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#27456215   2016/07/26 Save this To Up

Biocompatibility of a Self-Assembled Crosslinkable Hyaluronic Acid Nanogel.

Hyaluronic acid nanogel (HyA-AT) is a redox sensitive crosslinkable nanogel, obtained through the conjugation of a thiolated hydrophobic molecule to the hyaluronic acid chain. Engineered nanogel was studied for its biocompatibility, including immunocompatibility and hemocompatability. The nanogel did not compromise the metabolic activity or cellular membrane integrity of 3T3, microvascular endothelial cells, and RAW 264.7 cell lines, as determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Also, we didn't observe any apoptotic effect on these cell lines through the Annexin V-FITC test. Furthermore, the nanogel cell internalization was analyzed using murine bone marrow derived macrophages, and the in vivo and ex vivo biodistribution of the Cy5.5 labeled nanogel was monitored using a non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. The HyA-AT nanogel exhibits fairly a long half-live in the blood stream, thus showing potential for drug delivery applications.

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#18835236   2008/11/25 Save this To Up

A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for phosphatidylserine exposure on apoptotic cells.

A simple, "mix-and-measure" microplate assay for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of apoptotic cells is described. The assay exploits the fact that annexin V, a protein with high affinity and specificity for PtdSer, forms trimers and higher order oligomers on binding to membranes containing PtdSer. The transition from soluble monomer to cell-bound oligomer is detected using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer from europium chelate-labeled annexin V to Cy5-labeled annexin V. PtdSer detection is achieved by a single addition of a reagent mix containing labeled annexins and calcium ions directly to cell cultures in a 96-well plate, followed by a brief incubation before fluorescence measurement. The assay can be used to quantify PtdSer exposure on both suspension cells and adherent cells in situ. This method is simpler and faster than existing annexin V binding assays based on flow cytometry or microscopy, and it yields precise data with Z' values of 0.6-0.7.

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#17549267   2007/06/05 Save this To Up

Photobiological and thermal effects of photoactivating UVA light doses on cell cultures.

While near-ultraviolet light has been widely used to photoactivate fluorophores and caged compounds in cells, little is known of the long-term biological effects of this light. UVA (315-400 nm) photoactivating light has been well characterized in short-term cell studies and is now being employed in higher doses to control longer-duration phenomena (e.g. gene expression). Annexin V-Cy5/propidium iodide apoptosis flow cytometry assays were used to determine responses of HeLa cells to doses of UVA light up to 23.85 J cm(-2). Cells seeded at low densities had higher percentages of apoptosis and necrosis and were also more susceptible to UVA damage than cells seeded at higher densities. The dose to induce apoptosis and death in 50% of the cells (dose(1/2)) was determined for two different commercially available UVA light sources: 7.6 J cm(-2) for the GreenSpot photocuring system and 2.52 J cm(-2) for the BlakRay lamp. All BlakRay doses tested had significant cellular responses, whereas no significant cellular responses were found for doses below 1.6 J cm(-2) from the GreenSpot light source. A temperature control and measurement system was used to determine direct heating from the UVA sources and also the effect that cooling cell cultures during photoexposure has on minimizing cell damage. Cooling during the BlakRay photoexposure significantly reduced the percentage of necrotic cells, but there was no significant difference for cooling during photoactivation with the GreenSpot. Differences in cell responses to similar UVA doses of different intensities suggest that photoduration should be considered along with total dose and thermal conditions in photoactivation studies.

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#16705697   2006/05/22 Save this To Up

Apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents involves c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in sarcoma cell lines.

Molecular mechanisms underlying chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis in sarcoma cells are not well known. Induction of apoptosis is regulated by several components including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) comprising ERK, p38MAPKs, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In the present study, we examined whether activation of JNK is induced by the chemotherapeutic agents cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) or doxorubicin (DXR), and whether the ectopic expression of constitutively active (MKK7-JNK1) or dominant-negative form of JNK (dnJNK) influenced apoptosis in response to the CDDP or DXR in sarcoma cell lines MG-63 and SaOS-2. The CDDP or DXR induced JNK activation in the both cell lines, as assessed by Western blotting using phosphospecific antibodies. A transient expression of the activated form of JNK sensitized the MG-63 and SaOS-2 cells to the drug-induced apoptosis, while dnJNK1 reduced the proportion of apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using annexin-V Cy5. Collectively, our results indicate that JNK activation is involved in apoptotic cell death in sarcoma cell lines following stimulation with CDDP or DXR.

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#16627976   2006/06/08 Save this To Up

Selenomethionine induces p53 mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

While there is an increasing interest in selenium chemoprevention against human colon polyp recurrence and other cancers, the mechanism(s) by which these agents inhibit carcinogenesis are uncertain. Some of the proposed mechanisms include the inhibition of cytosine methyltransferases, carcinogen bioactivation, and inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). More recently, it has been suggested that selenium may exert growth inhibitory effects by activating p53. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of selenomethionine, an organoselenium compound present in selenized yeast and currently being investigated in human clinical trials for colon polyp prevention, are unclear. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that selenomethionine might affect colon cancer cell growth by p53 mediated apoptosis and/or cell cycle regulation. Four human colon cancer cell lines including HCT116 and RKO (wild type p53), HCT116-p53KO (isogenic control of HCT116 cells with p53 knocked out) and Caco-2 (mutant p53) were treated with 0-100 microM of selenomethionine for 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell viability rates were determined by the MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and apoptosis measured by Annexin V-Cy5 staining. Expression of p53 protein was determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. All cell lines showed concentration and time dependent growth inhibition with selenomethionine, although HCT116 and RKO cells were the most sensitive to such treatments. Interestingly, although HCT116 and HCT116-p53KO are isogenic cell lines, selenomethionine caused a G2/M cell cycle arrest in HCT116 and RKO cells, but not in HCT116-p53KO cells. Similarly, both HCT116 and RKO demonstrated a significant increase in apoptosis (100-170%; p < 0.01) with 50-100 microM selenomethionine. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis observed in HCT116 and RKO cell lines were accompanied by a marked increase in p53 protein expression following selenium treatment. These results clearly suggest that selenomethionine exerts p53 dependent growth inhibitory effects in colon cancer cells by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis.

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