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#24520260   2014/02/12 Save this To Up

Resveratrol regulates type II collagen and COX-2 expression via the ERK, p38 and Akt signaling pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes.

Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic phytoalexin antioxidant compound present in grapes and red wine, has been reported to induce various biochemical responses. It has been shown to possess anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in several cell types. However, the effects of resveratrol in normal cells, including chondrocytes, have not yet been clearly elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on differentiation and inflammation in rabbit articular chondrocytes and to investigate the underlying mechanism of action. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were treated with 20 μM resveratrol for different time periods or with various concentrations of resveratrol for 24 h. It was observed that the expression levels of type II collagen and sulfated proteoglycan, as determined by western blot analysis and Alcian blue staining, respectively, increased following treatment with resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations up to 20 μM and then decreased at higher concentrations. The expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) began to increase at 10 min after the addition of resveratrol, reached peak levels at 3 h and decreased from the peak level thereafter, as determined by western blot analysis and PGE2 assay, respectively. It was also demonstrated that resveratrol caused phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins [extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)] and Akt in rabbit articular chondrocytes. The inhibition of ERK, p38 kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt with PD98059, SB203580, LY294002 and triciribine, respectively, suppressed resveratrol-induced type II collagen and COX-2 expression. However, inhibition of JNK with SP600125 produced no clear changes in the expression levels of type II collagen and COX-2. The results suggest that resveratrol in articular chondrocytes stimulates differentiation and inflammation via the ERK, p38 and Akt signaling pathways.

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#17545481   2007/09/06 Save this To Up

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis in autoimmune cardiomyopathy: mediated via endoplasmic reticulum stress and exaggerated by norepinephrine.

Evidence suggests that the autoimmune cardiomyopathy produced by a peptide corresponding to the sequence of the second extracellular loop of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)-EC(II)) is mediated via a biologically active anti-beta(1)-EC(II) antibody, but the mechanism linking the antibody to myocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction has not been well elucidated. Since the beta(1)-EC(II) autoantibody is a partial beta(1)-agonist, we speculate that the cardiomyopathy is produced by the beta(1)-receptor-mediated stimulation of the CaMKII-p38 MAPK-ATF6 signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and that excess norepinephrine (NE) exaggerates the cardiomyopathy. Rabbits were randomized to receive beta(1)-EC(II) immunization, sham immunization, NE pellet, or beta(1)-EC(II) immunization plus NE pellet for 6 mo. Heart function was measured by echocardiography and catheterization. Myocyte apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and caspase-3 activity, whereas CaMKII, MAPK family (JNK, p38, ERK), and ER stress signals (ATF6, GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12) were measured by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and kinase activity assay. beta(1)-EC(II) immunization produced progressive LV dilation, systolic dysfunction, and myocyte apoptosis. These changes were associated with activation of GRP78 and CHOP and increased cleavage of caspase-12, as well as increased CaMKII activity, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and nucleus translocation of cleaved ATF6. NE pellet produced additive effects. In addition, KN-93 and SB 203580 abolished the induction of ER stress and cell apoptosis produced by the beta(1)-EC(II) antibody in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. Thus ER stress occurs in autoimmune cardiomyopathy induced by beta(1)-EC(II) peptide, and this is enhanced by increased NE and caused by activation of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor-coupled CaMKII, p38 MAPK, and ATF6 pathway.

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#17359337   2007/03/15 Save this To Up

Anti-angiogenic effect of tetraacetyl-phytosphingosine.

In a search for the wound healing accelerators, we found that tetraacetyl-phytosphingosine (TAPS), a sphingolipid metabolite produced by phytosphingosine acetylation, has significant inhibitory potential on healing of rabbit ear wound. As angiogenesis is fundamental to proper wound healing, we examined the effect of TAPS on angiogenesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in vitro. TAPS markedly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced chemotactic migration and capillary-like tube formation. Recognizing its inhibitory potential on angiogenesis, we further investigated the action mechanism of TAPS. TAPS significantly inhibited VEGF-induced proteolytic enzyme production, including matrix metalloproteinase-2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. TAPS also suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, TAPS abolished VEGF-induced intracellular calcium increase, measured using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Together, these results suggest that TAPS exerts its inhibitory action on angiogenesis through the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and intracellular calcium increase, thereby affecting the process of wound healing negatively.

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