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           Search results for: Anti-ATM Protein Kinase S1981 Antibody   

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#19079347   2009/02/26 Save this To Up

ATM mediates constitutive NF-kappaB activation in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.

The anti-apoptotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is constitutively activated in CD34(+) myeloblasts from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Inhibition of NF-kappaB by suppressing the canonical NF-kappaB activation pathway, for instance by knockdown of the three subunits of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (I kappaB) kinase (IKK) complex (IKK1, IKK2 and NEMO) triggers apoptosis in such cells. Here, we show that an MDS/AML model cell line exhibits a constitutive interaction, within the nucleus, of activated, S1981-phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) with NEMO. Inhibition of ATM with two distinct pharmacological inhibitors suppressed the activating autophosphorylation of ATM, blocked the interaction of ATM and NEMO, delocalized NEMO as well as another putative NF-kappaB activator, PIDD, from the nucleus, abolished the activating phosphorylation of the catalytic proteins of the IKK complex (IKK1/2 on serines 176/180), enhanced the expression of I kappaB alpha and caused the relocalization of NF-kappaB from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, followed by apoptosis. Knockdown of ATM with small-interfering RNAs had a similar effect that could not be enhanced by knockdown of NEMO, PIDD and the p65 NF-kappaB subunit, suggesting that an ATM inhibition/depletion truly induced apoptosis through inhibition of the NF-kappaB system. Pharmacological inhibition of ATM also induced the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of p65 in malignant myeloblasts purified from patients with high-risk MDS or AML, correlating with the induction of apoptosis. Altogether, these results support the contention that constitutively active ATM accounts for the activation of NF-kappaB in high-risk MDS and AML.

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#16858402   2006/08/10 Save this To Up

Involvement of novel autophosphorylation sites in ATM activation.

ATM kinase plays a central role in signaling DNA double-strand breaks to cell cycle checkpoints and to the DNA repair machinery. Although the exact mechanism of ATM activation remains unknown, efficient activation requires the Mre11 complex, autophosphorylation on S1981 and the involvement of protein phosphatases and acetylases. We report here the identification of several additional phosphorylation sites on ATM in response to DNA damage, including autophosphorylation on pS367 and pS1893. ATM autophosphorylates all these sites in vitro in response to DNA damage. Antibodies against phosphoserine 1893 revealed rapid and persistent phosphorylation at this site after in vivo activation of ATM kinase by ionizing radiation, paralleling that observed for S1981 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation was dependent on functional ATM and on the Mre11 complex. All three autophosphorylation sites are physiologically important parts of the DNA damage response, as phosphorylation site mutants (S367A, S1893A and S1981A) were each defective in ATM signaling in vivo and each failed to correct radiosensitivity, genome instability and cell cycle checkpoint defects in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. We conclude that there are at least three functionally important radiation-induced autophosphorylation events in ATM.

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#15846060   2005/06/27 Save this To Up

ATM activation in normal human tissues and testicular cancer.

The ATM kinase is a tumor suppressor and key regulator of biological responses to DNA damage. Cultured cells respond to genotoxic insults that induce DNA double-strand breaks by prompt activation of ATM through its autophosphorylation on serine 1981. However, whether ATM-S1981 becomes phosphorylated in vivo, for example during physiological processes that generate DSBs, is unknown. Here we produced phospho-specific monoclonal antibodies against S1981-phosphorylated ATM (pS-ATM), and applied them to immunohistochemical analyses of a wide range of normal human tissues and testicular tumors. Our data show that regardless of proliferation and differentiation, most human tissues contain only the S1981-nonphosphorylated, inactive form of ATM. In contrast, nuclear staining for pS-ATM was detected in subsets of bone-marrow lymphocytes and primary spermatocytes in the adult testes, cell types in which DSBs are generated during physiological V(D)J recombination and meiotic recombination, respectively. Among testicular germ-cell tumors, an aberrant constitutive pS-ATM was observed especially in embryonal carcinomas, less in seminomas, and only modestly in teratomas and the pre-invasive carcinoma-in-situ stage. Compared with pS-ATM, phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), another DNA damage marker and ATM substrate, was detected in a higher proportion of cancer cells, and also in normal fetal gonocytes, and a wider range of adult spermatocyte differentiation stages. Collectively, our results strongly support the physiological relevance of the recently proposed model of ATM autoactivation, and provide further evidence for constitutive activation of the DNA damage machinery during cancer development. The new tools characterized here should facilitate monitoring of ATM activation in clinical specimens, and help develop future treatment strategies.

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