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#28443471   2017/04/26 Save this To Up

Suppressing the molecular signaling pathways involved in inflammation and cancer in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 by miR-590.

Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women worldwide. Tumor immunology suggests relationships between the immune system, chronic inflammation, and cancer. The immune system may either prevent or promote carcinogenesis. Here, we evaluated molecular signaling pathways common in inflammation and cancer and detected the microRNAs which play pivotal roles in mediating these pathways. Using bioinformatics assays, signaling pathways common in inflammation and cancer, and microRNAs mediating these pathways were identified. MiR-590 was selected and cloned into the pLenti-III-eGFP vector and transfected into the breast cancer cell lines. The expression level of microRNA and the candidate genes was evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the apoptosis level in transfected cells was measured by Annexin V-7AAD assay. The cell migration was tested by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for MMP2/MMP9. The expression levels of miR-590 and the selected genes (i.e. JAK2, PI3K, MAPK1, and CREB) were measured 72 h after transfection. While miR-590 showed an over-expression, the genes were significantly down-regulated. A significant increase was observed in apoptosis level in both cell lines and MMP2/MMP9 was significantly decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells. MiR-590 was selected as a microRNA which triggers and down-regulates critical genes of signaling pathways similar in cancer and inflammation. Following the miR-590 treatment, JAK2, PI3K, MAPK1, and CREB were down-regulated and the apoptosis level was increased in breast cancer cell lines. Apparently, some microRNAs can be good candidates for novel treatments of cancer. Although miR-590 showed good results in this study, further studies are required to investigate the role of miR-590 in breast cancer therapy.

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#26351076   2015/09/09 Save this To Up

STAT1 modification improves therapeutic effects of interferons on lung cancer cells.

Interferons (IFNs) have potent anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and immunomodulatory activities against cancer. However, the clinical utility of IFNs is limited by toxicity and pharmacokinetics making it difficult to achieve sustained therapeutic levels especially in solid tumors.

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#24714752   2014/05/14 Save this To Up

Potent anti-tumour activity of a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus for melanoma via inhibition of migration and invasion.

Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) represent a novel class of oncological therapeutic agents. One strategy to ensure tumour targeting is to place the essential viral genes under the control of tumour-specific promoters. Ki67 has been selected as a cancer gene therapy target, as it is expressed in most malignant cells but is barely detectable in most normal cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a Ki67 promoter-controlled CRAd (Ki67-ZD55-IL-24) on the proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cells.

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#24211075   2013/12/02 Save this To Up

A cationic cholesterol based nanocarrier for the delivery of p53-EGFP-C3 plasmid to cancer cells.

The p53 protein mediated anti-tumor strategy is limited due to the lack of suitable delivery agent with insignificant immunogenic response, serum compatibility, and early and easy detection of the transfected cell population. To overcome these problems, we generated a p53-EGFP-C3 fusion construct which expressed easily detectable green fluorescence protein (GFP) and allowed an estimation of p53 mediated anti-tumor activity. A mixture of cationic cholesterol gemini (Chol-5L) with natural lipid, DOPE (molar ratio 1:4), acronymed as Chol-5LD, formed a nano-liposome as characterized by various physical methods. The prepared clone was evaluated for the expression of GFP and functional p53 in HeLa and two additional cell lines with varied p53 status namely, H1299 (p53(-/-)) and HEK293T (p53(+/+)). Transfected cells were screened using RT-PCR, Western blotting, FACS analysis, MTT, Trypan blue assay and visualized under a fluorescence microscope. The p53-EGFP-C3 fusion protein induced apoptosis in cancer cells as evident from DNA fragmentation, cell cycle analysis, Annexin-V staining and PARP cleavage assays. The transfection and apoptosis induction efficiency of Chol-5LD was significantly higher than commercial reagents Lipofectamine2000 and Effectene irrespective of the cell lines examined. Further it significantly decreases the xenograft tumor volume in nude mice tumors via apoptosis as observed in H&E staining.

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#23822984   2016/05/25 Save this To Up

Multiple Modes of Cell Death Discovered in a Prokaryotic (Cyanobacterial) Endosymbiont.

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20%) of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays), together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining), showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20) further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom.

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#23812758   2013/07/25 Save this To Up

Protective effect of Bajijiasu against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is also directly neurotoxic. Mitigation of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is thus a possible therapeutic approach to delay or prevent onset and progression of AD. This study evaluated the protective effect of Bajijiasu (β- D-fructofuranosyl (2-2) β- D-fructofuranosyl), a dimeric fructose isolated from the Chinese herb Radix Morinda officinalis, on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Bajijiasu alone had no endogenous neurotoxicity up to 200 μM. Brief pretreatment with 10-40 μM Bajijiasu (2 h) significantly reversed the reduction in cell viability induced by subsequent 24 h exposure to Aβ25-35 (21 μM) as measured by MTT and LDH assays, and reduced Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis as indicated by reduced annexin V-EGFP staining. Bajijiasu also decreased the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in PC12 cells, upregulated expression of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm), and blocked Aβ25-35-induced increases in [Ca(2+)] i . Furthermore, Bajijiasu reversed Aβ25-35-induced changes in the expression levels of p21, CDK4, E2F1, Bax, NF-κB p65, and caspase-3. Bajijiasu is neuroprotective against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, likely by protecting against oxidative stress and ensuing apoptosis.

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#23702031   2013/07/22 Save this To Up

LukS-PV induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in human acute myeloid leukemia THP-1 cells.

The S component (LukS-PV) is one of the two components of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which is a pore-forming cytotoxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, with the ability to lyse leukocytes. In this study, LukS-PV had the ability to induce apoptosis in the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line THP-1. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms of LukS-PV-induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells. THP-1 cells treated with LukS-PV, resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induced G0/G1 arrest associated with an inhibition of cell cycle arrest regulatory protein (cyclin D1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as measured by flow cytometry (FCM). After 12h exposure to LukS-PV (1.00 μM), annexin V-EGFP/propidium iodide (PI) FCM revealed that 19.5±3.6% of THP-1 cells were apoptotic, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining also revealed THP-1 cells were apoptotic. Chip analysis of 84 apoptosis-related genes demonstrated that 9 genes were up-regulated at least 2-fold and that 5 genes were down-regulated at least 2-fold in the treatment group when compared with levels in the control group. Western blotting reveled that the expression of caspase-8 increased significantly (approximately 4-fold). The levels of caspase-9, -3 and Bax increased significantly, and levels of Bcl-2 decreased rapidly with LukS-PV treatment. These data suggest that LukS-PV acts as an anti-leukemia agent and activates AML cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, LukS-PV may be a multi-targeting drug candidate for the prevention and therapy of AML.

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#23047106   2012/10/23 Save this To Up

Establishment of tetracycline-inducible, survivin-expressing CHO cell lines by an optimized screening method.

An optimized method based on tetracycline-inducible gene expression system T-REx was developed to screen and evaluate Tet repressor (TetR)-expressing cell lines using enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) as reporter gene. To verify the effectiveness of the method, two TetR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, CHO-TR B2 (stringent) and B5 (less stringent), in which the EGFP genes were variantly controlled by tetracycline, were used to construct cell lines expressing the anti-apoptosis gene survivin upon induction with tetracycline. The resulting stable clones were analyzed for survivin expression. The analysis showed that all four B5-derived clones exhibited leaky survivin expression in the absence of tetracycline, while the B2-derived clones did not. DNA laddering and annexin V/PI staining assays further indicated that although tetracycline-inducible expression of survivin conferred resistance to NH₄Cl- and staurosporine-induced apoptosis in both the B2- and the B5-derived stable cell lines, the B2-derived cell lines showed more stringent regulation in the absence of tetracycline. This represents successful utilization of the present screening method.

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#22380534   2012/05/07 Save this To Up

Direct induction of apoptosis using an optimal mitochondrially targeted p53.

Targeting the tumor suppressor p53 to the mitochondria triggers a rapid apoptotic response as efficiently as transcription-dependent p53. (1, 2) p53 forms a complex with the antiapoptotic Bcl-XL, which leads to Bak and Bax oligomerization resulting in apoptosis via mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. (3, 4) Although p53 performs its main role in the mitochondrial outer membrane, it also interacts with different proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix. (5, 6) To further investigate mitochondrial activity of p53, EGFP-p53 was fused to different mitochondrial targeting signals (MTSs) directing it to the mitochondrial outer membrane ("XL-MTS" from Bcl-XL; "TOM-MTS" from TOM20), the inner membrane ("CCO-MTS" from cytochrome c oxidase), or matrix ("OTC-MTS" from ornithine transcarbamylase). Fluorescence microscopy and a p53 reporter dual luciferase assay demonstrated that fusing MTSs to p53 increased mitochondrial localization and nuclear exclusion depending on which MTS was used. To examine if the MTSs initiate mitochondrial damage, we fused each individual MTS to EGFP (a nontoxic protein) as negative controls. We performed caspase-9, TUNEL, annexin-V, and 7-AAD apoptosis assays on T47D breast cancer cells transfected with mitochondrial constructs. Except for EGFP-XL, apoptotic potential was observed in all MTS-EGFP-p53 and MTS-EGFP constructs. In addition, EGFP-p53-XL showed the greatest significant increase in programmed cell death compared to its nontoxic MTS control (EGFP-XL). The apoptotic mechanism for each construct was further investigated using pifithrin-α (an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity), pifithrin-μ (a small molecule that reduces binding of p53 to Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL), and overexpressing the antiapoptotic Bcl-XL. Unlike the MTSs from TOM, CCO, and OTC, which showed different apoptotic mechanisms, we conclude that p53 fused to the MTS from Bcl-XL performs its apoptotic potential exclusively through the p53/Bcl-XL specific pathway.

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#20707312   2010/09/02 Save this To Up

Cytotoxicity of Monascus pigments and their derivatives to human cancer cells.

Six pigments were separated from Monascus product, and some derivatives were chemically synthesized. The cytotoxicity of different Monascus pigments to various human cancer cells (SH-SY5Y, HepG2, HT-29, BGC-823, AGS, and MKN45) was evaluated. Rubropunctatin showed the greatest anticancer effect within the tested compounds. The inhibition effect of rubropunctatin was higher than that of taxol on the growth of the human gastric cancer cell SH-SY5Y (P<0.05), BGC-823 (P<0.01), AGS (P<0.01), and MKN45 (P<0.05). On the other hand, its cytotoxicity to the normal human gastric epithelial cell GES-1 was less than that of taxol (P<0.01). The experimental data demonstrated that rubropunctatin was a valuable compound with high anticancer activity, which could offer better therapeutic benefits than taxol. Cell apoptosis stages were assayed by annexin V-EGFP/PI staining experiments using flow cytometry. The data showed that 87.63% of tested BGC-823 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis when treated with 5 microM rubropunctatin for 24 h. A drug concentration-dependent cell apoptosis was observed. The analysis of the relationship between pharmaceutical activity and the chemical structure of the tested compounds led to the conclusion that 6-internal ether, 4-carbonyl, and conjugated double bonds in the tricyclic structure of rubropunctatin were necessary to the anticancer effect, whereas the difference of C2H4 in the side chain showed little influence. Rubropunctatin could be supplied as a precursor compound in the development of a new natural anticancer reagent.

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