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#28928512   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

Determination of antioxidant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

From ancient times, plants and plant derived products are exploited as a prominent source of folkloric medicines with tremendous therapeutic potential for an array of health disorders. In the present study, ethanolic leaf extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system. H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus showed tremendous DPPH free radical scavenging potential with an IC50 value of 184.88 and 305.39 µg/mL respectively at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The ethanolic leaf extract of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus also showed significant hydoxyl radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid was used as positive control. The in vitro antioxidant activity was further supported by in vivo studies using radical scavenging mechanism in S. cerevisiae wild type and its isogenic deletion strains sod1∆ and tsa1∆. The mutant yeast cells substantially scavenged the stress generated by H2O2 when supplemented with ethanolic leaf extract of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus as evident from spot assays followed by fluorescence assay (DCF-DA) using fluorescence microscopic and intensity studies. H. sabdariffa and C.caudatus significantly neutralize the ROS level in yeast mutants with concomitant decrease in fluorescence intensity as compared to the untreated yeast cells. The results suggested the efficacy of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus as potent antioxidants in yeast system and thus their futuristic applications in therapeutics.

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#28887918   2017/09/09 Save this To Up

Hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic effects of a tannin rich extract from Ximenia americana var. caffra root.

Liver diseases and diabetes are serious health disorders associated with oxidative stress and ageing. Some plant polyphenols can lower the risk of these diseases.

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#28827984   2017/08/22 Save this To Up

Ramalina capitata (Ach.) Nyl. acetone extract: HPLC analysis, genotoxicity, cholinesterase, antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

In the present investigation, effects of Ramalina capitata acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes, on cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity (by the CUPRAC method) were examined, for the first time as well as its HPLC profile. Additionally, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant properties (estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays) and antibacterial activity were determined. The predominant phenolic compounds in this extract were evernic, everninic and obtusatic acids. Acetone extract of R. capitata at concentration of 2 μg mL(-1) decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN) for 14.8 %. The extract reduces the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals for 21.2 and 36.1 % (respectively). Values for total reducing power (TRP) and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC) were 0.4624 ± 0.1064 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) per mg of dry extract, and 6.1176 ± 0.2964 μg Trolox equivalents (TE) per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 670.6376 ± 66.554 μg galic acid equivalents (GAE) per mg of dry extract. Tested extract at concentration of 2 mg mL(-1) exhibited inhibition effect (5.2 %) on pooled human serum cholinesterase. The antimicrobial assay showed that acetone extract had inhibition effect towards Gram-positive strains. The results of manifested antioxidant activity, reducing the number of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, and antibacterial activity recommends R. capitata extract for further in vivo studies.

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#28827964   2017/08/22 Save this To Up

Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activity of Asparagopsis taxiformis.

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Rhodophyta) is a species of red algae belonging to the family Bonnemaisoniaceae. The objective of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of four fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) of A. taxiformis.

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#28808393   2017/08/15 Save this To Up

Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Properties of S-1708 Mulberry Variety.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease prevalent worldwide in all age group of people. The source of diabetes is due to an oxidation process that can produce free radicals. An increase in oxidative free radicals in the body is reported to be one of the several causes of diabetes. The best remedy to combat oxidative stress is the use of antioxidants, which inhibit and scavenge free radicals.

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#28763999   2017/08/02 Save this To Up

Antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil enriched by myrtle phenolic extracts on iron-mediated lipid peroxidation under intestinal conditions model.

Chelating and free radicals scavenging activities of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched by Myrtus communis phenolic compounds (McPCs), α-tocopherol and Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were evaluated using chemical assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and biological model as 2,2'-azobis (2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) or Fe(+3)/Ascorbic acid (Fe(+3)/AsA) system mediated peroxidation of l-α-phosphatidylcholine aqueous dispersions stabilized by bile salts (BS) under simulated intestinal conditions (pH 7.4). McPC-EEVOO increased significantly the neutralization of DPPH radical and AAPH-derived radicals in ORAC assay more than α-tocopherol and BHT. The phospholipid stability increased by a factor of 33.6%, 34.8%, 19.3% and 10.7% for myrtle microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and conventional extraction (CE) extracts, α-tocopherol and BHT, respectively, as compared to the control (EVOO without enrichment) in Fe(+3)/AsA system. But a slightly additive effect was observed when AAPH system was used. Our observation showed that McPCs may interact positively with EVOO to inhibit phospholipid peroxidation, and thus, McPC-EEVOO could be a potential functional food.

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#28763750   2017/08/01 Save this To Up

New insights into the antioxidant and apoptotic potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. during hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress: An in vitro and in silico evaluation.

Plant-derived substances (phytochemicals) are well recognized as sources of pharmacologically potent drugs in the treatment of several oxidative stress related disorders. Our study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and apoptotic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in both cell free and cell culture system. Plant fractions have been prepared with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and their antioxidant properties are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in silico studies which is believed to be responsible for the anticancerous nature of the plant. Results obtained indicate that methanol fraction of G. glabra L. exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric oxide free radicals comparable to standard antioxidant L-AA. Administration of methanol fraction also considerably reduced the malondialdehyde produced due to lipid peroxidation in mammalian liver tissues. Moreover, the levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GST, GPx and GR in the oxidative stress induced tissues were refurbished significantly after treatment with plant's methanol fraction. Moreover, methanol fraction was found to be nontoxic to normal human cell line whereas it inhibited cancer cells HeLa and HepG2 considerably. Apoptosis was established by DAPI fluorescent staining and western blot analysis of pro apoptotic protein caspase-8, caspase-3 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.There is an up regulation in the levels of pro apoptotic caspase-8 and caspase-3 and down regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of the methanol fraction revealed the presence of many compounds. In silico experiments using Autodock 4.2 tools showed strong affinity of plant compounds towards antioxidant enzymes (proteins) thus validating with the conclusions of antioxidant enzyme assays and establishing a role in cancer pathogenesis.

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#28754375   2017/07/29 Save this To Up

An evaluation of myeloperoxidase-mediated bio-activation of NSAIDs in promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells for potential cytotoxic selectivity.

Several lines of evidence have pointed towards the potential therapeutic benefit of NSAIDs in cancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the acute bio-activation of NSAIDs and their metabolites via myeloperoxidase (MPO), a highly-expressed peroxidase enzyme in acute myeloid leukemia. As bio-activation involves the formation of reactive metabolites, we hypothesized that NSAIDs which produced reactive metabolites would be correlated with leukemia cell toxicity. We tested the enzymatic peroxidation of three NSAIDs, namely diclofenac, indomethacin, and naproxen in comparison with their hepatic metabolites, 4'- hydroxydiclofenac (4'-OHD), 5-hydroxydiclofenac (5-OHD), O-desmethyl-N-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DMBI), O-desmethylindomethacin (DMI) and O-desmethylnaproxen (ODN). Firstly, we used purified peroxidases in kinetic UV-vis kinetic spectrophotometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments to determine oxidation of ascorbic acid and glutathione (GSH), respectively. We then used HL-60 cells, as a model of acute myelogenous leukemia to carry out trypan blue exclusion, cellular ATP analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytofluorometric GSH assays. Our results present evidence that diclofenac, 4'-OHD, 5-OHD, DMBI and DMI demonstrated significant cytotoxic effect in the leukemic cells through oxidation by intracellular MPO. In the same vein, only diclofenac and its two metabolites caused a significant drop in the MMP and cellular ATP level; however, the cell death induced by indomethacin metabolites reflected a subtle effect on MMP or GSH content. Interestingly, only diclofenac and 4'-OHD (and not 5- OHD) caused a significant drop in HL-60 cells' GSH content. Among diclofenac compounds, only 4'-OHD also generated GS radical and caused a significant increase in ascorbate co-oxidation rate. Lastly, even though ODN also generated GS radical and potently cooxidized ascorbate, it showed no significant cytotoxicity. These results provide evidence of a correlation between acute cytotoxicity and MPO-bioactivated NSAIDs, though this was not correlated for all compounds (e.g., ODN). Further studies are required to determine both the MPO-dependent and MPO-independent mechanisms of cytotoxicity.

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#28737734   2017/07/24 Save this To Up

Storage of Fruits and Vegetables in Refrigerator Increases their Phenolic Acids but Decreases the Total Phenolics, Anthocyanins and Vitamin C with Subsequent Loss of their Antioxidant Capacity.

It is of paramount importance for consumers, scientists and industrialists to understand how low-temperature storage of food items affects their bioactive compounds and properties. This study evaluated the effects of cold storage on total phenolics (TP), phenolic acids profile (PA), total anthocyanins (TA), total ascorbic acid (Vit. C) and antioxidant activity (AA) of 19 fruits and vegetables, collected from local Indian markets and stored in refrigerator (4 °C) during 15 days. Content of TP was highest in dill and amaranth and decreased (up to 29.67%) with storage. Leafy vegetables (amaranth, dill, onion, fenugreek and spinach) contained higher amounts of the 12 PA revealed by UPLC-UV; ellagic, gallic, sinapic and vanillic acids levels were the highest; chlorogenic acid (ρ = 0.423), syringic acid (ρ = 0.403) and sinapic acid (ρ = 0.452) mostly correlated with TP; and the PA increased during storage. Highest contents of Vit C estimated by AOAC, DCPIP and DNP methods were found in amaranth, dill and pomegranate, and decreased with storage. Pomegranate showed highest TA levels and low-temperature storage did not significantly increase TA, which was the largest contributor of TP in fruits and vegetables (ρ = 0.661). Storage induced a drastic decrease of AA, which mostly correlated with TP (ρ = 0.808, 0.690 and 0.458 for DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, respectively). Spearman's correlation confirmed by principal component analysis demonstrated that dill, pomegranate and amaranth had the highest overall antioxidant capacity, whereas orange juice and carrot showed the lowest. The results provide support for a key-role of TP, followed by Vit. C and TA in antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables, which could be interesting dietary sources of natural antioxidants for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.

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#28698451   2017/07/12 Save this To Up

Phenolics from Mikania micrantha and Their Antioxidant Activity.

A phytochemical study on the aerial parts of Mikania micrantha led to the isolation of two new phenolic compounds, benzyl 5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (1) and (7S,8R)-threo-dihydroxydehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-acetate (2), together with twelve known compounds, benzyl 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2,6-dihydroxybenzoate (3), 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol glucoside (4), (+)-isolariciresinol (5), icariol A₂ (6), 9,10-dihydroxythymol (7), 8,9,10-trihydroxythymol (8), caffeic acid (9), p-coumaric acid (10), ethyl protocatechuate (11), procatechuic aldehyde (12), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (13), and hydroquinone (14). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Except 8 and 9, all the other compounds were isolated from this plant species for the first time. The antioxidant activity of those isolated compounds were evaluated using three different assays. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 13, and 14 demonstrated significant 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radical cation scavenging activity ranging from SC50 0.31 to 4.86 µM, which were more potent than l-ascorbic acid (SC50 = 10.48 µM). Compounds 5, 9, 11, and 12 exhibited more potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (SC50 = 16.24-21.67 µM) than l-ascorbic acid (39.48 µM). Moreover, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of compounds 2, 5, 9, and 11 were discovered to be also comparable to or even more potent than l-ascorbic acid.

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