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#21598295   2011/07/08 Save this To Up

Cytotoxic property of surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes on a human breast cancer cell line.

The cancer chemotherapeutic potential of surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes, cis-[Co(bpy)(2)(C(14)H(29)NH(2))Cl](ClO(4))(2)·3 H(2)O (1) and cis-[Co(phen)(2)(C(14)H(29)NH(2))Cl](ClO(4))(2)·3 H(2)O (2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) on MCF-7 breast cancer cell was determined adopting MTT assay and specific staining techniques. The complexes affected the viability of the cells significantly and the cells succumbed to apoptosis as seen in the changes in the nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic features. Since the complex 2 appeared to be more potent, further assays were carried out on the complex 2. Single-cell electrophoresis indicated DNA damage. The translocation of phosphatidyl serine and loss of mitochondrial potential was revealed by annexin V-Cy3 staining and JC-1 staining respectively. Western blot analysis revealed up-regulation of pro-apoptotic p53 and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, the surfactant-cobalt(III) complex 2 would be a potential candidate for further investigation for application as a chemotherapeutic for cancers in general and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in particular.

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#18783196   2008/09/26 Save this To Up

A correlated force-optical study on the self-assembly behavior of annexin V on model membranes: effect of dye conjugation.

We have examined the self-assembled membrane-bound aggregates of two annexin V (A5) dye conjugates and compared them to those from native A5. Native A5 and FITC-labeled A5 (A5-FITC) both formed discrete well-defined crystalline monolayer domains of p6 symmetry. However, A5-FITC also showed additional domains with a corrugated appearance not observed in native A5. In contrast, Cy3-labeled A5 (A5-Cy3) showed a mixture of crystalline monolayer and irregular multilayered domains, with the ratio of the two types varying significantly from sample to sample, and also required a much longer incubation time than native A5 and A5-FITC. When A5-FITC and A5-Cy3 were co-incubated on the same bilayer, well-defined crystalline monolayer domains containing both A5-FITC and A5-Cy3 were consistently observed at a much shorter incubation time than that of pure A5-Cy3 alone, indicating that A5-FITC facilitates the inclusion of A5-Cy3. These results suggest that dye labels can affect A5 2D self-assembly and crystal formation on membrane surfaces.

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#17988954   2007/12/10 Save this To Up

Rhodamine B isothiocyanate doped silica-coated fluorescent nanoparticles (RBITC-DSFNPs)-based bioprobes conjugated to Annexin V for apoptosis detection and imaging.

We report here a novel bioprobe based on Rhodamine B isothiocyanate doped silica-coated fluorescent nanoparticles (RBITC-DSFNPs) for early-stage apoptosis detection and imaging. RBITC-DSFNPs were constructed by synchronous hydrolysis of APTES-RBITC and tetraethoxysilane in water-in-oil microemulsion, and the bioprobes were prepared through modifying Annexin V with RBITC-DSFNPs. The characterization of RBITC-DSFNPs and the bioprobes' application for apoptosis detection and imaging were investigated. It was demonstrated that RBITC-DSFNPs are uniform and possess excellent photostability. The bioprobes could specifically recognize early-stage apoptotic cells through the binding between Annexin V and phosphatidylserine (the externalization of which from the inner to the outer membrane is an early and major event in the apoptotic process) on the outer membrane of apoptotic cells. Moreover, the RBITC-DSFNPs labeling method was also used to monitor the increase of the number of early-stage apoptotic cells along with the extended induction time. Compared with the conventional fluorochrome such as Cy3-labeled Annexin V for staining apoptotic cells, the RBITC-DSFNPs labeling method possesses much better photostability, which offers a promising approach for tumor-related research.

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#15010549   2004/03/10 Save this To Up

Monitoring apoptosis with fluorescent Zn2+-indicators.

Apoptosis, a mechanism of programmed cell death that removes superfluous and harmful cells, is important both during development and in tissue homeostasis. Although Zn2+ is believed to be critical in apoptosis, the precise details of its role have yet to be elucidated. The macrocyclic Zn2+ ligand dansylamidoethylcyclen [L1*(HCl)4*(H2O)2], which is found primarily in a diprotonated form (H2L1), is cell-permeable and forms a strongly fluorescent 1:1 Zn2+ complex when Zn2+ entry into cells is facilitated by the Zn2+ ionophore pyrithione. H2L1 can be used to readily identify HeLa cells undergoing the early stages of etoposide-induced apoptosis because of the increased level of free Zn2+ that occurs at this time. The selectivity of H2L1 for the detection of apoptotic cells was verified by a conventional probe for apoptosis, annexin V-Cy3. Here, we describe methods for detecting apoptotic cells with H2L1 and for comparing detection of apoptosis with H2L1 to detection with annexin V-Cy3 and Zinquin.

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#12646703   2003/04/02 Save this To Up

A macrocyclic zinc(II) fluorophore as a detector of apoptosis.

Our originally designed dansylamidoethylcyclen 4 as a biomimetic Zn(2+)-selective fluorophore has been demonstrated to be a good detector of the apoptosis (induced by an anticancer agent, etoposide, and H(2)O(2)) in cancer cells such as HeLa and HL60 cells. The macrocyclic Zn(2+) ligand 4 (mostly as a deprotonated form) is cell-permeable to show weak fluorescence (emission at 550 nm), which forms a strong fluorescent 1:1 Zn(2+) complex 5 (emission at 530 nm) when Zn(2+) is incorporated into the cells by a zinc(II) ionophore pyrithione. Thus formed, Zn(2+) complex 5 is cell-impermeable and remains intact over a few hours. When apoptosis in HeLa or HL60 cells is artificially induced, 4 selectively and strongly stains apoptotic cells only at early stages, which was verified by using the conventional apoptosis detection probe annexin V-Cy3. Detection of the apoptotic cells by 4 was perhaps due to significantly increased free Zn(2+) flux at early stages of apoptosis. Apoptotic detection by 4 has been compared with a presently available Zn(2+) fluorophore, Zinquin 1. We present that 4 has advantages in detection of apoptosis over annexin V-Cy3 and Zinquin 1.

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#12417061   2002/11/05 Save this To Up

Selective protection by phosphatidic acid against staurosporine-induced neuronal apoptosis.

Phosphatidic acid, the main product of lipid breakdown through phospholipase D activation, has been implicated in important signal transduction pathways able to influence cell fate in many ways. The purpose of this work was to determine possible effects of phosphatidic acid on neuronal cell death pathways. Here we used cerebellar granular cell cultures and cell death was triggered with either staurosporine or H(2)O(2). Cell viability was quantified by spectrophotometry, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Staurosporine (1-3 microM) or H(2)O(2) (50-800 microM) induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Using fluorescent staining (propidium iodide or annexin V-Cy3/6-carboxyfluorescein) we showed that cell death was mostly apoptotic in staurosporine treated cells and mostly non-apoptotic (necrotic) in H(2)O(2) treated cells. Phosphatidic acid was able to increase cell viability in staurosporine-, but not in H(2)O(2) - treated cells. We therefore conclude that phosphatidic acid has neuroprotective potential in neurons exposed to stimuli that trigger apoptosis.

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#12193653   2002/09/04 Save this To Up

1-Cys peroxiredoxin overexpression protects cells against phospholipid peroxidation-mediated membrane damage.

1-Cys peroxiredoxin (1-cysPrx) is a novel antioxidant enzyme able to reduce phospholipid hydroperoxides in vitro by using glutathione as a reductant. This enzyme is widely expressed and is enriched in lungs. A fusion protein of green fluorescent protein with 1-cysPrx was stably expressed in a lung-derived cell line (NCI-H441) lacking endogenous enzyme. Overexpressing cells (C17 or C48) degraded H(2)O(2) and t-butylhydroperoxide more rapidly and showed decreased sensitivity to oxidant stress as measured by (51)Cr release. On exposure to (*)OH generated by Cu(2+)-ascorbate (Asc), overexpressing cells compared with H441 showed less increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide content. This effect was reversed by depletion of cellular glutathione. Diphenyl-1-pyrenoylphosphonium fluorescence, used as a real-time probe of membrane phospholipid peroxidation, increased immediately on exposure to Cu(2+)-Asc and was abolished by preincubation of cells with Trolox (a soluble vitamin E) or Tempol (a radical scavenger). The rate of diphenyl-1-pyrenoylphosphonium fluorescence increase with Cu(2+)-Asc exposure was markedly attenuated in C17 and C48 cells as compared with H441. Annexin V-Cy3 was used to detect phosphatidylserine translocation from the inner to outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Cu(2+)-Asc treatment induced phosphatidylserine translocation within 2 h in H441 cells but none was observed in C48 cells up to 24 h. These results indicate that 1-cysPrx can scavenge peroxides but in addition can reduce peroxidized membrane phospholipids. Thus, the enzyme can protect cells against oxidant-induced plasma membrane damage, thereby playing an important role in cellular defense against oxidant stress.

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#11020512   2000/11/29 Save this To Up

Semen treatment with progesterone and/or acetyl-L-carnitine does not improve sperm motility or membrane damage after cryopreservation-thawing.

To assess the effects of progesterone and acetyl-L-carnitine used before semen cryopreservation-thawing on sperm motility parameters and plasma membrane integrity.

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