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#27317266   2016/07/05 Save this To Up

Hypervariable antigenic region 1 of classical swine fever virus E2 protein impacts antibody neutralization.

Envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against CSFV infection. There are three hypervariable antigenic regions (HAR1, HAR2 and HAR3) of E2 that are different between the group 1 vaccine C-strain and group 2 clinical isolates. This study was aimed to characterize the antigenic epitope region recognized by monoclonal antibody 4F4 (mAb-4F4) that is present in the group 2 field isolate HZ1-08, but not in the C-strain, and examine its impact on neutralization titers when antisera from different recombinant viruses were cross-examined. Indirect ELISA with C-strain E2-based chimeric proteins carrying the three HAR regions showed that the mAb-4F4 bound to HAR1 from HZ1-08 E2, but not to HAR2 or HAR3, indicating that the specific epitope is located in the HAR1 region. Of the 6 major residues differences between C-strain and field isolates, Glu713 in the HAR1 region of strain HZ1-08 is critical for mAb-4F4 binding either at the recombinant protein level or using intact recombinant viruses carrying single mutations. C-strain-based recombinant viruses carrying the most antigenic part of E2 or HAR1 from strain HZ1-08 remained non-pathogenic to pigs and induced good antibody responses. By cross-neutralization assay, we observed that the anti-C-strain serum lost most of its neutralization capacity to RecC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 (subgroup 2.1d field isolate in 2014), and vice versa. More importantly, the RecC-HAR1 virus remained competent in neutralizing ReC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 strains without compromising the neutralization capability to the recombinant C-strain. Thus, we propose that chimeric C-strain carrying the HAR1 region of field isolates is a good vaccine candidate for classical swine fever.

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Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C

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#27174750   2016/06/15 Save this To Up

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH) from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica that was produced in Escherichia coli. Positive hybridomas (clones eFA-C5, eFA-C10, eFA-C11, eFA-C12, eFA-C13, and eFB-C14) were selected by using the eel FSH antigen in ELISA, and anti-eel FSH mAbs were purified from culture supernatants by performing affinity chromatography. Three of the 6mAbs were characterized and their isotypes were identified as IgG2b (eFA-C5 and eFA-C11) and IgG1 (eFB-C14). In western blotting assays, the mAbs recognized the antigen as a 24.3-kDa band, and further detected bands of 34 and 32kDa in the supernatants of CHO cells transfected with cDNA encoding tethered eel FSHβ/α and LHβ/α, respectively. PNase F-mediated deglycosylation of the recombinant proteins resulted in a drastic reduction in their molecular weight, to 7-9kDa. The mAbs eFA-C5 and eFA-C11 recognized the eel FSHα-subunit that is commonly encoded among glycoprotein hormones, whereas eFB-C14 recognized the eel FSHβ-subunit, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining by these mAbs was specifically localized in the eel pituitary. We also established an ELISA system for detecting rec-tethered FSHβ/α and LHβ/α produced from CHO cell lines. Measurement of biological activities in vitro revealed that only weak activity of rec-FSHβ/α was detected. The activity of rec-LHβ/α was found to be increased in a dose-dependent manner for eel oocyte maturation.

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Mouse Anti-Follicle Stimu Rabbit Anti-Follicle Stim Human Growth Hormone anti Human Growth Hormone anti Human Growth Hormone anti Rat follicle-stimulating Viral antibodies: anti-H Follicle Stimulating Horm Mouse Anti-Human Follicle Hsp90 total Monoclonals A Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon anti GSK3 Beta IgG2a (mon

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#27142113   2016/06/09 Save this To Up

Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of the p27-CA protein of HERV-K(HML-2).

The detection or quantification of retroviruses is often achieved using an antigen-capture ELISA (AC-ELISA) that targets the Gag capsid (CA) protein. We report here the development of an AC-ELISA specific for the p27-CA protein of HERV-K(HML-2). A monoclonal p27-specific antibody is used for capture and a polyclonal anti-p27-CA immune serum generated in rabbits serves for detection. The assay was shown to be specific for HERV-K(HML-2), showing no evidence of cross reactivity with the human retroviruses HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1 or with XMRV (as a model non-human gammaretrovirus). Using purified recombinant antigen, the limit of detection was shown to be 130pg/ml. The AC-ELISA can be used to quantify HERV-K(HML-2) expression in teratocarcinoma cell lines and to normalize HERV particles generated by transfecting HEK 293T cells with full-length molecular clones. This novel AC-ELISA also proved useful in studies of virus regulation, for example in demonstrating that HERV-K(HML-2) expression is dramatically enhanced by overexpression of Staufen-1, a binding partner of the HERV-K(HML-2) Rec protein. This specific and sensitive HERV-K(HML-2) AC-ELISA will be a useful tool for investigating many aspects of endogenous retroviruses, from basic research to the role they may play in human diseases or as a surrogate marker for particular diseases.

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RETROTEK (ELISAs) SIV p27 SIV p27 antigen ELISA Beta Amyloid (40) ELISA K Beta Amyloid (1 42) ELISA Rabbit Anti-Azurocidin Ca Human Squamous Cell Carci Human squamous cell carci Dog Receptor-binding canc Heartworm antigen canine FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Normal rat multiple organ Normal rat multiple organ

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#27072375   2016/05/28 Save this To Up

Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies.

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#26463341   2015/10/14 Save this To Up

Immunogenicity and protective potential of a Plasmodium spp. enolase peptide displayed on archaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles.

Plasmodium falciparum enolase has been shown to localize on the surface of merozoites and ookinetes. Immunization of mice with recombinant Plasmodium enolase (rPfeno) showed partial protection against malaria. Anti-rPfeno antibodies inhibited growth of the parasite in in vitro cultures and blocked ookinete invasion of mosquito midgut epithelium. It is hypothesized that parasite specific moonlighting functions (e.g. host cell invasion) may map on to unique structural elements of Pfeno. Since enolases are highly conserved between the host and the parasite, a parasite-specific epitope of enolase was displayed on novel protein nanoparticles produced by a halophilic Archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and tested their ability to protect mice against live challenge.

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#25874611   2015/04/16 Save this To Up

Sodium salicylate reduced insulin resistance in the retina of a type 2 diabetic rat model.

Sodium salicylate has been reported to reduce markers of diabetic retinopathy in a type 1 rat model. Because rates of type 2 diabetes are on the rise, we wanted to determine whether salicylate could improve insulin resistance in a type 2 rat model, as well as improve retinal function. We treated lean and obese BBZDR/Wor type 2 diabetic rats with salicylate in their chow for 2 months. Prior to salicylate treatment, rats underwent an electroretinogram to measure retinal function. After 2 months of treatment, rats underwent an additional electroretinogram prior to sacrifice. In addition to the animal model, we also treated retinal endothelial cells (REC) and rat Müller cells with salicylate and performed the same analyses as done for the rat retinal lysates. To investigate the role of salicylate in insulin signaling, we measured TNFα and caspase 3 levels by ELISA, as well as performed Western blotting for insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin receptor, SOCS3, and pro- and anti-apoptotic markers. Data demonstrated that salicylate significantly improved retinal function, as well as reduced TNFα and SOCS3-induced insulin resistance in all samples. Overall, results suggest that salicylate is effective in reducing insulin resistance in the retina of type 2 diabetic rat models.

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Mouse Anti-Human Insulin GLP 1 ELISA Kit, Rat Gluc IGF-1R Signaling Phospho- Insulin Receptor Phospho- High density (188 cases 2 High density (188 cases 2 Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Goat Anti-Rat Collagen, t High density (208 cores), Rat anti mouse LPAM-1 (In

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#25667423   2015/04/01 Save this To Up

Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications.

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#25268351   2014/10/01 Save this To Up

Diagnostic value of a Rec-ELISA using Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1, and GRA1 proteins in murine models infected orally with tissue cysts and oocysts.

Toxoplasma gondii causes congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns resulting with fetal anomalies. Determining the initiation time of infection is very important for pregnant women and current serological assays have drawbacks in distinguishing the recently acute toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of recently acute infection may be improved by using stage specific antigens in serological assays. In the present study, the diagnostic value of sporozoite specific SporoSAG, bradyzoite specific BAG1 proteins and GRA1 protein expressed by all forms of the parasite have been evaluated ELISA using sera systematically collected from mice administered orally with tissue cyst and oocysts. The anti-SporoSAG IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 1, 10, and 15 (P<0.01). The anti-BAG1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly at days 15, 40, and 120 (P<0.05). The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 2, 10, and 40 (P<0.01). The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly only at day 40 (P<0.05). The anti-SporoSAG, anti-BAG1, and anti-GRA1 IgG titers of mice showed significant increases at day 40 (P<0.05) and decrement started for only anti-GRA1 IgG at day 120. The presence of anti-SporoSAG IgM and IgG antibodies can be interpreted as recently acute infection between days 10-40 because IgM decreases at day 40. Similarly, presence of anti-BAG1 IgM and absence of IgG can be evaluated as a recently acute infection that occurred 40 days before because IgG peaks at day 40. A peak in anti-GRA1 antibody level at first testing and reduction in consecutive sample can be considered as an infection approximately around day 40 or prior. Overall, recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1 and GRA1 proteins can be accepted as valuable diagnostic markers of recently acute toxoplasmosis.

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#25138272   2014/08/22 Save this To Up

Etanercept restores normal insulin signal transduction in β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice.

Inhibition of TNFα protects the retina against diabetic-like changes in rodent models. The mechanism by which TNFα induces deleterious retinal changes is not known. Previously, we have shown that TNFα can inhibit normal insulin signal transduction, leading to increased apoptosis in both retinal endothelial cells (REC) and Müller cells. Additionally, β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice (β2KO) have increased TNFα levels and decreased insulin receptor activity. In this study, we hypothesized that inhibition of TNFα in β2KO mice would increase normal insulin signaling, leading to improved retinal function.

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#24334245   2014/03/24 Save this To Up

Human fertilization: epididymal hCRISP1 mediates sperm-zona pellucida binding through its interaction with ZP3.

Human epididymal CRISP1 (hCRISP1) associates with sperm during maturation and participates in gamete fusion through egg complementary sites. Its homology with both rodent epididymal CRISP1 and CRISP4 reported to participate in the previous stage of sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP), led us to further investigate the functional role of hCRISP1 by studying its involvement in human sperm-ZP interaction. Human hemizona (HZ) were inseminated with human capacitated sperm in the presence of either anti-hCRISP1 polyclonal antibody to inhibit sperm hCRISP1, or bacterially-expressed hCRISP1 (rec-hCRISP1) to block putative hCRISP1 binding sites in the ZP. Results revealed that both anti-hCRISP1 and rec-hCRISP1 produced a significant inhibition in the number of sperm bound per HZ compared with the corresponding controls. The finding that neither anti-hCRISP1 nor rec-hCRISP1 affected capacitation-associated events (i.e. sperm motility, protein tyrosine phosphorylation or acrosome reaction) supports a specific inhibition at the sperm-egg interaction level. Moreover, immunofluorescence experiments using human ZP-intact eggs revealed the presence of complementary sites for hCRISP1 in the ZP. To identify the ligand of hCRISP1 in the ZP, human recombinant proteins ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 expressed in insect cells were co-incubated with hCRISP1 and protein-protein interaction was analyzed by ELISA. Results revealed that rec-hCRISP1 mainly interacted with ZP3 in a dose-dependent and saturable manner, supporting the specificity of this interaction. Altogether, these results indicate that hCRISP1 is a multifunctional protein involved not only in sperm-egg fusion but also in the previous stage of sperm-ZP binding through its specific interaction with human ZP3.

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