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#18555983   2008/09/08 Save this To Up

Advantages of the WRAIR whole blood cholinesterase assay: comparative analysis to the micro-Ellman, Test-mate ChE, and Michel (DeltapH) assays.

Red blood cell AChE (RBC-AChE) and plasma BChE can be used as sensitive biomarkers to detect exposure to OP nerve agents, pesticides, and cholinergic drugs. In a comparative study, RBC-AChE and serum BChE activities in whole blood was obtained from forty seven healthy male and female human volunteers, and then exposed separately ex vivo to three OP nerve agents (soman (GD), sarin (GB) and VX) to generate a wide range of inhibition of AChE and BChE activity (up to 90% of control). These samples were measured using four different ChE assays: (i) colorimetric microEllman (using DTNB at 412 nm), (ii) Test-mate ChE field kit (also based on the Ellman assay), (iii) Michel (delta pH), and (iv) the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Whole Blood (WRAIR WB) cholinesterase assay. The WRAIR assay is a modified Ellman method using DTP at 324 nm (which minimizes hemoglobin interference and improves sensitivity), and determines AChE and BChE in a small whole blood sample simultaneously. Scatter plots of RBC-AChE activities were determined using the WRAIR ChE assay versus the micro-Ellman, Test-mate and Michel after exposure to varying concentrations of soman, sarin and VX. Regression analyses yielded mostly linear relationships with high correlations (r2 = 0.83-0.93) for RBC-AChE values in the WRAIR assay compared to the alternate methods. For the plasma BChE measurements, individual human values were significantly more variable (as expected), resulting in lower correlations using WRAIR ChE versus the alternate assays (r2 values 0.5 - 0.6). To circumvent the limitations of simple correlation analysis, Bland and Altman analysis for comparing two independent measurement techniques was performed. For example, a Bland and Altman plot of the ratio of the WRAIR whole blood AChE and Michel AChE (plotted on the y-axis) vs. the average of the two methods (x-axis) shows that the majority of the individual AChE values are within +/- 1.96 S.D. of the mean difference, indicating that the two methods may be used interchangeably with a high degree of confidence. The WRAIR ChE assay can be thus be used as a reliable inter-conversion assay when comparing results from laboratory-based (Michel) and field-based (Test-mate ChE kit), which use different methodology and report in different units of AChE activity.

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#10928685   2000/11/15 Save this To Up

Acetyl- and pseudo-cholinesterase activities of plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in male beagle dogs using Ellman's assay.

Organophosphate and carbamate ester insecticides, main causes of pesticide poisoning, inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes. The aim of this study was to measure and compare baseline values for pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activities of different blood fractions in the dog to aid in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. After collecting blood samples from 23 6-24-mo-old male beagle dogs, Ellman's colorimetric assay was run on plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and whole blood fractions prepared in triplicate. The procedure described in a commercially available kit was applied to plasma and RBC. Hemolyzed whole blood fractions (final dilution 1:8) avoided the time-consuming and laborious separation of plasma and RBC. In addition to the kit substrate acetylthiocholine (ASCh), we used butyrylthiocholine (BSCh) as substrate. Whatever the substrate, ChE activity was lower in RBC than in other blood preparations. It was higher when using ASCh rather than BSCh as substrate (mean IU/L+/-SD): 563+/-144 and 303+/-45 respectively, in contrast to plasma (1640+/-310 and 2510+/-450). Whole blood enzyme activity did not differ significantly according to substrate: ASCh, 1590+/-190; BSCh, 1620+/-250) with a 2 to 3% within-day coefficient of variation. Enzyme activity was significantly lower in dogs <1-y old. This study confirms the low ChE activity in dog RBC compared to other species and other blood fractions. It shows that using whole blood instead of separating RBC from plasma minimizes the variability of ChE activity in the hemoglobin-rich fraction.

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#9169060   1997/06/19 Save this To Up

Simulated dermal contamination with capillary samples and field cholinesterase biomonitoring.

The extensive international use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) results in numerous acute intoxications each year. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The World Health Organization recognizes cholinesterase (ChE) biomonitoring as a preventive measure against OP overexposure. The aim of this study was to determine if dermal OP contamination could interfere with current field ChE biomonitoring assays, which use a fingerstick blood sample. In this study we also sought to determine if high levels of a plasma enzyme, A-esterase, could protect ChE from inhibition by hydrolyzing environmentally generated oxons potentially present in a fingerstick sample. A heparinized venous blood sample was collected from a volunteer. Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (PChE) activities were measured using a field-based colorimetric cholinesterase kit. ChE dose-response curves were constructed by allowing 10-microliters blood samples to contact environmentally realistic levels of OP thioate and oxon for 10 s. An inhibition threshold could not be established for PChE when exposed to oxon within the time necessary to perform a fingerstick analysis. AChE was also inhibited by trace amounts of oxon consistent with previously reported environmental levels. These findings suggest that the reliability of field-based biomonitoring results is limited if OP residues remain on a skin surface at the time of sample collection. A-esterase's role in protecting ChE activity was investigated using capillary and venous blood from 30 unexposed individuals. Baseline ChE activities were measured, as were individual A-esterase activities using paraoxon, diazoxon, and phenylacetate as substrates. Results were then compared to ChE activities measured after 10 s of contact with an environmentally realistic amount of OP, containing 1% oxon. Both ChE activities were significantly inhibited, with capillary values being significantly more inhibited than their venous counterparts. However, no protective effect could be associated between the degree of A-esterase activity and the subsequent level of ChE inhibition observed in an individual's blood. These results suggest that (1) if there is any uncertainty about OP skin contamination, venous blood would be a more appropriate specimen to employ when using field ChE biomonitoring kits--it is collected in larger volumes and has essentially no direct contact to dermal surfaces; and (2) A-esterase activity demonstrates no protective effect against ChE inhibition upon a blood droplet's brief contact with an OP residue containing traces of oxon.

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