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           Search results for: Anti PPARgamma Human, Polyclonal Antibody Antibodies   

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A putative role for platelet-derived PPARγ in vascular homeostasis demonstrated by anti-PPARγ induction of bleeding, thrombocytopenia and compensatory megakaryocytopoiesis.

Widely known for its role in adipogenesis and energy metabolism, PPARγ also plays a role in platelet function. To further understand functions of platelet-derived PPARγ, we produced rabbit polyclonal (PoAbs) and mouse monoclonal (MoAbs) antibodies against PPARγ 14mer/19mer peptide-immunogens. Unexpectedly, our work produced two key findings. First, MoAbs but not PoAbs produced against PPARγ peptide-immunogens displayed antigenic crossreactivity with highly conserved PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Similarly, Santa Cruz PoAb sc-7196 was monospecific for PPARγ while MoAb sc-7273 crossreacted with PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Second, immunized rabbits and mice exhibited unusual pathology including cachexia, excessive bleeding, and low platelet counts leading to thrombocytopenia. Spleens from immunized mice were fatty, hemorrhagic and friable. Although passive administration of anti-PPARγ PoAbs failed to induce experimental thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytopoiesis was induced 4-8-fold in mouse spleens. Similarly, marrow megakaryocytopoiesis was enhanced 1.8-4-fold in immunized rabbits. These peptide-immunogens are 100% conserved in human, rabbit and mouse; thus, immune-mediated platelet destruction via crossreactivity with platelet-derived PPARγ likely caused bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and compensatory megakaryocytopoiesis. Such overt pathology would cause significant problems for large-scale production of anti-PPARγ PoAbs. Furthermore, a major pitfall associated with MoAb production against closely related molecules is that monoclonicity does not guarantee monospecificity, an issue worth further scientific scrutiny.

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Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly Anti VGLUT 1 Rat, polyclo MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti Rat VGLUT 2, Rabbit Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl Human Platelet Derived Gr

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Immunohistochemical detection of PPARgamma receptors in the human pituitary adenomas: correlation with PCNA.

The occurrence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARgamma) was investigated in 51 human pituitary adenomas and in 6 non-tumoral human pituitary tissue samples. Moreover, the correlation between PPARgamma and the proliferating cells nuclear antigen (PCNA)--immunocytochemical proliferation marker was evaluated. The receptors and PCNA were detected by immunohistochemical methods using the polyclonal anti-PPARgamma and the monoclonal anti-PCNA antibodies, respectively. PPARgamma were found in all examined tissues. The mean percentage of cells with positive nuclear reaction was 3-fold higher in pituitary adenomas in comparison with non-tumoral pituitary tissues. The strongest expression of PPARgamma was observed in somatotropinomas. Besides the nuclear reaction, which is typical for PPARgamma, positive immunostaining was also observed in the cytoplasm. It was clearly stronger in pituitary adenomas than in non-tumoral pituitary tissues. A slight, statistically insignificant tendency towards negative correlation between PPARgamma and PCNA was found in somatotropinomas, prolactinomas, corticotropinomas and gonadotropinomas. On the other hand, in null cell adenomas and "silent" corticotropinomas, a strong positve correlation between the expression of PPARgamma and PCNA was observed. The strong expression of PPARgamma in human pituitary adenomas and its possible involvement in control of cell proliferation in these tumors give a good reason for the attempts of their treatment with PPARgamma ligands.

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Syringe pump can be contr Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon CELLKINES Natural Human I Human Interleukin-4 IL-4 Human Interleukin-6 IL-6 Human Interleukin-7 IL-7 Human Interleukin-2 IL-2 Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Insulin-like Growth

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Expression patterns of retinoid X receptors, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in bovine preattachment embryos.

In cattle, administration of retinol at the time of superovulation has been indirectly associated with enhanced developmental potential of the embryo. Vitamin A and its metabolites influence several developmental processes by interacting with 2 different types of nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Given the limited information available concerning the RXR-mediated retinoid signaling system, particularly in species other than rodents, this study was performed to gain insight into the potential role of retinoid signaling during preattachment embryo development in the cow. Bovine embryos were produced in vitro from oocytes harvested from abattoir ovaries and frozen in liquid nitrogen at the oocyte, 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16- to 20-cell, morula, blastocyst, and hatched blastocyst stages. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and whole mount in situ hybridization were utilized to investigate mRNA expression for RXR alpha, RXR beta, RXR gamma, alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADH-I), retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transcripts for RXR alpha, RXR beta, RALDH2, and PPAR gamma were detected in all stages beginning from the oocyte through to the hatched blastocyst. Whole mount in situ hybridization performed using digoxigenin-labeled antisense probes detected all 4 transcripts in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm of hatched blastocysts. PCR products obtained for ADH-I exhibited very low homology to known human and mouse sequences. Immunohistochemistry was performed using polyclonal anti-rabbit antibodies against RXR beta and PPAR gamma to investigate whether these embryonic mRNAs were translated to the mature protein. Strong immunostaining was observed for both RXR beta and PPAR gamma in the trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells of intact and hatched blastocysts. Messenger RNA was not detected at any stage for RXR gamma. Expression of mRNA for RXR alpha, RXR beta, RALDH2, and PPAR gamma suggests that the early embryo may be competent to synthesize retinoic acid and regulate gene expression during preattachment development in vitro.

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