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The Significance of ERG and Androgen Receptor Expression in Adenocarcinoma Prostate.

Background Fusions of transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) with erythroblast transformation specific transcription factors have been found in prostate cancer. The v-etserythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homologue (ERG) is a proto-oncogene of the erythroblast transformation specific transcription factor family. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is the most common molecular alteration present in about 50% of prostatic adenocarcinomas. Androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in prostate development and is involved in the progression of prostate cancer. Objective To evaluate the significance of combined ERG and AR expression in cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Method The study was conducted at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Formalin fixed-paraffin embedded archival prostatic tissue specimens were obtained. A total of 10 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma were included in the study. Immunohistochemistry for Androgen receptor was done by the standard protocol. Multiplex immunohistochemical staining was done for ERG+CK5 using a primary antibody cocktail of mouse and rabbit antibodies. Result Specific AR immunostaining was exclusively nuclear and was present in all 10 cases in varying intensity. Specific ERG immunostaining was nuclear and was present in seven cases (70%) and absent in three cases (30%). The three cases that were negative for ERG had a Gleason score of ≤ 6 and the AR staining was strong and present in about 90% of the cells. Gleason score was directly related to the ERG staining while AR staining was inversely related to the ERG staining. Conclusion The prognostic value of combined ERG and AR over-expression, its associated genes should be further investigated as potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer progression. Preliminary data is being presented. Larger prospective studies with survival analysis are essential for prognostic significance.

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Tumor immune microenvironment and genomic evolution in a patient with metastatic triple negative breast cancer and a complete response to atezolizumab.

Metastatic TNBC (mTNBC) has a poor prognosis and few treatment options. The anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab demonstrated clinical activity in mTNBC patients with PD-L1-positive tumor-infiltrating immune cells. The current study describes the tumor immune microenvironment (TiME) and genomic evolution across sequential therapies in a patient with a 31-year history of TNBC and a complete response (CR) to atezolizumab monotherapy.

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[Salivary gland malignancies-highlights of the 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting].

Due to their comparatively low incidence, salivary gland carcinomas have only been the subject of isolated clinical studies in recent years. In addition, surgery with/without adjuvant radiotherapy is considered standard treatment. Systemic therapies have received little attention and are only used for advanced and distantly metastasized salivary gland malignancies.

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The usefulness of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and androgen receptor in diagnosing solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas on cytopathology.

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is an uncommon tumor that is challenging to diagnose on cytology due to morphologic overlap with other pancreatic neoplasms. Recently, putative diagnostic markers for SPN have been reported in the surgical pathology literature, with nuclear positivity for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) and androgen receptor (AR) identified in >90% and >80% of cases, respectively. In the current study, the authors sought to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of LEF1 and AR on SPN cytology specimens and available corresponding surgical resection specimens.

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Androgens augment pulmonary responses to ozone in mice.

Ozone causes airway hyperresponsiveness, a defining feature of asthma, and is an asthma trigger. In mice, ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is greater in males than in females, suggesting a role for sex hormones in the response to ozone. To examine the role of androgens in these sex differences, we castrated 4-week-old mice. Controls underwent sham surgery. At 8 weeks of age, mice were exposed to ozone (2ppm, 3 h) or room air. Twenty-four hours later, mice were anesthetized and measurements of airway responsiveness to inhaled aerosolized methacholine were made. Mice were then euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. Castration attenuated ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and reduced bronchoalveolar lavage cells. In intact males, flutamide, an androgen receptor inhibitor, had similar effects to castration. Bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of several cytokines were reduced by either castration or flutamide treatment, but only IL-1α was reduced by both castration and flutamide. Furthermore, an anti-IL-1α antibody reduced bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils in intact males, although it did not alter ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Our data indicate that androgens augment pulmonary responses to ozone and that IL-1α may contribute to the effects of androgens on ozone-induced cellular inflammation but not airway hyperresponsiveness.

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Emerging Novel Therapeutics in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

The mortality from breast cancer has steadily decreased due in part to early detection and advances in therapy. The treatment options for breast cancer vary considerably depending on the histological subtype. There are a number of very effective targeted therapies available for estrogen receptor-positive disease and for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease. However, triple-negative breast cancer is a particularly aggressive subtype. This subtype represents an unmet need for improved therapies. TNBC is a heterogenous subtype of breast cancer that is beginning to be refined by its molecular characteristics and clinical response to a targeted therapeutic approach. Here we review the recent advances in the treatment of TNBC with emphasis on the many emerging novel targeted therapies.

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Investigational drugs for the treatment of cancer cachexia: a focus on phase I and phase II clinical trials.

: Cachexia is frequent in chronic diseases and especially during cancer development. Multiple definitions of cachexia have been proposed; it may be considered a multifactorial complex syndrome that presents with progressive unintentional weight loss and wasting of muscle mass and adipose tissue. : This article covers phase-I and phase-II clinical trials of investigational drugs for cancer cachexia. We performed a search on PubMed with keywords as cancer cachexia, phase-I/phase-II trial, drug, identifying articles relevant to this review. Studies were conducted using compounds, including anabolic agents such as ghrelin analogs, selective androgen receptor modulators, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs such as thalidomide, OHR, anti-interleukin antibody, cannabinoids, and omega-3 supplements. We also describe the mechanisms of action of these molecules and their phase-I and phase-II study design. The major outcomes were appetite stimulation, weight gain, improvement of muscle mass and function, modulation of inflammation, and quality of life. : The molecules discussed act on molecular pathways involved in cancer cachexia; they modulate appetite, anabolic effects, inflammation and direct interaction with muscle. Considering the multifactorial aspects of the cachexia syndrome, the combination of these drugs with metabolic and nutritional interventions may represent the most promising therapeutic approach to cancer cachexia.

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Prognostic Role of Androgen Receptor in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Study.

The androgen receptor (AR) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, conflicting reports regarding AR's prognostic role in TNBC are putting its usefulness in question. Some studies conclude that AR positivity indicates a good prognosis in TNBC, whereas others suggest the opposite, and some show that AR status has no significant bearing on the patients' prognosis.

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Phenotypic Profiling of Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Using Nanoparticle-Mediated Ranking.

The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provides a means to collect information about the evolving properties of a tumor during cancer progression and treatment. For patients with metastatic prostate cancer, noninvasive serial measurements of bloodborne cells may provide a means to tailor therapeutic decisions based on an individual patient's response. Here, we used a high-sensitivity profiling approach to monitor CTCs in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) undergoing treatment with abiraterone and enzalutamide, two drugs used to treat advanced prostate cancer. The capture and profiling approach uses antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles to sort cells according to protein expression levels. CTCs are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to an antibody specific for the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and sorted into four zones of a microfluidic device based on EpCAM expression levels. Our approach was compared to the FDA-cleared CellSearch method, and we demonstrate significantly higher capture efficiency of low-EpCAM cells compared to the commercial method. The nanoparticle-based approach detected CTCs from 86% of patients at baseline, compared to CellSearch which only detected CTCs from 60% of patients. Patients were stratified as prostate specific antigen (PSA) progressive versus responsive based on clinically acceptable definitions, and it was observed that patients with a limited response to therapy had elevated levels of androgen receptor variant 7 (ARV7) and the mesenchymal marker, N-cadherin, expressed on their CTCs. In addition, these CTCs exhibited lower EpCAM expression. The results highlight features of CTCs associated with disease progression on abiraterone or enzalutamide, including mesenchymal phenotypes and increased expression levels of ARV7. The use of a high-sensitivity method to capture and profile CTCs provides more informative data concerning the phenotypic properties of these cells as patients undergo treatment relative to an FDA-cleared method.

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Dihydrotestosterone Increases Cytotoxic Activity of Macrophages on Prostate Cancer Cells via TRAIL.

Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and immunotherapy are potential treatment options in men with metastatic prostate cancer (CaP), androgen has conventionally been proposed to be a suppressor of the immune response. However, we herein report that DHT activates macrophages. When the murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human monocyte cell line (THP-1), and human peripheral blood monocytes were cultured with androgen-resistant CaP cell lines, DHT increased cytotoxicity of macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that DHT induced M1 polarization and increased the expression levels of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in macrophages and that this effect was abrogated when TRAIL was neutralized with a blocking antibody or small interfering RNA. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that induction of TRAIL expression was regulated by direct binding of androgen receptor to the TRAIL promoter region. Finally, an in vivo mouse study demonstrated that castration enhanced the growth of an androgen-resistant murine CaP tumor and that this protumorigenic effect of castration was blocked when macrophages were removed with clodronate liposomes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that DHT activates the cytotoxic activity of macrophages and suggest that immunotherapy may not be optimal when combined with ADT in CaP.

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