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#28902344   2017/09/13 Save this To Up

Insulin-like growth factor-1 promotes the proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells under high glucose conditions.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes human dental pulp stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. However, the effects of IGF-1 on the proliferation, apoptosis and odontoblastic differentiation (mineralization) of dental pulp cells (DPCs) under high glucose (GLU) conditions remain unclear. In this study, isolated primary human DPCs were treated with various concentrations of high GLU. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays, respectively. The cells were cultured in odontoblastic induction medium containing various concentrations of high GLU. Odontoblastic differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Mineralization formation was evaluated by von Kossa staining. The expression levels of IGF family members were measured by western blot analysis and RT-qPCR during proliferation and differentiation. The cells were then exposed to 25 mM GLU and various concentrations of IGF-1. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, ALP activity, mineralization formation and the levels of mineralization-related proteins were then evaluated. Our results revealed that high GLU significantly inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. GLU (25 and 50 mM) markedly reduced ALP activity and mineralization on days 7 and 14 after differentiation. The levels of IGF family members were markedly decreased by high GLU during proliferation and differentiation. However, IGF-1 significantly reversed the effects of high GLU on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, IGF-1 markedly restored the reduction of ALP activity and mineralization induced by high GLU. Our findings thus indicate that IGF-1 attenuates the high GLU-induced inhibition of DPC proliferation, differentiation and mineralization.

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#28881786   2017/09/08 Save this To Up

TUSC3 induces autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells through Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

We investigated the effects of tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3) on autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A total of 118 NSCLC patients (88 males and 30 females) who underwent surgery at our institute were enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TUSC3 protein expression was lower in NSCLC specimens than adjacent normal tissue. Correspondingly, there was greater methylation of TUSC3 in NSCLC than adjacent normal tissue. After transient transfection of A549 NSCLC cells with constructs designed to up-regulate or down-regulate TUSC3 expression, we analyzed the effects of inhibiting the Wnt pathway (XAV939) and autophagy (chloroquine, CQ) on the behavior of NSCLC cells. We also performed TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assays, MTT assays, Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining, and acridine orange staining to evaluate Wnt/β-catenin signaling, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy, respectively. Expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway components and autophagy-related proteins was analyzed using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. We found that TUSC3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted both apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In addition, TUSC3 increased expression of autophagy-related proteins. It also increased expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components and promoted nuclear transfer of β-catenin, resulting in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TUSC3 thus induces autophagy in human NSCLC cells through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

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#28873435   2017/09/05 Save this To Up

TGF-β signaling is an effective target to impair survival and induce apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma cells: A study on human primary cell cultures.

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and its subtypes (mucin- and mixed-CCA) arise from the neoplastic transformation of cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the biliary tree. CCA has a high mortality rate owing to its aggressiveness, late diagnosis and high resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. We have demonstrated that CCA is enriched for cancer stem cells which express epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) traits, with these features being associated with aggressiveness and drug resistance. TGF-β signaling is upregulated in CCA and involved in EMT. We have recently established primary cell cultures from human mucin- and mixed-intrahepatic CCA. In human CCA primary cultures with different levels of EMT trait expression, we evaluated the anticancer effects of: (i) CX-4945, a casein kinase-2 (CK2) inhibitor that blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT; and (ii) LY2157299, a TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor. We tested primary cell lines expressing EMT trait markers (vimentin, N-cadherin and nuclear catenin) but negative for epithelial markers, and cell lines expressing epithelial markers (CK19-positive) in association with EMT traits. Cell viability was evaluated by MTS assays, apoptosis by Annexin V FITC and cell migration by wound-healing assay.

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#28854261   2017/08/30 Save this To Up

Gemcitabine treatment induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and subsequently upregulates urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to block mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in Panc-1 cancer stem-like cells (CSCs).

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor survival rates. The presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is believed to be among the underlying reasons for the aggressiveness of PDAC, which contributes to chemoresistance and recurrence. However, the mechanisms that induce chemoresistance and inhibit apoptosis remain largely unknown.

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#28849232   2017/08/29 Save this To Up

Inhibition of NOB1 by microRNA-330-5p overexpression represses cell growth of non-small cell lung cancer.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the development and progression of various cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Studies have suggested that miR-330-5p is involved in the progression of several cancers. However, the role of miR-330-5p in NSCLC remains unclear. We investigated the effect on and mechanism of miR-330-5p in the progression of NSCLC. We found that miR-330-5p was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines as detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), colony formation and cell cycle assays showed that overexpression of miR-330-5p markedly inhibited cell growth. Annexin V-FITC/PI and caspase-3 activity assays showed that overexpression of miR-330-5p significantly promoted cell apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assays confirmed NIN/RPN12 binding protein 1 (NOB1) as a target gene of miR-330-5p. RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that overexpression of miR-330-5p inhibited the expression of NOB1 as well as cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in NSCLC cells. Moreover, overexpression of NOB1 markedly reversed the miR‑330-5p-mediated inhibitory effect on NSCLC cell growth. Correlation analysis showed that miR‑330-5p expression was inversely correlated with NOB1 mRNA expression in NSCLC tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-330-5p inhibits NSCLC cell growth through downregulation of NOB1 expression. Our study suggests that miR-330-5p may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.

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#28843170   2017/08/26 Save this To Up

Glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1) inhibits oxidative stress and apoptosis of chondrocytes by regulating CREB/HO-1 in osteoarthritis.

GRX1 (glutaredoxin1), a sulfhydryl disulfide oxidoreductase, is involved in many cellular processes, including anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of cell differentiation. However, the role of GRX1 in the oxidative stress and apoptosis of osteoarthritis chondrocytes remains unclear, prompting the current study. Protein and mRNA expressions were measured by Western blot and RT-qPCR. Oxidative stress was detected by the measurement of MDA and SOD contents. Cells apoptosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI and caspase-3 activity assays. We found that the mRNA and protein expressions of GRX1 were significantly down-regulated in osteoarthritis tissues and cells. GRX1 overexpression increased the mRNA and protein expression of CREB and HO-1. Meanwhile, GRX1 overexpression inhibited oxidative stress and apoptosis in osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Furthermore, we found that GRX1 overexpression regulated HO-1 by increasing CREB, and that HO-1 regulated oxidative stress and apoptosis in osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Thus, GRX1 overexpression constrains oxidative stress and apoptosis in osteoarthritis chondrocytes by regulating CREB/HO-1, providing a novel insight into the molecular mechanism and potential treatment of osteoarthritis.

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#28808400   2017/08/15 Save this To Up

Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by Flavokawain C on HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma via Enhancement of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Upregulation of p21, p27, and GADD153, and Inactivation of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins.

Chalcones have been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties by targeting multiple molecular pathways. It was, therefore, of interest to investigate flavokawain C (FKC), a naturally occurring chalcone, which can be isolated from Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root extract. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of FKC on the growth of HT-29 cells and its underlying mechanism of action. Cell viability of HT-29 cells was assessed by Sulforhodamine B assay after FKC treatment. Induction of apoptosis was examined by established morphological and biochemical assays. ROS generation was determined by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence staining, and superoxide dismutase activity was measured using the spectrophotometric method. Western blotting was used to examine the changes in the protein levels. FKC markedly decreased the cell viability of HT-29 cells and the cells showed dramatic changes in cellular and nuclear morphologies with typical apoptotic features. The induction of apoptosis correlated well with the externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA fragmentation, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases, and PARP cleavage. This was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in SOD activity. The protein levels of XIAP, c-IAP1, and c-IAP2 were downregulated, whereas the GADD153 was upregulated after FKC treatment. FKC induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2/M phases via upregulation of p21 and p27 in a p53-independent manner. Our results provide evidence that FKC has the potential to be developed into chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of colon adenocarcinoma.

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#28780785   2017/08/07 Save this To Up

[Effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway on apoptosis induced by chloroacetic acid in human normal bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells].

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway on apoptosis induced by chloroacetic acid in human normal bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells. Methods: 16HBE cells were exposed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 mmol/L chloroacetic acid for 24 h in vitro. The cytotoxicity induced by chloroacetic acid was assessed by CCK-8 and LDH assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. The protein expression levels of phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK were determined by western blotting. 16HBE cells were pretreated with MAPK signaling pathway specific inhibitors including SB203580, U0126 and SP600125 for 1 h, and these cells were subsequently treated with 2.5 mmol/L chloroacetic acid for 24 h. The expressions of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK as well as the changes of cell viability and apoptosis were measured after pretreated with inhibitors for 1 h. Results: The cell viability by CCK-8 and LDH methods gradually reduced in a dose-dependent manner when chloroacetic acid concentrations elevated (P<0.05) , and their correlation coefficients were -0.902 and -0.825, respectively. The detection efficiency of CCK-8 assay significantly increased compared with LDH assay (P<0.05) . The cell apoptosis rates, which were (17.2±4.0) %, (24.6± 4.2) %, (39.3 ± 5.7) % in 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mmol/L chloroacetic acid-treated groups, were higher than that of the control group[ (5.6 ± 3.0) %] (P<0.05) . There was a time-or dose-dependent change in the protein expressions of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK. Compared with the control, the levels of p-p38 had 2.1 and 2.6-fold increases in 16 and 24 h treated groups (P<0.01) , while the levels of p-ERK1/2 distinctly decreased by 37% and 52% (P<0.01) . In comparison with the control group, the expressions of p-p38 had 1.9 and 2.6-fold increases in 1.5 and 2.5 mmol/L treatment groups (P<0.01) , whereas the expressions of p-ERK1/2 significantly decreased by 40% and 50% (P<0.01) . No significant change was observed in p-JNK protein expression between the chloroacetic acid-treated and control groups. In comparison with the vehicle control and the exposed group, p-p38, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK protein expressions significantly declined in the inhibitor controls and inhibitor groups. Compared with the controls, the cell survival rates had significant reductions of 28%, 18%, 36% and 26% respectively in chloroacetic acid treated group, SB203580 group, U0126 group and SP600125 group, and the apoptosis rates in the abovementioned groups were 7, 4, 8 and 7 times. Compared with chloroacetic acid-treated group, the cell viability increased by 14% in SB203580 group and decreased by 11% in U0126 group, and the cell apoptosis rates decreased by 36% in SB203580 group and increased by 18% in U0126 group (P<0.05) . But no significant changes were observed in cell viability and apoptosis between SP600125 and chloroacetic acid-treated group. Conclusion: Chloroacetic acid might activate p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inhibit ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. The signaling pathways of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK are involved in 16HBE cell apoptosis induced by chloroacetic acid, but JNK is not involved in chloroacetic acid-induced 16HBE cell apoptosis.

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#28757067   2017/07/31 Save this To Up

Discovery of novel 4(1H)-quinolone derivatives as potential antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing agents.

A series of novel 4(1H)-quinolone derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity in vitro. The results showed that these compounds exhibited more potent antiproliferative effect against a panel of human tumorcelllines than the lead compound 7-chloro-4(1H)-quinolone 1. Compound 7e was found to be the most potent antiproliferative agent and to exhibit selective cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 value lower than 1.0μM. Annexin V/FITC-PI assay showed that compound 7e induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells with a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis indicated that compound 7e induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase by p53-depedent pathway.

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#28751160   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

M4IDP, a zoledronic acid derivative, induces G1 arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells via blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

The aim of this work was to examine the antitumor effects and mechanisms of M4IDP, a zoledronic acid derivative, on human colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT116 cells.

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