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           Search results for: Alogliptin-d3 C18H18D3N5O2 CAS: 1133421-35-8   

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Three amino acid substitutions in the NS1 protein change the virus replication of H5N1 influenza virus in human cells.

Influenza A viruses have sophisticated strategies to promote their own replication. Here, we found that three H5N1 influenza viruses display different replication patterns in human A549 and macrophage cells. The HN01 virus displayed poor replication compared to HN021 and JS01. In addition, the HN01 virus was unable to counteract the interferon response and block general gene expression. This capability was restored by three amino acid substitutions on the NS1 protein: K55E, K66E, and C133F, resulting in recovered binding to CPSF30 and decreased interferon response activity. Furthermore, a recombinant HN01 virus expressing either NS1-C133F or the triple mutation replicate with higher titers in human A549 cells and macrophages compared to the parent virus. These three amino acid mutations reveal a new pathway to alter H5N1 virus replication.

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Rabbit Anti-Influenza A V Influenza A (H5N1) NS1 Pe Goat Anti-Influenza A Vir Mouse Anti-Influenza A Vi Avian Influenza virus H5N Avian Influenza Virus H5N Avian Influenza virus H5N Avian Influenza virus H5N Human Epstein-Barr Virus Recombinant Influenza B V Recombinant Influenza B V Recombinant Influenza B V

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Vanadium toxicity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown in red soil: Effects on cell death, ROS and antioxidative systems.

The agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals induces toxic effects on plant growth. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vanadium (V) on growth, HO and enzyme activities, cell death, ion leakage, and at which concentration; V induces the toxic effects in chickpea plants grown in red soil. The obtained results indicated that the biomass (fresh and dry) and lengths of roots and shoots were significantly decreased by V application, and roots accumulated more V than shoots. The enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and POD) and ion leakage were increased linearly with increasing V concentrations. However, the protein contents, and tolerance indices were significantly declined with the increasing levels of V. The results about the cell death indicated that the cell viability was badly damaged when plants were exposed to higher V, and induction of HO might be involved in this cell death. In conclusion, all the applied V levels affected the enzymatic activities, and induced the cell death of chickpea plants. Furthermore, our results also confirmed that vanadium ≥ 130 mg kg induced detrimental effects on chickpea plants. Additional investigation is needed to clarify the mechanistic explanations of V toxicity at the molecular level and gene expression involved in plant cell death.

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Does BCA3 Play a Role in the HIV-1 Replication Cycle?

The cellular role of breast carcinoma-associated protein (BCA3), also known as A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP-1), is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that full-length, but not C-terminally truncated, BCA3 is incorporated into virions of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and that BCA3 enhances HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we report that BCA3 is associated with purified and subtilisin-treated HIV particles. Using a combination of immune-based methods and confocal microscopy, we show that the C-terminus of BCA3 is required for packaging into HIV-1 particles. However, we were unable to identify an HIV-1 binding domain for BCA3, and we did not observe any effect of incorporated BCA3 on HIV-1 infectivity. Interestingly, the BCA3 C-terminus was previously identified as a binding site for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), a cellular protein that is specifically packaged into HIV-1 particles. Based on our analysis of PKAc⁻BCA3 interactions, we suggest that BCA3 incorporation into HIV-1 particles is mediated by its ability to interact with PKAc.

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Tiacumicin Congeners with Improved Antibacterial Activity from a Halogenase-Inactivated Mutant.

Tiacumicin B (1, also known as fidaxomicin or difimicin) is a marketed drug for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections. The biosynthetic pathway of 1 has been studied in Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subsp. hamdenensis NRRL 18085 and has enabled the identification of TiaM as a tailoring dihalogenase. Herein we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivity evaluation of 14 tiacumicin congeners (including 11 new ones) from the tiaM-inactivated mutant. A new tiacumicin congener, 3, with a propyl group at C-7‴ of the aromatic ring was found to exhibit improved antibacterial activity.

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Core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads.

Different cognitively demanding tasks recruit globally distributed but functionally specific networks. However, the configuration of core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads remain unclear, as does whether these patterns are indicators for the performance of cognitive tasks. In this study, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data of a large cohort of 448 subjects, acquired with the brain at resting state and executing N-back working memory (WM) tasks. We discriminated core networks by functional interaction strength and connection flexibility. Results demonstrated that the frontoparietal network (FPN) and default mode network (DMN) were core networks, but each exhibited different patterns across cognitive loads. The FPN and DMN both showed strengthened internal connections at the low demand state (0-back) compared with the resting state (control level); whereas, from the low (0-back) to high demand state (2-back), some connections to the FPN weakened and were rewired to the DMN (whose connections all remained strong). Of note, more intensive reconfiguration of both the whole brain and core networks (but no other networks) across load levels indicated relatively poor cognitive performance. Collectively these findings indicate that the FPN and DMN have distinct roles and reconfiguration patterns across cognitively demanding loads. This study advances our understanding of the core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads and provides a new feature to evaluate and predict cognitive capability (e.g., WM performance) based on brain networks.

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Influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on perovskite solar cells.

Interfaces have a significant impact on the performance of perovskite solar cells. This work investigated the influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on photovoltaic behaviours of perovskite solar devices. Different hole material/metal contact interfaces were obtained by depositing the metal under different conditions. High incident kinetic energy metal particles were proved to penetrate and embed into the hole transport material. These isolated metal particles in hole transport materials capture holes and increase the apparent carrier transport resistance of the hole transport layer. Sample temperature was found to be of great significance in metal deposition. Since metal vapour has a high temperature, the deposition process accumulated a large amount of heat. The heat evaporated the additives in the hole transport layer and decreased the hole conductivity. On the other hand, high temperature may cause iodization of the metal contact.

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Nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine: small change brings big difference.


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Magnetic nanoparticles based cancer therapy: current status and applications.

Nanotechnology holds a promising potential for developing biomedical nanoplatforms in cancer therapy. The magnetic nanoparticles, which integrate uniquely appealing features of magnetic manipulation, nanoscale heat generator, localized magnetic field and enzyme-mimics, prompt the development and application of magnetic nanoparticles-based cancer medicine. Considerable success has been achieved in improving the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity, and the therapeutic function of the magnetic nanoparticles should be given adequate attention. This work reviews the current status and applications of magnetic nanoparticles based cancer therapy. The advantages of magnetic nanoparticles that may contribute to improved therapeutics efficacy of clinic cancer treatment are highlighted here.

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Isotropic ordering of ions in ionic liquids on the sub-nanometer scale.

This article investigates structures of ionic liquids. Using a high-powered multiple-mode two dimensional infrared spectroscopic technique, we measure the anisotropy of interionic vibrational coupling in ionic liquids. Such anisotropy reports the relative orientation between cations and anions. Surprisingly, opposite to the well-propagated idea of ion pairing, a random orientation between the nearest non-spherically symmetric cation and anion is observed in ionic liquids. On the one hand, numerous previous experiments and theoretical calculations have shown that ionic liquids are highly ordered at the mesoscale, forming a bicontinuous nanostructure of ionic domains and hydrophobic domains. On the other hand, our results clearly prove that the ion ordering within the ionic domains is essentially random. Such an ordering at the larger scale (nanometers) and a lack of ordering at the smaller scale (sub-nanometer) is very rare for most liquids, or may even be unique to ionic liquids. Herein, we propose that ionic liquids may be regarded as 3D interconnecting nanocomposites of molten-salt-like domains and molecular-liquid-like domains. Such unique structuring could explain the fact that ionic liquids, like composite materials, often possess favorable properties of both "ionic" and "molecular" components.

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FSPP: A Tool for Genome-Wide Prediction of smORF-Encoded Peptides and Their Functions.

smORFs are small open reading frames of less than 100 codons. Recent low throughput experiments showed a lot of smORF-encoded peptides (SEPs) played crucial rule in processes such as regulation of transcription or translation, transportation through membranes and the antimicrobial activity. In order to gather more functional SEPs, it is necessary to have access to genome-wide prediction tools to give profound directions for low throughput experiments. In this study, we put forward a functional smORF-encoded peptides predictor (FSPP) which tended to predict authentic SEPs and their functions in a high throughput method. FSPP used the overlap of detected SEPs from Ribo-seq and mass spectrometry as target objects. With the expression data on transcription and translation levels, FSPP built two co-expression networks. Combing co-location relations, FSPP constructed a compound network and then annotated SEPs with functions of adjacent nodes. Tested on 38 sequenced samples of 5 human cell lines, FSPP successfully predicted 856 out of 960 annotated proteins. Interestingly, FSPP also highlighted 568 functional SEPs from these samples. After comparison, the roles predicted by FSPP were consistent with known functions. These results suggest that FSPP is a reliable tool for the identification of functional small peptides. FSPP source code can be acquired at https://www.bioinfo.org/FSPP.

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