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           Search results for: Amiloride Hydrochloride C6H9Cl2N7O CAS: 2016-88-8   

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Acetazolamide Attenuates Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

To reduce lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (lithium-NDI), patients with bipolar disorder are treated with thiazide and amiloride, which are thought to induce antidiuresis by a compensatory increase in prourine uptake in proximal tubules. However, thiazides induced antidiuresis and alkalinized the urine in lithium-NDI mice lacking the sodium-chloride cotransporter, suggesting that inhibition of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) confers the beneficial thiazide effect. Therefore, we tested the effect of the CA-specific blocker acetazolamide in lithium-NDI. In collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, acetazolamide reduced the cellular lithium content and attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 through a mechanism different from that of amiloride. Treatment of lithium-NDI mice with acetazolamide or thiazide/amiloride induced similar antidiuresis and increased urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 abundance. Thiazide/amiloride-treated mice showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased serum lithium concentrations, adverse effects previously observed in patients but not in acetazolamide-treated mice in this study. Furthermore, acetazolamide treatment reduced inulin clearance and cortical expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and attenuated the increased expression of urinary PGE2 observed in lithium-NDI mice. These results show that the antidiuresis with acetazolamide was partially caused by a tubular-glomerular feedback response and reduced GFR. The tubular-glomerular feedback response and/or direct effect on collecting duct principal or intercalated cells may underlie the reduced urinary PGE2 levels with acetazolamide, thereby contributing to the attenuation of lithium-NDI. In conclusion, CA activity contributes to lithium-NDI development, and acetazolamide attenuates lithium-NDI development in mice similar to thiazide/amiloride but with fewer adverse effects.

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Pro-oxidant mitochondrial matrix-targeted ubiquinone MitoQ10 acts as anti-oxidant at retarded electron transport or proton pumping within Complex I.

Oxidative stress of mitochondrial origin, i.e. elevated mitochondrial superoxide production, belongs to major factors determining aging and oxidative-stress-related diseases. Antioxidants, such as the mitochondria-targeted coenzyme Q, MitoQ(10), may prevent or cure these pathological conditions. To elucidate pro- and anti-oxidant action of MitoQ(10), we studied its effects on HepG2 cell respiration, mitochondrial network morphology, and rates of superoxide release (above that neutralized by superoxide dismutase) to the mitochondrial matrix (J(m)). MitoSOX Red fluorescence confocal microscopy monitoring of J(m) rates showed pro-oxidant effects of 3.5-fold increased J(m) with MitoQ(10). MitoQ(10) induced fission of the mitochondrial network which was recovered after 24h. In rotenone-inhibited HepG2 cells (i.e., already under oxidative stress) MitoQ(10) sharply decreased rotenone-induced J(m), but not together with the Complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone. Respiration of HepG2 cells and isolated rat liver mitochondria with MitoQ(10) increased independently of rotenone. The increase was prevented by thenoyltrifluoroacetone. These results suggest that MitoQ(10) accepts electrons prior to the rotenone-bound Q-site, and the Complex II reverse mode oxidizes MitoQ(10)H(2) to regenerate MitoQ(10). Consequently, MitoQ(10) has a pro-oxidant role in intact cells, whereas it serves as an antioxidant when Complex I-derived superoxide generation is already elevated due to electron flow retardation. Moreover, unlike mitochondrial uncoupling, MitoQ(10) exerted its antioxidant role when Complex I proton pumping was retarded by a hydrophobic amiloride, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride. Consequently, MitoQ(10) may be useful in the treatment of diseases originating from impairment of respiratory chain Complex I due to oxidatively damaged mitochondrial DNA, when its targeted delivery to pathogenic tissues is ensured.

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Mitochondrial Complex I superoxide production is attenuated by uncoupling.

Complex I, i.e. proton-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, is an essential component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain but produces superoxide as a side-reaction. However, conditions for maximum superoxide production or its attenuation are not well understood. Unlike for Complex III, it has not been clear whether a Complex I-derived superoxide generation at forward electron transport is sensitive to membrane potential or protonmotive force. In order to investigate this, we used Amplex Red for H(2)O(2) monitoring, assessing the total mitochondrial superoxide production in isolated rat liver mitochondria respiring at state 4 as well as at state 3, namely with exclusive Complex I substrates or with Complex I substrates plus succinate. We have shown for the first time, that uncoupling diminishes rotenone-induced H(2)O(2) production also in state 3, while similar attenuation was observed in state 4. Moreover, we have found that 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride is a real inhibitor of Complex I H(+) pumping (IC(50) of 27 microM) without affecting respiration. It also partially prevented suppression by FCCP of rotenone-induced H(2)O(2) production with Complex I substrates alone (glutamate and malate), but nearly completely with Complexes I and II substrates. Sole 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride alone suppressed 20% and 30% of total H(2)O(2) production, respectively, under these conditions. Our data suggest that Complex I mitochondrial superoxide production can be attenuated by uncoupling, which means by acceleration of Complex I H(+) pumping due to the respiratory control. However, when this acceleration is prevented by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride inhibition, no attenuation of superoxide production takes place.

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Oxidative stress caused by blocking of mitochondrial complex I H(+) pumping as a link in aging/disease vicious cycle.

Vulnerability of mitochondrial Complex I to oxidative stress determines an organism's lifespan, pace of aging, susceptibility to numerous diseases originating from oxidative stress and certain mitopathies. The mechanisms involved, however, are largely unknown. We used confocal microscopy and fluorescent probe MitoSOX to monitor superoxide production due to retarded forward electron transport in HEPG2 cell mitochondrial Complex I in situ. Matrix-released superoxide production, the un-dismuted surplus (J(m)) was low in glucose-cultivated cells, where an uncoupler (FCCP) reduced it to half. Rotenone caused a 5-fold J(m) increase (AC(50) 2 microM), which was attenuated by uncoupling, membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), and DeltapH-collapse, since addition of FCCP (IC(50) 55 nM), valinomycin, and nigericin prevented this increase. J(m) doubled after cultivation with galactose/glutamine (i.e. at obligatory oxidative phosphorylation). A hydrophobic amiloride that acts on the ND5 subunit and inhibits Complex I H(+) pumping enhanced J(m) and even countered the FCCP effect (AC(50) 0.3 microM). Consequently, we have revealed a new principle predicting that Complex I produces maximum superoxide only when both electron transport and H(+) pumping are retarded. H(+) pumping may be attenuated by high protonmotive force or inhibited by oxidative stress-related mutations of ND5 (ND2, ND4) subunit. We predict that in a vicious cycle, when oxidative stress leads to higher fraction of, e.g. mutated ND5 subunits, it will be accelerated more and more. Thus, inhibition of Complex I H(+) pumping, which leads to oxidative stress, appears to be a missing link in the theory of mitochondrial aging and in the etiology of diseases related to oxidative stress.

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Epithelial carbonic anhydrases facilitate PCO2 and pH regulation in rat duodenal mucosa.

The duodenum is the site of mixing of massive amounts of gastric H+ with secreted HCO3-, generating CO2 and H2O accompanied by the neutralization of H+. We examined the role of membrane-bound and soluble carbonic anhydrases (CA) by which H+ is neutralized, CO2 is absorbed, and HCO3- is secreted. Rat duodena were perfused with solutions of different pH and PCO2 with or without a cell-permeant CA inhibitor methazolamide (MTZ) or impermeant CA inhibitors. Flow-through pH and PCO2 electrodes simultaneously measured perfusate and effluent pH and PCO2. High CO2 (34.7 kPa) perfusion increased net CO2 loss from the perfusate compared with controls (pH 6.4 saline, PCO2 approximately 0) accompanied by portal venous (PV) acidification and PCO2 increase. Impermeant CA inhibitors abolished net perfusate CO2 loss and increased net HCO3- gain, whereas all CA inhibitors inhibited PV acidification and PCO2 increase. The changes in luminal and PV pH and [CO2] were also inhibited by the Na+-H+ exchanger-1 (NHE1) inhibitor dimethylamiloride, but not by the NHE3 inhibitor S3226. Luminal acid decreased total CO2 output and increased H+ loss with PV acidification and PCO2 increase, all inhibited by all CA inhibitors. During perfusion of a 30% CO2 buffer, loss of CO2 from the lumen was CA dependent as was transepithelial transport of perfused 13CO2. H+ and CO2 loss from the perfusate were accompanied by increases of PV H+ and tracer CO2, but unchanged PV total CO2, consistent with CA-dependent transmucosal H+ and CO2 movement. Inhibition of membrane-bound CAs augments the apparent rate of net basal HCO3- secretion. Luminal H+ traverses the apical membrane as CO2, is converted back to cytosolic H+, which is extruded via NHE1. Membrane-bound and cytosolic CAs cooperatively facilitate secretion of HCO3- into the lumen and CO2 diffusion into duodenal mucosa, serving as important acid-base regulators.

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Effects of inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) by amiloride in the cornea and tear fluid of eyes irradiated with UVB.

The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that amiloride, a specific u-PA inhibitor, effectively decreases u-PA activity in cornea as well as in tear fluid and favourably affects corneal healing. Therefore, comparative histochemical and biochemical studies of u-PA and the effects of amiloride were performed on rabbit corneas and tear fluid using the sensitive fluorogenic substrate Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. Rabbit eyes were repeatedly irradiated with UVB for 9 days and during the irradiation topically treated with amiloride (1 mg/ml saline) or placebo (saline) (dropwise, 5 times daily). Results show that in placebo-treated eyes, UVB evoked the appearance of u-PA activity in cornea and tear fluid in early stages of irradiation, and u-PA levels increased during irradiation. Corneal epithelium was gradually lost and remnants of the epithelium as well as keratocytes in the upper part of corneal stroma showed high u-PA activity. Finally, corneas lost their epithelium completely. In corneal stroma, numerous u-PA-containing inflammatory cells were present. Corneas were vascularized. When amiloride was dropped on the eye surface on the first day of irradiation and subsequently daily until the end of the experiment, u-PA activity in both cornea and tear fluid was strongly inhibited. Corneas were covered with a continuous epithelium until the end of the experiment. The number of inflammatory cells was significantly decreased. Corneal vascularization was reduced by 50%. In conclusion, early application of amiloride inhibited u-PA activity in UVB-irradiated corneas as well as in tear fluid and diminished the development of corneal pathology.

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Volume independent stimulation of renin secretion by a single dose of amiloride in man.

The regulation of renin secretion is not understood in detail. There is evidence that amiloride (CAS 17440-83-4) has a stimulatory effect on the renin secretion but it is still in question whether this is volume and/or sodium independent. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of amiloride has a direct stimulatory effect on the renin secretion in humans independent of its diuretic effect. Blood pressure, plasma renin activities and plasma aldosterone concentrations as well as serum electrolytes and serum creatinine were assessed in 11 healthy male humans over a period of 6 hours after a single dose of 20 mg of amiloride (Midamor), or placebo. Furthermore every hour urine was collected for analysis of urinary creatinine and electrolytes. To avoid a possible effect on the renin secretion via augmented diuresis induced by amiloride the urinary volume loss was replaced by 0.9% NaCl solution. There was a decrease in plasma renin activities and plasma aldosterone concentrations after amiloride and placebo administration, but the plasma renin activity after amiloride was significantly higher compared with placebo. Also the plasma aldosterone concentration was higher after amiloride compared with placebo, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Serum and urinary concentrations of sodium and potassium clearly confirmed the known potassium-saving and natriuretic effect of amiloride. Serum creatinine concentrations decreased and urinary sodium chloride concentrations increased due to the administered volume load using physiologic sodium chloride solution. The present study provides evidence that amiloride induces renin secretion by direct mechanisms in man, which might go along with augmented aldosterone secretion.

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Synthesis of the highly selective Na+/H+ exchange inhibitors cariporide mesilate and (3-methanesulfonyl-4-piperidino-benzoyl) guanidine methanesulfonate.

The syntheses of cariporide mesilate ((4-isopropyl-3-methanesulfonyl-benzoyl) guanidine methanesulfonate, HOE 642, CAS 159138-81-5), currently being clinically investigated as a protective drug in cardiac ischemia and reperfusion states, and of HOE 694 ((3-methanesulfonyl-4-piperidino-benzoyl)guanidine methanesulfonate, CAS 149725-40-6), widely used as a physiological and pharmacological research tool in studies comprising Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) inhibition, are described. Additionally, their selectivity on the different subtypes is disclosed.

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Characterization of low pH-induced catecholamine secretion in the rat adrenal medulla.

Catecholamine (CA) secretion was evoked when the isolated rat adrenal gland was perfused with HEPES-buffered Krebs solution acidified by the addition of HCl or by gassing with 95% O2/5% CO2. The secretion was detectable at pH 7.0 and increased with decreasing pH until at approximately 6.4. The low pH-induced CA secretion consisted of two phases, an initial transient response followed by a sustained phase. An intracellular Ca2+ antagonist, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl ester, selectively inhibited the initial phase of secretion. Both of the responses were resistant to nifedipine, a blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, but were completely inhibited in Ca(2+)-free (1 mM EGTA containing) solution. Adrenaline was an exclusive component in CAs released by low pH. The time course and extent of intracellular acidification caused either by low pH in the external medium or by the offset of a transitory NH4Cl application had no correlation with those of the secretory responses in the corresponding period. These results suggest that extracellular acidification preferentially activates adrenaline secretive cells to evoke CA secretion and that this low pH-induced CA secretion may be mediated by dihydropyridine-insensitive Ca2+ influx. Furthermore, the initial transient phase of the low pH-induced CA secretion might be caused by a Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, which is also induced by the Ca2+ influx.

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Interference of N-(1-[4-(4-fluorophenoxy)butyl]-piperidinyl)-N-methyl- 2-benzothiazolamine with Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/Ca2+ exchange in purified cardiac sarcolemmal membranes.

The effect of R 56865 (N-[1-[4-(4-fluorophenoxy)butyl]-piperidinyl]-N-methyl-2- benzothiazolamine, CAS 104606-13-5) on Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/Ca2+ exchange was studied in isolated cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles. R 56865 inhibited Na+/H+ exchange with an ED50 of 180 mumol/l at a concentration of 0.05 mmol/l Na+. The potency of R 56865 decreased with increasing concentrations of Na+. Na+/Ca2+ exchange was also inhibited. The ED50 amounted to 45 mumol/l. This ED50 was close to that of the reference compound dichlorobenzamil (ED50 = 27 mumol/l). The inhibitory potency of R 56865 on Na+/H+ and Na+/Ca2+ exchange is far too low to explain the already reported beneficial effects of this inhibitor of Na+ and Ca+ overload during ouabain intoxication and ischemia and reperfusion.

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