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#28835002   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Cripto Enhances Proliferation and Survival of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Up-Regulating JAK2/STAT3 Pathway in a GRP78-Dependent Manner.

Cripto is a small glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored signaling protein that can detach from the anchored membrane and stimulate proliferation, migration, differentiation, vascularization, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that Cripto positively affected proliferation and survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without affecting multipotency. Cripto also increased expression of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), c-Myc, and cyclin D1. Notably, treatment with an anti-GRP78 antibody blocked these effects. In addition, pretreatment with STAT3 short interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the increase in p-JAK2, c-Myc, cyclin D1, and BCL3 levels caused by Cripto and attenuated the pro-survival action of Cripto on MSCs. We also found that incubation with Cripto protected MSCs from apoptosis caused by hypoxia or H2O2 exposure, and the level of caspase-3 decreased by the Cripto-induced expression of B-cell lymphoma 3-encoded protein (BCL3). These effects were sensitive to down-regulation of BCL3 expression by BCL3 siRNA. Finally, we showed that Cripto enhanced expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In summary, our results demonstrated that Cripto activated a novel biochemical cascade that potentiated MSC proliferation and survival. This cascade relied on phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and was regulated by GRP78. Our findings may facilitate clinical applications of MSCs, as these cells may benefit from positive effects of Cripto on their survival and biological properties.

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#28834972   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

[Healthcare Research into Anti-VEGF Therapy: Selection and Methodological Precautions].

Health care research has emerged as an approach to assess and improve quality of care and patient outcomes in the real world. It also has the potential to reduce healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) theoretically offer the ideal study design to support treatment decisions. In RCTs, randomisation (formal chance) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the parameters of anti-VEGF treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in neovascular age-related macular degeneration or diabetic macular oedema trials, which limits the validity of the results to the whole patient population seen in clinical practice. The evidence base for anti-VEGF is deficient in terms of matching the characteristics of patients encountered in clinical practice, and a more representative sample of older people and those with significant disability must be included in future trials. RCTs often do not address other knowledge gaps, including treatment delay, comparisons for less frequent types of CNV, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events or systemic safety.Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomisation, can complement RCTs by providing data that is more relevant to the circumstances under which intravitreal therapy is routinely practiced. However, it is important to be aware of the strengths and limitations of such observational study designs, in order to optimise the design as well as the analytic techniques. Selection bias and loss-to-follow-up cause make comprehensive interpretation and careful analysis necessary. Future reports should focus on time-to-event analysis, as this is much less prone to loss-to-follow-up and improves adherence of (functionally) one-eyed or good responders. Observational studies and pragmatic trials can test new hypotheses and possible license extensions. The bearing of RCT findings on day-to-day practice can then be assessed. The data can be interpreted in a more meaningful manner by practicing clinicians if evidence is integrated from a variety of different study designs and methodologies.

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#28834898   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Long-term follow-up of secondary amyloidosis patients treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy: A STROBE-compliant observational study.

There are no treatment modalities, which were proven to prevent the deposition of amyloid, proteinuria, and loss of renal function due to amyloidosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor agents (anti-TNFs) were shown to decrease the production of serum amyloid A protein.We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-TNFs in secondary (AA) amyloidosis patients treated in a single center.Thirty-seven patients with AA amyloidosis were started an anti-TNF for AA amyloidosis between March 2001 and June 2008 and followed until May 2016 unless deceased. They were surveyed for the endpoints of death, development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), switch to another agent due to worsening of amyloidosis and adverse events.Among the 37 patients, 12 (32%) had died, 9 (24%) had ESRD, and 8 (22%) had started another group of biologic due to worsening of amyloidosis indicated by an increase in proteinuria, 5 (14%) patients are still doing well with anti-TNFs, and 3 (8%) are off treatment at the end of a median follow-up of 10 (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.5-10.5) years since the start of anti-TNFs and 10 (IQR: 8-13) years since the diagnosis of AA amyloidosis. Most common serious adverse events were sepsis and thrombotic events observed in 8 and 4 patients, respectively.Treatment with anti-TNFs may be associated with a higher survival rate compared with historic cohorts of AA amyloidosis, especially when started early with a lower serum creatinine level at baseline. Caution is needed regarding serious adverse events, especially infections.

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#28834897   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Protection of xenon against postoperative oxygen impairment in adults undergoing Stanford Type-A acute aortic dissection surgery: Study protocol for a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial.

The available evidence shows that hypoxemia after Stanford Type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) surgery is a frequent cause of several adverse consequences. The pathogenesis of postoperative hypoxemia after AAD surgery is complex, and ischemia/reperfusion and inflammation are likely to be underlying risk factors. Xenon, recognized as an ideal anesthetic and anti-inflammatory treatment, might be a possible treatment for these adverse effects.

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#28834869   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Acute myopathy following intra-muscular injection of compound betamethasone: A case report.

We report a case of acute steroid myopathy in a patient with eczema receiving one dose of intra-muscular injection of Compound betamethasone.

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#28834867   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Cortical blindness and not optic neuritis as a cause of vision loss in a Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patient with the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD): Challenges of ascribing demyelinating syndromes to SS: a case report.

The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. In addition, whereas NMOSD was initially thought to spare the brain, it is now recognized that brain lesions occur in a majority of NMOSD patients. Therefore, it is important for the multi-disciplinary team of physicians who care for SS patients to understand this widening spectrum of NMOSD as encompassing brain lesions. In this case-report we describe clinical features, radiographic findings, and treatment of a SS NMOSD patient presenting with severely decreased visual acuity, visual hallucinations, and encephalopathy.

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#28834790   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Comparison of treatment efficacy 1 and 2 years after thyroid remnant ablation with 1110 versus 5550 MBq of iodine-131 in patients with intermediate-risk differentiated thyroid cancer.

Radioiodine ablation may be associated with improved survival in patients with intermediate-risk follicular cell differentiated thyroid cancer (FCDTC). The aim of this study was to compare ablation efficacy of 1110 versus 5500 MBq of iodine-131 (I) in FCDTC patients with intermediate risk.

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#28834763   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Overcoming resistance to cisplatin by inhibition of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) with ethacraplatin micelles in vitro and in vivo.

Platinum-based DNA-adducting agents are used extensively in the clinic for cancer chemotherapy. However, the anti-tumor efficacy of these drugs is severely limited by cisplatin resistance, and this can lead to the failure of chemotherapy. One of cisplatin resistance mechanisms is associated with overexpression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which would accelerate the deactivation of cisplatin and decrease its antitumor efficiency. Nanoscale micelles encapsulating ethacraplatin, a conjugate of cisplatin and ethacrynic acid (an effective GSTs inhibitor), can enhance the accumulation of active cisplatin in cancer cells by inhibiting the activity of GSTs and circumventing deactivation of cisplatin. In vitro and in vivo results provide strong evidence that GSTs inhibitor-modified cisplatin prodrug combined with nanoparticle encapsulation favor high effective platinum accumulation, significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy against cisplatin-resistant cancer and decreased system toxicity. It is believed that these ethacraplatin-loaded micelles have the ability of overcoming resistance of cancers toward cisplatin and will improve the prospects for chemotherapy of cisplatin-resistant cancers in the near future.

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#28834761   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Novel pan PI3K inhibitor-induced apoptosis in APL cells correlates with suppression of telomerase: an emerging mechanism of action of BKM120.

The intertwining between cancer pathogenesis and perturbation of multitude signaling pathways ushered the cancer therapeutic approaches into an unbounded route of targeted therapies. For the nonce and among the plethora of promising inhibitors, intense interest has focused on small molecules targeting different component of PI3K axis. Intrigued by the constant activation of PI3K in leukemia, this study aimed to investigate the effects of BKM120, as the excelled member of pan PI3K inhibitors, in a panel of hematologic malignant cell lines. The resulting data showed that BKM120 exerted a concentration-dependent growth suppressive effect; however, IC50 values varied among the tested cells. Our results outlined that the blockage of PI3K in NB4, as the most sensitive cell line, resulted in a caspase-3-dependent apoptosis probably through NFκB-mediated suppression of c-Myc and hTERT. As far we are aware, to date, there have been no reports of BKM120 effect on enzymatic repression of telomerase, and this study represents for the first time that the anti-proliferative effect of the inhibitor on NB4 is mediated by down-regulation of telomerase; shedding new light on the novel mechanism of action of BKM120.

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#28834737   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Immunocapture Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for the Detection of Canine Parvovirus.

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was used for rapid canine parvovirus (CPV) diagnosis. To reduce the time required and increase the sensitivity of the assay, an immunocapture (IC) technique was developed in this study to exclude the DNA extraction step in molecular diagnostic procedures for CPV. A polyclonal rabbit anti-CPV serum was produced against VP2-EpC that was cloned via DNA recombination. The polyclonal anti-VP2-EpC serum was used for virus capture to prepare microtubes. IC-LAMP was performed to amplify a specific CPV target gene sequence from the CPV viral particles that were captured on the microtubes, and the amplicons were analyzed using agarose electrophoresis or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-LAMP-ELISA) and lateral-flow dipstick (IC-LAMP-LFD). The detection sensitivities of IC-LAMP, IC-LAMP-ELISA, and IC-LAMP-LFD were 10(-1), 10(-1), and 10(-1) TCID50/mL, respectively. Using the IC-LAMP-ELISA and IC-LAMP-LFD assays, the complete CPV diagnostic process can be achieved within 1.5h. Both of the developed IC-LAMP-based assays are simple, direct visual and efficient techniques that are applicable to the detection of CPV.

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