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           Search results for: Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) (APOB 100)    

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#28958330   2017/09/29 Save this To Up

Genetically Confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Genetic screening programs in unselected individuals with increased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have shown modest results in identifying individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).

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#28751575   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

Effects of Intranasal Insulin on Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Particle Production in Healthy Men.

Insulin administered directly into the brain acutely suppresses hepatic glucose production and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion in rodents. In addition, intranasally administered insulin, which selectively raises cerebrospinal fluid insulin concentration, suppresses hepatic glucose production in humans; however, its effect on TRL secretion in humans has not previously been examined. In this study, we examined whether intranasal insulin, administered at a dose that has previously been shown to suppress hepatic glucose production, modulates TRL particle secretion by the liver and intestine in humans.

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#28702990   2017/07/13 Save this To Up

Relationship between Amphipathic β Structures in the β1 Domain of Apolipoprotein B and the Properties of the Secreted Lipoprotein Particles in McA-RH7777 Cells.

Our previous studies demonstrated that the first 1000 amino acid residues (the βα1 domain) of human apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, termed apoB:1000, are required for the initiation of lipoprotein assembly and the formation of a monodisperse stable phospholipid (PL)-rich particle. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the effects on the properties of apoB truncates undergoing sequential inclusion of the amphipathic β strands in the 700 N-terminal residues of the β1 domain of apoB-100 and (b) to identify the subdomain in the β1 domain that is required for the formation of a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP)-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich apoB-containing particle. Characterization of particles secreted by stable transformants of McA-RH7777 cells demonstrated the following. (1) The presence of amphipathic β strands in the 200 N-terminal residues of the β1 domain resulted in the secretion of apoB truncates (apoB:1050 to apoB:1200) as both lipidated and lipid-poor particles. (2) Inclusion of residues 300-700 of the β1 domain led to the secretion of apoB:1300, apoB:1400, apoB:1500, and apoB:1700 predominantly as lipidated particles. (3) Particles containing residues 1050-1500 were all rich in PL. (4) There was a marked increase in the lipid loading capacity and TAG content of apoB:1700-containing particles. (5) Only the level of secretion of apoB:1700 was markedly diminished by MTP inhibitor BMS-197636. These results suggest that apoB:1700 marks the threshold for the formation of a TAG-rich particle and support the concept that MTP participates in apoB assembly and secretion at the stage where particles undergo a transition from PL-rich to TAG-rich.

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#28572160   2017/06/02 Save this To Up

Oxidized Phospholipids and Risk of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease: The Copenhagen General Population Study.

Lipoprotein(a) is causally associated with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Lipoprotein(a) carries proinflammatory and procalcific oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). We tested whether the CAVD risk is mediated by the content of OxPL on lipoprotein(a).

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#28487135   2017/05/10 Save this To Up

Estrogen-enhanced apical and basolateral secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 by polarized trophoblast-derived BeWo cells.

Cholesterol is an important nutrient for fetal development and transplacental transport occurs at all stages of human pregnancy. Furthermore, cholesterol is required for membrane building as well as steroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, all placental cell types require cholesterol for proper function. In human term placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) faces the maternal circulation. Uptake of maternal-derived cholesterol at the apical membrane of the STB is well understood, but the route by which cholesterol exits at the basal side for subsequent transfer across the fetal endothelial cells (FEC) or to other placental cell types remains not well characterized. Our aim was to provide evidence for basal secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) containing lipoproteins. Furthermore, we investigated the placental localization of apolipoprotein receptors (LRP2, LDLR and LRP1) to identify cell targets of lipoprotein particles secreted in a polarized fashion by the STB. In trophoblast-derived BeWo cells grown on permeable filter supports, we demonstrate by immunoprecipitation apical as well as basolateral apoB secretion, which was significantly upregulated by estrogen-treatment for 24 or 48 h. Furthermore, we showed by immunofluorescence microscopy apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein subunits localization in the STB and placental stromal cells in situ. All investigated receptors were detected by RT-qPCR and western blot in BeWo cells, but only expression of LRP2 was estrogen-inducible. In situ, the multi-ligand receptor LRP2 was expressed exclusively in the cytotrophoblast (CTB), the STB precursor cell type. LDLR and LRP1 localized to trophoblasts as well as stromal cells in situ. In summary, basal apoB secretion by BeWo cells supports the concept of basal lipoprotein particle secretion by placental STB. These lipoprotein particles may serve as cholesterol source for STB precursor cells, the CTBs, as well as all stromal cells of the chorionic villi including FECs, which were herein demonstrated to express apoB receptors, LRP2 and LDLR, respectively.

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#28473443   2017/05/05 Save this To Up

Relationship of Autoantibodies to MDA-LDL and ApoB-Immune Complexes to Sex, Ethnicity, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Events.

Modifications of lipid constituents within atherosclerotic lesions generate neoepitopes that activate innate and adaptive immune responses. We aimed to define the prevalence, distribution, and relationship of autoantibody titers of oxidized lipoproteins to subclinical atherosclerosis and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in different ethnic groups.

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#28463548   2017/05/02 Save this To Up

Effects of oolonghomobisflavan A on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been suggested to be involved in the onset of atherosclerosis. Oolong tea contains unique polyphenols including oolonghomobisflavan A (OFA). In this study, the effects of OFA on LDL oxidation by ROS and RNS were investigated in vitro. OFA suppressed formation of cholesterol ester hydroperoxides in LDL oxidized by peroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, and formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in LDL oxidized by Cu(2+). In addition, OFA inhibited fragmentation, carbonylation, and nitration of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) in the oxidized LDL, in which heparin-binding activity of apo B-100 was protected by OFA. Our results suggest that OFA exhibits antioxidant activity against both lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of apo B-100 in LDL oxidized by ROS and RNS. Polyphenols in oolong tea may prevent atherosclerosis by reducing oxidative stress.

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#28379029   2017/04/05 Save this To Up

Molecular genetic background of an autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia in the Czech Republic.

Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), more known as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), is a lipid metabolism disorder characterized by an elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we assessed a spectrum of mutations causing ADH in 3914 unrelated Czech patients with clinical diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Samples have been collected within the framework of the MedPed project running in the Czech Republic since 1998. So far we have found 432 patients (11.0 %) with the APOB gene mutation p.(Arg3527Gln) and 864 patients (22.1 %) with the LDLR gene mutation. In 864 probands carrying the LDLR gene mutation, 182 unique allelic variants were detected. We have identified 14 patients homozygous for mutations in the LDLR or APOB genes. We performed function analyses of p.(Leu15Pro) and p.(Gly20Arg) sequence variations.

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#28336556   2017/03/24 Save this To Up

Human MicroRNA-548p Decreases Hepatic Apolipoprotein B Secretion and Lipid Synthesis.

MicroRNAs (miRs) play important regulatory roles in lipid metabolism. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), as the only essential scaffolding protein in the assembly of very-low-density lipoproteins, is a target to treat hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. We aimed to find out miRs that reduce apoB expression.

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#28320416   2017/03/21 Save this To Up

Effect of the R92H and A379V genotypes of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase on its enzyme activity, oxidative stress and metabolic profile in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

The G994T polymorphism in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) gene is associated with the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between R92H and A379V variants of the PAF-AH gene and the risk of PCOS and to evaluate the effects of the genotypes on PAF-AH activities and clinical, metabolic and oxidative stress indexes in Chinese women.

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