIS Human Internal Mammary Ar GFP Expressing Human Inte

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#28223212   2017/02/22 Save this To Up

n-Butylidenephthalide exhibits protection against neurotoxicity through regulation of tryptophan 2, 3 dioxygenase in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 or Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) is characterized by the repetition of a CAG codon in the ataxin-3 gene (ATXN3), which leads to the formation of an elongated mutant ATXN3 protein that can neither be denatured nor undergo proteolysis in the normal manner. This abnormal proteolysis leads to the accumulation of cleaved fragments, which have been identified as toxic and further they act as a seed for more aggregate formation, thereby increasing toxicity in neuronal cells. To date, there have been few studies or treatment strategies that have focused on controlling toxic fragment formation. The aim of this study is to develop a potential treatment strategy for addressing the complications of toxic fragment formation and to provide an alternative treatment strategy for SCA3. Our preliminary data on anti-aggregation and toxic fragment formation using an HEK (human embryonic kidney cells) 293T-84Q-eGFP (green fluorescent protein) cell model identified n-butylidenephthalide (n-BP) as a potential drug treatment for SCA3. n-BP decreased toxic fragment formation in both SCA3 cell and animal models. Moreover, results showed that n-BP can improve gait, motor coordination, and activity in SCA3 mice. To comprehend the molecular basis behind the control of toxic fragment formation, we used microarray analysis to identify tryptophan metabolism as a major player in controlling the fate of mutant ATXN3 aggregates. We also demonstrated that n-BP functions by regulating the early part of the kynurenine pathway through the downregulation of tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO2), which decreases the downstream neurotoxic product, quinolinic acid (QA). In addition, through the control of TDO2, n-BP also decreases active calpain levels, an important enzyme involved in the proteolysis of mutant ATXN3, thereby decreasing toxic fragment formation and associated neurotoxicity. Collectively, these findings indicate a correlation between n-BP, TDO2, QA, calpain, and toxic fragment formation. Thus, this study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular interactions involved in SCA3, and provides a novel potential treatment strategy for this neurodegenerative disease.

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DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti Sterile filtered mouse s Human Interleukin-33 IL-3 Human Interleukin-32 alph Confocal Dish,PS,clear, 3 Interferon-a Receptor Typ GST Inhibitor 1 (Cibacron GST Inhibitor 1 (Cibacron GSK-3β Inhibitor, TWS119 Mouse Interleukin IL-31 I

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#28182699   2017/02/09 Save this To Up

Bifunctional effects of O-methylated flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on melanocytes: Inhibition of melanin production and intracellular melanosome transport.

The growing interest in skin lightening has recently renewed attention on the esthetic applications of Chinese herbal medicine. Although Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is used for antipyretic and antiinflammatory purposes, its whitening effect remains unclear. This study reports three major findings: (1) S. baicalensis has a potent inhibitory effect on melanogenesis; (2) wogonin and its glycoside are the active components of S. baicalensis; and (3) O-methylated flavones from S. baicalensis, such as wogonin, inhibit intracellular melanosome transport. Using a melanin quantification assay, we showed that S. baicalensis potently inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Componential analyses revealed that the main components of S. baicalensis are baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A. Among these five flavones, wogonin and wogonoside consistently inhibited melanogenesis in both B16F10 melanoma cells and primary melanocytes. Wogonin exhibited the strongest inhibition of melanin production and markedly lightened the color of skin equivalents. We identified microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase-related proteins as potential targets of wogonin- and wogonoside-induced melanogenesis suppression. In culture, we found that the melanosomes in wogonin-treated B16F10 cells were localized to the perinuclear region. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that wogonin significantly reduced in melanophilin protein, which is required for actin-based melanosome transport. Other actin-based melanosome transport-related molecules, i.e., Rab27A and myosin Va, were not affected by wogonin. Cotreatment with MG132 blocked the wogonin-induced decrease in melanophilin, suggesting that wogonin promotes the proteolytic degradation of melanophilin via the calpain/proteasomal pathway. We determined that the structural specificities of the mono-O-methyl group in the flavone A-ring and the aglycone form were responsible for reducing melanosome transport. Furthermore, wogonin and two wogonin analogs, mono-O-methyl flavones, strongly suppressed melanosome transport. Our findings suggest the applicability of S. baicalensis in the esthetic field. Thus, we propose a novel pharmacologic approach for the treatment of hyperpigmentation.

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#28078280   2017/01/12 Save this To Up

Protective Effects of Emodin-Induced Neutrophil Apoptosis via the Ca(2+)-Caspase 12 Pathway against SIRS in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) results in high mortality. This is partly because of early multiple organ dysfunction syndromes that are usually caused by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Many studies have reported the beneficial effects of emodin against SAP with SIRS. However, the exact mechanism underlying the effect of emodin remains unclear. This study was designed to explore the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of emodin against SIRS in rats with SAP. In the present study, cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, calpain 1 activity, and the expression levels of the active fragments of caspases 12 and 3 decreased in neutrophils from rats with SAP and increased after treatment with emodin. Delayed neutrophil apoptosis occurred in rats with SAP and emodin was able to reverse this delayed apoptosis and inhibit SIRS. The effect of emodin on calpain 1 activity, the expression levels of the active fragments of caspases 12 and 3, neutrophil apoptosis, and SIRS scores were attenuated by PD150606 (an inhibitor of calpain). These results suggest that emodin inhibits SIRS in rats with SAP by inducing circulating neutrophil apoptosis via the Ca(2+)-calpain 1-caspase 12-caspase 3 signaling pathway.

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Caspase-12 Inhibitor Z-AT Caspase-12 Inhibitor Z-AT Caspase 12 Inhibitor 100 Caspase 12 Inhibitor Z AT Caspase-12 Inhibitor Z-AT Caspase-12 Inhibitor Z-AT Caspase 12 Inhibitor 20 u Caspase 12 Inhibitor Z AT Apoptosis antibody array Cancer Apoptosis Phospho- Caspase Family Inhibitor Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon

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#28061464   2017/01/06 Save this To Up

MET receptor variant R970C favors calpain-dependent generation of a fragment promoting epithelial cell scattering.

The receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand, the hepatocyte growth factor, are essential to embryonic development, whereas deregulation of MET signaling is associated with tumorigenesis leading to various cancers, including lung carcinoma. Mutations in the MET kinase domain lead to constitutive kinase activity and are associated with tumorigenesis. In lung cancer, however, some mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain, and their functional consequences are unknown. Because the juxtamembrane domain of MET is targeted by several proteolytic cleavages, involved in its degradation during cell death or under steady-state conditions, we evaluated the influence of these mutations on the MET proteolytic cleavages. In stably transfected epithelial cells expressing MET, the juxtamembrane mutations R970C, P991S, and T992I were found not to modify the known caspase or presenilin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Yet when overexpressed, the R970C variant caused generation of an as yet undescribed 45-kDa fragment (p45 MET). This fragment was found in the confluent lung cancer cell line NCI-H1437 carrying the R970C mutation and at a lesser extent in cell lines expressing WT MET, suggesting that R970C mutation favors this cleavage. Generation of p45 MET required the activity of the calpain proteases, confirming the involvement of proteolysis. Ectopic expression of reconstituted p45 MET in epithelial cell lines favored cell scattering and invasion indicating active role of this fragment in HGF/SF induced responses. Hence, although the juxtamembrane mutations of MET do not affect its known proteolytic cleavages, the R970C MET variant favors calpain dependent proteolytic cleavage in lung cancer cells.

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#27859240   2016/11/18 Save this To Up

The neuroprotective effect of latanoprost acts via klotho-mediated suppression of calpain activation after optic nerve transection.

Latanoprost was first developed for use in glaucoma therapy as an ocular hypotensive agent targeting the prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptor. Subsequently, latanoprost showed a neuroprotective effect, an additional pharmacological action. However, although it is well-known that latanoprost exerts an ocular hypotensive effect via the FP receptor, it is not known whether this is also true of its neuroprotective effect. Klotho was firstly identified as the gene linked to the suppression of aging phenotype: the defect of klotho gene in mice results aging phenotype such as hypokinesis, arteriosclerosis, and short lifespan. After that, the function of klotho was also reported to maintain calcium homeostasis and to exert a neuroprotective effect in various models of neurodegenerative disease. However, the function of klotho in eyes including retina is still poorly understood. Here, we show that klotho is a key factor underlying the neuroprotective effect of latanoprost during post-axotomy retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Importantly, a quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis of klotho in sorted rat retinal cells revealed that the highest expression level of klotho in the retina was in the RGCs. Latanoprost acid, the biologically active form of latanoprost, inhibits post-traumatic calpain activation and concomitantly facilitates the expression and shedding of klotho in axotomized RGCs. This expression profile is a good match with the localization, not of the FP receptor, but of organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1, known as a prostaglandin transporter, in the ocular tissue. Furthermore, an organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 inhibitor suppressed latanoprost acid-mediated klotho shedding ex vivo, whereas an FP receptor antagonist did not. The klotho fragments shed from the RGCs reduced the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, and a specific klotho inhibitor accelerated and increased RGC death after axotomy. We conclude that the shed klotho fragments might contribute to the attenuation of axonal injury-induced calpain activation and oxidative stress, thereby protecting RGCs from post-traumatic neuronal degeneration.

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Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Primary Antibody Dropper Recombinant Viral Antige Recombinant Viral antige Recombinant Viral antige Recombinant Viral antige Recombinant Viral antige Recombinant Viral antige Recombinant Viral antige Recombinant Viral Antige Toxoplasma gondii MIC 3 r West Nile Virus Pre M rec

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#27835610   2016/11/11 Save this To Up

Roles of calpain-calpastatin system (CCS) in human T cell activation.

The immune response is determined by the speed of the T cell reaction to antigens assured by a state of readiness for proliferation and cytokine secretion. Proliferation, apoptosis and motion of many cell types are controlled by cytoplasmic proteases - µ- and m-calpain - and their inhibitor calpastatin, together forming the "calpain-calpastatin system" (CCS), assumed to modify their targets only upon activation-dependent cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase. Contrastingly to this notion, using quantitative real time PCR and semiquantitative flow cytometry respectively, we show here that the CCS genes are constitutively expressed, and that both calpains are constitutively active in resting, circulating human CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that calpain inhibition in the resting T cells prevents them from proliferation in vitro and greatly reduces secretion of multiple cytokines. The mechanistic reason for these effects of calpain inhibition on T cell functions might be the demonstrated significant reduction of the expression of active (phosphorylated) upstream signalling molecules, including the phospholipase C gamma, p56Lck and NFκB, in the inhibitor-treated cells. Thus, we propose that the constitutive, self-regulatory calpain-calpastatin system activity in resting human T cells is a necessary, controlling element of their readiness for complex and effective response to antigenic challenge.

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CELLKINES Natural Human I T-cell proliferation grad TCHI T cell proliferation TCHI T cell proliferation Interferon-a Receptor Typ Goat Anti-Human HMGB3 HMG Goat Anti-Human F2R PAR1, Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula T-cell proliferation grad TCHII T cell proliferatio TCHII T cell proliferatio

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#27829611   2016/11/10 Save this To Up

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Stimulates the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Interactions with Cell Membranes.

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a representative anionic surfactant, is well-known to induce rough skin following single or multiple topical applications. The mechanism by which SLS induces rough skin is thought to result from the disruption of skin moisture function consisting of NMF and epidermal lipids. However, a recent study demonstrated that topically applied SLS easily penetrates into the living cell layers of the epidermis, which suggests that physiological alterations of keratinocytes might cause the SLS-induced rough skin. This study was conducted to clarify the effects of SLS on keratinocytes to demonstrate the contribution of SLS to the induction of rough skin. In addition, the potentials of other widely used anionic surfactants to induce rough skin were evaluated. HaCaT keratinocytes treated with SLS had increased levels of intracellular ROS and IL-1α secretion. Application of SLS on the surface of a reconstructed epidermal equivalent also showed the increased generation of ROS. Further, SLS-treated cells showed an increase of intracellular calpain activity associated with the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The increase of intracellular ROS was abolished by the addition of BAPTA-AM, a specific chelator of Ca(2+). In addition, IL-1α also stimulated ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. An ESR spin-labeling study demonstrated that SLS increased the fluidity of membranes of liposomes and cells. Together, those results indicate that SLS initially interacts with cell membranes, which results in the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) influx. Ca(2+) stimulates the secretion of IL-1α due to the activation of calpain, and also increases ROS generation. IL-1α also stimulates ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. We conclude from these results that the elevation of intracellular ROS levels is one of the causes of SLS-induced rough skin. Finally, among the other anionic surfactants tested, sodium lauryl phosphate has less potential to induce rough skin because of its lower generation of ROS.

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