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Acute and chronic effects of gold nanoparticles on sperm parameters and chromatin structure in Mice.

The particles in the range of 1-100 nm are called nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle is one of the most important metal nanoparticles with wide usage.

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Effects of acrylamide on sperm parameters, chromatin quality, and the level of blood testosterone in mice.

Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical primarily. AA is also found in carbohydrate-rich foods that are prepared at high temperatures, such as French fries and potato chips. It is demonstrated that AA is a carcinogen and reproductive toxin and has ability to induce sperm damage.

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Breaking of plant stomatal one-cell-spacing rule by sugar solution immersion.

The spatial distribution of plant stomata is a model system to study epidermal cell pattern formation. Molecular genetic approaches have identified several key genes required for stomatal distribution patterning, but environmental conditions that perturb the stomatal spacing distribution have not yet been identified. We found that immersing hydroponic cultures in 1-5% sucrose solution induced abnormally clustered stomata in the cotyledons of Arabidopsis seedlings. Clustered stomata were also induced by treatment with glucose or fructose solution but not by mannitol solution, suggesting that osmotic stress was not a cause of the disturbed stomatal patterns. Stomatal lineage cell-specific enhancer trap lines revealed that the sugar solution treatment led to ectopic expression of stomatal lineage cell-specific genes in non-stomatal lineage cells. Aniline blue staining also showed that there was reduced deposition of callose, a plant cell wall component, in new cell walls during formation of stomatal precursor cells (meristemoids). These results suggested that the immersion treatment with sugar solution permitted ectopic guard cell differentiation through dysfunction of the cell wall dividing stomatal- and non-stomatal lineage cells. Our simple induction system for clustered stomata provides a suitable tool for further studies to investigate the one-cell-spacing rule during plant stomatal development.

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Structure and properties of β-cyclodextrin/cellulose hydrogels prepared in NaOH/urea aqueous solution.

β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD)/cellulose hydrogels were prepared in NaOH/urea aqueous solution by crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. The structure and morphology of the hydrogels were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling test, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and aniline blue (AnB) were used to investigate the swelling capability, drug release behavior and the fluorescent property of the hydrogels. The results indicated that the swelling degree and water uptake of the hydrogels decreased with an increase of the β-CD content. The in vitro release of 5-FU and BSA of the hydrogels showed an inclusion complex formed between 5-FU and β-CD. β-CD/cellulose hydrogels adsorbed AnB lead to a fluorescence enhancement attributing to the formation of the host-guest complex between β-CD and AnB.

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A new fluorescent staining method for callose of microspore mother cells during meiosis.

To observe the dynamic behavior of callose of microspore mother cells during meiosis, we developed a convenient, rapid and efficient staining method using an improved carbol fuchsin/aniline blue solution. The stained microspore mother cells during meiosis showed yellowish green callose, red cytoplasm and dark red chromosomes when excited with blue light, which produced a contrasting image with a three-dimensional effect. When stained with only improved carbol fuchsin solution, the cells had red cytoplasm and chromosomes when excited with green light. The improved carbol fuchsin solution can be used to replace other more expensive DNA-specific dyes, such as DAPI and H33258, to reduce experimental costs.

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Prevention of di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate-induced Testicular Disturbance in Mice by Co-administration of L-carnitine.

di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used in the plastic industry and can induce reproductive toxicity. On the other hand, L-carnitine (LC) plays a crucial role in sperm metabolism and maturation. This study evaluates the effect of LC on body and testis weight, testis tissue, count, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, testicular spermatid number (TSN) per gram testis and daily sperm production (DSP) in LC-treated mice.

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Evaluation of snail shell as a coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of aniline blue from aqueous solution.

The present studies aimed to evaluate the potential of snail shell (SS) as a coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of aniline blue (AB), an acid dye, from an aqueous system. The proximate physico-chemical characteristics of the SS were determined, and the results obtained showed that the pH(solution) was 8.01, the SS was made up of a high fraction of inorganic constituents (ash content of 93.76%), Ca2+ was present as the major metal ion (99.74%), and the point of zero charge (PZC) was found to be at pH 7.9. The mineralogical assemblage was studied using an X-ray diffractometer, and the results obtained revealed the presence of aragonite. The stability and leaching of the SS, tested in different aqueous media (acidic, basic and neutral solutions) showed that the SS was less stable in the acidic medium. Both alum and SS were used, differently, for dye precipitation. The use of alum alone showed no precipitating effect on the AB dye molecules, whereas SS alone was able to reduce the dye concentration considerably. When the SS was used as a coagulant aid in alum precipitation, the percentage of the AB dye molecule removed increased. The effects of some process variables (coagulant/coagulant aid dosage, pH and flocculation time) were optimized by the method of continuous variation. The results obtained showed that an appreciable amount of the AB dye molecules was abstracted across the pH range, but the highest value was achieved at the lowest pH values. Studies on the effect of time on the flocculation of the precipitated AB molecule showed that the problem of redispersion and restabilization encountered in alum precipitation could be overcome using an alum-SS combination. The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained from the use of SS alone and an alum-SS combination were studied by measuring the sludge volume index (SVI, mg/g) over time. The value of the SVI showed that the sludge produced from the alum-SS combination had better settling characteristics than the sludge from the use of SS alone. Subsequent to the results obtained from the present studies, the use of the SS as a coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of the anionic dye as a unit process tertiary method of treatment in a suspended-growth wastewater treatment system was proposed.

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Aniline Blue Solution Aniline Blue Solution Aniline Blue Solution Astra Blue Solution Astra Blue Solution Trypan Blue, sodium salt Aniline Blue - Orange G Aniline Blue - Orange G Alcian Blue Solution, pH Alcian Blue Solution, pH Alcian Blue Solution, pH Alcian Blue Solution, pH

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Marking live conifer pollen for long-distance dispersal experiments.

Study of long-distance dispersal (LDD) theory requires a method for marking live LDD pollen. Such a method must complement the more intensive sampling methods involving molecular cytogenetics, proteomics, and genomics. We have developed a new method for marking live Pinus taeda pollen using two dyes, rhodamine 123 and aniline blue, dissolved in a sucrose solution. Marked and unmarked pollen were compared with respect to in vitro germination, storage, terminal velocity and in vivo pollen-tube penetration of ovules. We found that: (1) both types of marked pollen retained their capacity for germination, (2) both types of marked pollen had similar aerodynamic properties as unmarked pollen controls, (3) marked pollen retained its germination capacity for 48 h, and (4) of the marked pollen, only the aniline-marked pollen penetrated ovules during pollination. Germination declined rapidly for both types of marked pollen after 48 h and before 37 days at -20°C storage, while the unmarked pollen lots retained 93% germination at all stages. Our method for marking live P. taeda pollen is feasible for tracing LDD pollen if released and deposited within 48 h of dye treatment.

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Marking live conifer pollen for long-distance dispersal experiments.

Long-distance dispersal (LDD) theory requires a method for marking live LDD pollen. Such a method must complement more intensive sampling methods inclusive of molecular cytogenetics, proteomics and genomics. We developed a new method for marking live Pinus taeda pollen using two dyes, rhodamine 123 and aniline blue, dissolved in a sucrose solution. Marked and unmarked pollen were compared with respect to in vitro germination, storage, terminal velocity, and in vivo pollen tube penetration of ovules. We found that: (1) both types of marked pollen retained their capacity for germination, (2) both types of marked pollen had similar aerodynamic properties when compared to unmarked pollen controls, (3) marked pollen retained its germination capacity for 48 h, and (4) of the marked pollen, only the aniline-marked pollen penetrated ovules during pollination. Germination declined rapidly for both types of marked pollen after 48 h and before 37 days at -20°C storage, while unmarked pollen lots retained 93% germination at all stages. This method for marking live P. taeda pollen is feasible for tracing LDD pollen only if released and deposited within 48 h of dye treatment.

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Primary antibody FLIP An Isopeptidase T (long form MarkerGene™ LysoLive™ Anti- ADAM-12 (A Disintig Anti ADAM 12 (A Disintigr Anti-ADAMTS-13 (A Disinti Anti-BMP-1 (Bone Morphoge Cellufine Formyl , 50 ml Cellufine Formyl Media Cellufine Formyl , 500 ml Cellufine Formyl Media Cellufine Formyl Media

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Circular dichroism tensor of a triarylmethyl propeller in sodium chlorate crystals.

In 1919, Perucca reported anomalous optical rotatory dispersion from chiral NaClO(3) crystals that were colored by having been grown from a solution containing an equilibrium racemic mixture of a triarylmethane dye (Perucca, E. Nuovo Cimento 1919, 18, 112-154). Perucca's chiroptical observations are apparently consistent with a resolution of the propeller-shaped dye molecules by NaClO(3) crystals. This implies that Perucca achieved the first enantioselective adsorption of a racemic mixture on an inorganic crystal, providing evidence of the resolution of a triarylmethyl propeller compound lacking bulky ortho substituents. Following the earlier report, NaClO(3) crystals dyed with aniline blue are described herein. The rich linear optical properties of (001), (110), and (111) sections of these mixed crystals are described via their absorbance spectra in polarized light as well as images related to linear dichroism, linear birefringence, circular dichroism, and anomalous circular extinction. The linear dichroism fixes the transition electric dipole moments in the aromatic plane with respect to the growth faces of the NaClO(3) cubes. Likewise, circular dichroism measurements of four orientations of aniline blue in NaClO(3) fix a bisignate tensor with respect to the crystal growth faces. Electronic transition moments and circular dichroism tensors were computed ab initio for aniline blue. These calculations, in conjunction with the crystal-optical properties, establish a consistent mixed-crystal model. The nature of the circular extinction depends upon the crystallographic direction along which the crystals are examined. Along 100, the crystals evidence circular dichroism. Along 110, the crystals evidence mainly anomalous circular extinction. These two properties, while measured by the differential transmission of left and right circularly polarized light, are easily distinguished in their transformation properties with respect to reorientations of the sample plates. Circular dichroism is symmetric with respect to the wave vector, whereas anomalous circular extinction is antisymmetric. Analysis of Perucca's raw data reveals that he was observing a convolution of linear and circular optical properties. The relatively large circular dichroism should in principle establish the absolute configuration of the propeller-shaped molecules associated with d- or l-NaClO(3) crystals. However, this determination was not as straightforward as it appeared at the outset. In the solid state, unlike in solution, a strong chiroptical response is not in and of itself evidence of enantiomeric resolution. It is shown how it is possible to have a poor resolution-even an equal population of P and M propellers-within a given chiral NaClO(3) crystal and still have a large circular dichroism.

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