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Spatiotemporal, metabolic, and therapeutic characterization of altered functional connectivity in major depressive disorder.

Although imbalanced functional integration has been increasingly reported in major depressive disorder (MDD), there still lacks a general framework to characterize common characteristic and origin shared by the integrative disturbances. Here we examined spatial selectivity, temporal uniqueness, metabolic basis, and therapeutic response of altered functional connectivity (FC) in MDD by analyzing both cross-sectional and longitudinal multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 35 patients and 34 demographically matched healthy controls. First, based on a voxel-wise, data-driven, graph-based degree centrality approach, the bilateral anterior cingulate gyri, middle frontal gyri and superior frontal gyri, and the right parahippocampal gyrus were robustly identified to show decreased FC in MDD. Further spatiotemporal analyses revealed that these regions exhibited hub-like features and were selectively located in limbic and default mode networks spatially and, relative to other areas in the brain, exhibited unique, frequency-dependent oscillation power (stronger within 0.01-0.027 Hz and weaker within 0.027-0.073 Hz) and less dynamical variability of whole-brain FC profiles temporally. Moreover, a cross-modality fusion analysis showed that all MDD-related FC impairments were associated with reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF); however, there existed multiple regions that showed reduced CBF but had intact FC in the patients, which resulted in a decreased FC-CBF coupling and implied an earlier emergence of reduced CBF than impaired FC in MDD. Finally, the disrupted FC in MDD gradually recovered over the course of drug treatment (2 and 12 weeks). Altogether, these findings could help establish a general framework to provide mechanistic insights into integrative dysfunctions in MDD.

1855 related Products with: Spatiotemporal, metabolic, and therapeutic characterization of altered functional connectivity in major depressive disorder.

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Respiration pattern variability and related default mode network connectivity are altered in remitted depression.

Studies with healthy participants and patients with respiratory diseases suggest a relation between respiration and mood. The aim of the present analyses was to investigate whether emotionally challenged remitted depressed participants show higher respiration pattern variability (RPV) and whether this is related to mood, clinical outcome and increased default mode network connectivity.

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Sex differences of hippocampal structure in bipolar disorder.

Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17). Patients had significantly decreased left parahippocampal gyrus area and left/right hippocampal volume compared to normal controls. Within the BD group only, female patients presented with smaller right hippocampal volume than males. In the Spatial Span (SS) test (used to assess working memory capacity) and the Maze test (used to evaluate the ability to anticipate), patients demonstrated decreased performance compared to normal controls, with a significant main effect of sex. Left parahippocampal gyrus area and right hippocampal volume were positively correlated with SS and Maze in patients; moreover, right hippocampal volume predicted 17.4% of SS performance variance. These results suggest that there may be a difference between male and female patients with regard to right hippocampal volume, and that female patients may need more attention than males.

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Disrupted topological organization of the frontal-mesolimbic network in obese patients.

Neuroimaging studies have revealed brain functional abnormalities in frontal-mesolimbic regions in obesity. However, the effects of obesity on brain network topology remains largely unknown. In the current study, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory methods to investigate obesity-related changes in brain network topology in 26 obese patients and 28 normal weight subjects. Results revealed that the whole-brain networks of the two groups exhibited typical features of small-world topology. Obese patients showed significantly increased shortest path length (Lp) and decreased global efficiency (Eglob). Moreover, decreased nodal-degree/efficiency was found in frontal (medial orbitofrontal cortex-mOFC, rostral anterior cingulate cortex-rACC), striatal (caudate/nucleus accumbens) and limbic regions (insula, amygdala, hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus) and thalamus in obese patients. Network-based statistics showed that a sub-network, composed of 31 nodes and 30 edges, was significantly disrupted in obese patients; 29 out of 30 connections were associated with the right rACC. In the obese group, Lp and Eglob were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, P < 0.005), and BMI was negatively correlated with nodal-degree/efficiency of the mOFC (P < 0.001). Findings suggest disruption of the small-world organization and a global reduction of integration of functional brain networks involving the right rACC in obesity and implicating the mOFC in mediating severity.

1252 related Products with: Disrupted topological organization of the frontal-mesolimbic network in obese patients.

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Heightened Responses of the Parahippocampal and Retrosplenial Cortices during Contextualized Recognition of Congruent Objects.

Context sometimes helps make objects more recognizable. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have examined regional neural activity when objects have strong or weak associations with their contexts. Such studies have demonstrated that activity in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) generally corresponds with strong associations between objects and their spatial contexts while retrosplenial cortex (RSC) activity is linked with episodic memory. However these studies investigated objects viewed in associated contexts, but the direct influence of scene on the perception of visual objects has not been widely investigated. We hypothesized that the PHC and RSC may only be engaged for congruent contexts in which the object could typically be found but not for neutral contexts. While in an fMRI scanner, 15 participants rated the recognizability of 152 photographic images of objects, presented within congruent and incongruent contexts. Regions of interest were created to examine PHC and RSC activity using a hypothesis-driven approach. Exploratory analyses were also performed to identify other regional activity. In line with previous studies, PHC and RSC activity emerged when objects were viewed in congruent contexts. Activity in the RSC, inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and fusiform gyrus also emerged. These findings indicate that different brain regions are employed when objects are meaningfully contextualized.

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Facial emotion processing in patients with seizure disorders.

Studies of emotion processing are needed to better understand the pathophysiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). We examined the differences in facial emotion processing between 12 patients with PNES, 12 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and 24 matched healthy controls (HCs) using fMRI with emotional faces task (EFT) (happy/sad/fearful/neutral) and resting state connectivity. Compared with TLE, patients with PNES exhibited increased fMRI response to happy, neutral, and fearful faces in visual, temporal, and/or parietal regions and decreased fMRI response to sad faces in the putamen bilaterally. Regions showing significant differences between PNES and TLE were used as functional seed regions of interest (ROIs), in addition to amygdala structural seed ROIs for resting state functional connectivity analyses. Whole brain analyses showed that compared with TLE and HCs, patients with PNES exhibited increased functional connectivity of the functional seed ROIs to several brain regions, particularly to cerebellar, visual, motor, and frontotemporal regions. Connectograms showed increased functional connections between left parahippocampal gyrus/uncus ROIs and right temporal ROIs in PNES compared with both the TLE and HC groups. Resting state functional connectivity of the left and right amygdala to various brain regions including emotion regulation and motor control circuits was increased in PNES when compared with those with TLE. This study provides preliminary evidence that patients with PNES exhibit altered facial emotion processing compared with patients with TLE and HCs and increased amygdala functional connectivity compared with TLE. These findings identify potential key differences in facial emotion processing reflective of neurophysiologic markers of neural circuitry alterations that can be used to generate further hypotheses for developing studies that examine the contributions of emotion processing to the development and maintenance of PNES.

2737 related Products with: Facial emotion processing in patients with seizure disorders.

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The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study.

Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent samples using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The whole-brain analysis showed procrastination was positively correlated with the graymatter (GM) volume of clusters in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), while negatively correlated with the GM volume of clusters in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in sample one (151 participants). We further conducted a verification procedure on another sample (108 participants) using region-of-interest analysis to examine the reliability of these results. Results showed procrastination can be predicted by the GM volume of the OFC and the MFG. The present findings suggest that the MFG and OFC, which are the key regions of self-control and emotion regulation, may play an important role in procrastination.

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Transauricular vagus nerve stimulation at auricular acupoints Kindey (CO10), Yidan (CO11), Liver (CO12) and Shenmen (TF4) can induce auditory and limbic cortices activation measured by fMRI.

The purpose of this study was to explore the central mechanism of transauricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to human by fMRI and to find a suitable taVNS site for potential tinnitus treatment. 24 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 38 years were enrolled in the experiment. 8 subjects were stimulated in the auricular acupoints Kindey (CO10), Yidan (CO11), Liver (CO12) and Shenmen (TF4) in the left ear, 8 subjects were stimulated at the anterior wall of the auditory canal and left lower limb as an anterior stimulation group; 8 persons who were arranged in a sham group received taVNS at the left ear lobe and tail of the helix. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from the cortices was collected and an Alphasim analysis was performed. We found that taVNS at auricular acupoints CO10-12, TF4 can instantly and effectively generate blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes in the prefrontal, auditory and limbic cortices of healthy subjects by fMRI. When comparing the acupoints group and the sham group in the left brain, the signals from the prefrontal cortex, the auditory ascending pathway including superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, thalamus and limbic system regions such as putamen, caudate, posterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus were increased under our stimulation. The difference of the BOLD signal in the left brain between acupoints group and anterior group was in the superior temporal gyrus. We could also find signal differences in several regions of right brain among the groups. In conclusion, taVNS at acupoints CO10-12, TF4 could activate the prefrontal, auditory and limbic cortices of healthy brain and this scheme could be a promising tool for tinnitus treatment.

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Meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies of gray matter abnormalities in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis.

We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to systematically determine the most consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormality in patients of unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), and to reveal the difference of GMV abnormality between the patients with left-sided and right-sided MTLE-HS. A comprehensive and systematic search was performed in PubMed for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of MTLE-HS. A total of 12 MTLE-HS studies, including 9 left-sided MTLE-HS (LMTLE-HS) and 8 right-sided MTLE-HS (RMTLE-HS) studies were included. The activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was applied in our meta-analysis. Compared to the healthy controls, MTLE-HS patients showed significant GMV decrease in the parahippocampal gyrus, left pulvinar and right pyramis. For LMTLE-HS, the most consistent GMV decrease was detected in the left parahippocampal gyrus. For RMTLE-HS, the most consistent GMV decrease was found in the right parahippocampal gyrus. No shared regions of significant GMV reduction were found between LMTLE-HS and RMTLE-HS either. This meta-analysis revealed that MTLE-HS patients had significant GMV reduction even beyond the hippocampus, and the subtypes showed distinct reduction patterns. Our findings, if were further verified with larger samples, would have implications for the clinical diagnosis of MTLE-HS.

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Neural Activity During Mental Rotation in Deaf Signers: The Influence of Long-Term Sign Language Experience.

Mental rotation is the brain's visuospatial understanding of what objects are and where they belong. Previous research indicated that deaf signers showed behavioral enhancement for nonlinguistic visual tasks, including mental rotation. In this study, we investigated the neural difference of mental rotation processing between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

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