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#29038030   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

Dynamic functional connectivity impairments in early schizophrenia and clinical high-risk for psychosis.

Individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by attenuated psychotic symptoms. Only a minority of CHR individuals convert to full-blown psychosis. Therefore, there is a strong interest in identifying neurobiological abnormalities underlying the psychosis risk syndrome. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) captures time-varying connectivity over short time scales, and has the potential to reveal complex brain functional organization. Based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 70 healthy controls (HCs), 53 CHR individuals, and 58 early illness schizophrenia (ESZ) patients, we applied a novel group information guided ICA (GIG-ICA) to estimate inherent connectivity states from DFC, and then investigated group differences. We found that ESZ patients showed more aberrant connectivities and greater alterations than CHR individuals. Results also suggested that disease-related connectivity states occurred in CHR and ESZ groups. Regarding the dominant state with the highest contribution to dynamic connectivity, ESZ patients exhibited greater impairments than CHR individuals primarily in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, thalamus and temporal cortex, while CHR and ESZ populations shared common aberrances mainly in the supplementary motor area, parahippocampal gyrus and postcentral cortex. CHR-specific changes were also found in the connections between the superior frontal gyrus and calcarine cortex in the dominant state. Our findings show that CHR individuals generally show an intermediate functional connectivity pattern between HCs and SZ patients but also have unique connectivity alterations.

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#29035999   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

Effects on 18F-FDG PET/CT Brain Glucose Metabolism in Rectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Retrospective study of the effects of anticancer treatment on the brain metabolism of patients diagnosed with rectal cancer based on a large and homogeneous sample of 40 paired F-FDG PET/CT volumes taken from 20 patients. The results are compared to the ones presented by related works to help elucidating the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated to a decrease in memory, learning and motor skills.

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#29025134   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

Cannabis dampens the effects of music in brain regions sensitive to reward and emotion.

Despite the current shift towards permissive cannabis policies, few studies have investigated the pleasurable effects users seek. Here we investigate the effects of cannabis on listening to music - a rewarding activity that frequently occurs in the context of recreational cannabis use. We additionally tested how these effects are influenced by cannabidiol (CBD), which may offset cannabis-related harms.

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#29023704   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

GABAA receptor subunits in the human amygdala and hippocampus: Immunohistochemical distribution of 7 subunits.

GABAergic neurotransmission in the amygdala contributes to the regulation of emotional processes in anxiety, stress, reward, mnestic functions, addiction, and epilepsy. Species-specific differences in the distribution and composition of GABAA receptors may account for distinct effects and side-effects of GABAergic agents. However, data on the distribution and composition of GABAA receptors in the human amygdala are lacking. Here, the expression of GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, α5, β2, β2/3 and γ2 was studied in the human amygdala using immunohistochemistry. Hippocampi were evaluated as a reference structure. Neuronal counts and field fraction analyses were performed, and subcellular expression of GABAA receptor subunits was analyzed semiquantitatively. In the amygdala, field fraction analyses showed the highest α1 expression in the lateral nucleus (La), whereas α3 was prominent in intercalated nuclei (IC), and α5 and γ2 in the cortical nuclei, and amygdalo-hippocampal/parahippocampal-amygdala transition areas. In the hippocampus, α1 and α3 were accentuated in the dentate gyrus, CA1 region, and subiculum, whereas α5 expression was rather uniform. In both regions, α2 was homogenously distributed, and the two β subunits and γ2 showed faint immunostaining. The intensity of subunit expression also varied in the neuropil, neuronal somata and/or cellular processes in the subregions. GABAA receptors containing subunit α1, showing the strongest expression in the La, and α3, with the strongest expression in the IC and subiculum, could be targets for treating amygdala-related disorders. Differences in GABAA receptor subunit expression between the human and rodent amygdala should be taken into consideration when developing subunit-selective drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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#28988234   2017/10/08 Save this To Up

Dynamics of Goldfish Subregional Hippocampal Pallium Activity throughout Spatial Memory Formation.

The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure the level of activation along the rostrocaudal axis of the ventral (Dlv) and dorsal parts of the dorsolateral division (Dld) and in the dorsoposterior division (Dp) of the goldfish telencephalic pallium throughout the time course of the learning process of a spatial memory task. The results revealed a significant increase in spatial memory-related metabolic activity in the Dlv, but not in the Dld, suggesting that the Dlv, but not the Dld, is comparable to the amniote hippocampus. Regarding the Dlv, the level of activation of the precommissural Dlv significantly increased at training onset but progressively declined to finally return to the basal pretraining level when the animals mastered the spatial task. In contrast, the commissural Dlv activation persisted even when the acquisition phase was completed and the animal's performance reached an asymptotic level. These results suggest that, like the dentate gyrus of mammals, the goldfish precommissural Dlv seems to respond nonlinearly to increments of change in sensory input, performing pattern separation under highly dissimilar input patterns. In addition, like the CA3 of mammals, the commissural Dlv likely operates in a continuum between two modes, a pattern separation or storage operation mode at early acquisition when the change in the sensory input is high, probably driven by the precommissural Dlv output, and a pattern completion or recall operation mode when the animals have mastered the task and the change in sensory input is small. Finally, an unexpected result of the present study is the persistent activation of the area Dp throughout the complete spatial task training period, which suggests that the Dp could be an important component of the pallial network involved in spatial memory in goldfish, and supports the hypothesis proposing that the Dp is a specialized part of the hippocampal pallium network.

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#28980607   2017/10/05 Save this To Up

[Metavestibular disorders and disorders of higher vestibular function].

Vertigo, instability, oscillopsia and concomitant autonomic disorders are classical and well-known symptoms of vestibular disorders. At the same time, recent studies suggest that there are more complicated vestibular dysfunctions caused by the cortical projections of the vestibular system. The central vestibular system includes parietal temporal cortex and insular, anterior intraparietal sulcus, posterior parietal and medial parts of the superior temporal gyrus, singular gyrus retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal area. The central part of the vestibular system closely interacts with other afferent systems forming a multisensory structure of higher brain functions. Dysfunctions of higher vestibular function play an important role in the development of clinical syndromes including pusher syndrome, room tilt illusion, unilateral spatial neglect syndrome, impairment of spatial memory and navigation. These syndromes can develop due to the direct damage of the cortical vestibular system or as a result of disconnection between the vestibular cortex and other parts of the sensory cortex.

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#28975729   2017/10/04 Save this To Up

Brain processing of rectal sensation in adolescents with functional defecation disorders and healthy controls.

Decreased sensation of urge to defecate is often reported by children with functional constipation (FC) and functional nonretentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate cerebral activity in response to rectal distension in adolescents with FC and FNRFI compared with healthy controls (HCs).

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#28968727   2017/10/02 Save this To Up

Multiscale Integration of Contextual Information During a Naturalistic Task.

Everyday experience requires rapid and automatic integration of incoming stimuli with previously stored knowledge. Prior knowledge can help to construct a general "situation model" of the event, as well as aid comprehension of an ongoing narrative. Using fMRI in healthy adult humans, we investigated processing of videos whose locations and characters were always familiar but whose narratives were either a continuation or noncontinuation of an earlier video (high context (HC) or low context (LC), respectively). Responses in parahippocampal gyrus and retrosplenial cortex were composed of an initial transient, locked to the video onsets, followed by a period of lower amplitude activation that was greater in the LC condition. This may reflect rapid processing of core components of situation models such as location and characters and more gradual incorporation of their narrative themes. By contrast, activity increases in left hemisphere middle temporal gyrus (MTG), angular gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus were maintained throughout the videos and were higher for HC versus LC videos. Further, activity in the left MTG peaked earlier in the HC condition. We suggest that these regions support representations of the specific interlinked concepts necessary to comprehend an ongoing narrative, which are already established for the HC videos.

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#28967351   2017/10/02 Save this To Up

Acute LSD effects on response inhibition neural networks.

Recent evidence shows that the serotonin 2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor, 5-HT2AR) is critically involved in the formation of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairments in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced states and neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the interaction between 5-HT2AR activation, cognitive impairments and visual hallucinations is still poorly understood. This study explored the effect of 5-HT2AR activation on response inhibition neural networks in healthy subjects by using LSD and further tested whether brain activation during response inhibition under LSD exposure was related to LSD-induced visual hallucinations.

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#28964596   2017/10/01 Save this To Up

MRI-Guided stereotactic laser ablation for epilepsy surgery: Promising preliminary results for cognitive outcome.

Cognitive outcome data are reviewed with respect to the use of magnetic-resonance guided stereotactic laser ablation (SLA) as an epilepsy surgical procedure, with comparisons drawn to traditional open resection procedures. Cognitive outcome with stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) appears better than open resection for several functions dependent on extra-mesial temporal lobe (TL) structures, including category-related naming, verbal fluency, and object/familiar person recognition. Preliminary data suggests episodic, declarative verbal memory can decline following SLAH in the language dominant hemisphere, although early findings suggest comparable or even superior outcomes compared with open resection. The hippocampus has long been considered a central structure supporting episodic, declarative memory, with epilepsy surgical teams attempting to spare it whenever possible. However, ample data from animal and human neuroscience research suggests declarative memory deficits are greater following broader mesial TL lesions that include parahippocampal gyrus and lateral TL inputs. Therefore, employing a neurosurgical technique that restricts the surgical lesion zone holds promise for achieving a better cognitive outcome. Focal SLA lesions outside of the amygdalohippocampal complex may impair select cognitive functions, although few data have been published in such patients to date. SLA is being effectively employed with adults and children with TL or lesional epilepsies across several U.S. epilepsy centers, which may simultaneously optimize cognitive outcome while providing a curative treatment for seizures.

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