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Investigation on the interaction of food colorant Sudan III with bovine serum albumin using spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

Sudan III is a coloring agent used in chemical industries and food additives. This article uses spectroscopic and molecular docking methods to investigate the interaction of Sudan III with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under a physiological condition. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching revealed that the quenching mechanism of BSA by Sudan III was static. The binding sites and constants of Sudan III-BSA complex were observed to be from 0.72 and 6.41 × 10 L·mol to 0.69 and 5.83 × 10 L·mol at 298 and 310 K, respectively. The enthalpy change (Δ) and entropy change (Δ) revealed that van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds stabilized the Sudan III-BSA complex. Energy transfer from tryptophan to Sudan III occurred by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism, and the distance (3.32 nm) had been determined. The results of UV-Vis absorption, synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectra showed that Sudan III induced conformational changes of BSA. Molecular docking studies revealed that Sudan III situated within subdomain IIA of BSA. A study on the interaction between Sudan III and BSA was of fundamental importance for providing more information about the potential toxicological effect of chemicals at the molecular level.

2250 related Products with: Investigation on the interaction of food colorant Sudan III with bovine serum albumin using spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

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Towards improved protein anti-fouling and anti-microbial properties of poly (vinylidene fluoride) membranes by blending with lactate salts-based polyurea as surface modifiers.

It is a big challenge to develop membrane fouling-resistant materials for long-term water filtration applications in order to reduce the operating cost. Herein, for the first time, we have proposed the utilization of lactate salts-based polyurea additives as surface modifiers (SMs) to endow anti-microbial and anti-protein activities which increase the life of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane filters in terms of attaining anti-fouling properties for prolonged and stable water flux in water treatment. Membrane fouling was examined by taking into account the important influencing factors such as surface hydrophilicity and functional lactate groups present on the surface. The results showed that the surface hydrophilicity was enhanced leading to higher water flux of the PVDF membrane blended with sodium lactate-based polyurea (Na-PVDF) (174.2 L m h), which was almost 12 times higher than that of the neat PVDF membrane. The fabricated SMs-blended PVDF membranes displayed satisfactory rejection and fouling resistant performance for the bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules. The PVDF membrane blended with zinc lactate-based polyurea (Zn-PVDF) ensured effective anti-microbial activity against bacteria and fungi. Besides, the SMs-blended PVDF membranes displayed a higher zone of inhibition (ZOI) and higher colony reduction than the neat PVDF membranes in the anti-microbial test. The long-term water filtration test carried out after 200 days showed that PVDF membranes blended with SMs retained more than 90% of the original water flux, suggesting the long-term stability of SMs in the PVDF matrix. Therefore, the synergistic effect of SMs can be considered as an important life enhancer of polymeric membrane materials in the field of membrane technology.

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Preparation, characterization and application of levan/montmorillonite biocomposite and levan/BSA nanoparticle.

Here, two kinds of polysaccharide-based biocomposites were investigated. The enzymatically synthesized levan from Erwinia amylovora was applied as the matrix, while montmorillonite clay and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as additive in the biocomposite. To examine the properties of levan/MMT biocomposite, we choose different ratios between levan and MMT to implement the surface morphology observation, thermal property analysis, and rheological behavior determination. As a result, the levan/MMT biocomposite in a 2:1 blending ratio showed a significant improvement both in the thermal and rheological properties. Meanwhile, the 0.1 % levan/BSA nanoparticle showed the highest encapsulation capacity and surface charge as 53.13 ± 2.64 % and +3.92 ± 0.43 mV. Last but not least, the levan/BSA nanoparticle exhibited a slower and controlled release of the BSA from the system. All of these results indicated a potential application of levan-based biocomposite and nanoparticle.

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Lipophagy-derived fatty acids undergo extracellular efflux via lysosomal exocytosis.

The autophagic degradation of lipid droplets (LDs), termed lipophagy, is a major mechanism that contributes to lipid turnover in numerous cell types. While numerous factors, including nutrient deprivation or overexpression of PNPLA2/ATGL (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2) drive lipophagy, the trafficking of fatty acids (FAs) produced from this pathway is largely unknown. Herein, we show that PNPLA2 and nutrient deprivation promoted the extracellular efflux of FAs. Inhibition of autophagy or lysosomal lipid degradation attenuated FA efflux highlighting a critical role for lipophagy in this process. Rather than direct transport of FAs across the lysosomal membrane, lipophagy-derived FA efflux requires lysosomal fusion to the plasma membrane. The lysosomal Ca2+ channel protein MCOLN1/TRPML1 (mucolipin 1) regulates lysosomal-plasma membrane fusion and its overexpression increased, while inhibition blocked FA efflux. In addition, inhibition of autophagy/lipophagy or MCOLN1, or sequestration of extracellular FAs with BSA attenuated the oxidation and re-esterification of lipophagy-derived FAs. Overall, these studies show that the well-established pathway of lysosomal fusion to the plasma membrane is the primary route for the disposal of FAs derived from lipophagy. Moreover, the efflux of FAs and their reuptake or subsequent extracellular trafficking to adjacent cells may play an important role in cell-to-cell lipid exchange and signaling. ACTB: beta actin; ADRA1A: adrenergic receptor alpha, 1a; ALB: albumin; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; BHBA: beta-hydroxybutyrate; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CDH1: e-cadherin; CQ: chloroquine; CTSB: cathepsin B; DGAT: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase; FA: fatty acid; HFD: high-fat diet; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LD: lipid droplet; LIPA/LAL: lysosomal acid lipase A; LLME: Leu-Leu methyl ester hydrobromide; MAP1LC3B/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MCOLN1/TRPML1: mucolipin 1; MEF: mouse embryo fibroblast; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PLIN: perilipin; PNPLA2/ATGL patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2; RUBCN (rubicon autophagy regulator); SM: sphingomyelin; TAG: triacylglycerol; TMEM192: transmembrane protein 192; VLDL: very low density lipoprotein.

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Covalent Surface Functionalization of Bovine Serum Albumin to Magnesium Surface to Provide Robust Corrosion Inhibition and Enhance In Vitro Osteo-Inductivity.

Herein, we describe precisely a covalent modification of pure magnesium (Mg) surface and its application to induce in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The new concept of a chemical bonding method is proposed for developing stable chemical bonds on the Mg surface through the serial assembly of bioactive additives that include ascorbic acid (AA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). We studied both the physicochemical and electrochemical properties using scanning electron microscopy and other techniques to confirm how the covalent bonding of BSA on Mg can, after coating, significantly enhance the chemical stability of the substrate. The modified Mg-OH-AA-BSA exhibits better anti-corrosion behavior with high corrosion potential (E = -0.96 V) and low corrosion current density (I = 0.2 µA cm) as compared to the pure Mg (E = -1.46 V, I = 10.42 µA cm). The outer layer of BSA on Mg protects the fast degradation rate of Mg, which is the consequence of the strong chemicals bonds between amine groups on BSA with carboxylic groups on AA as the possible mechanism of peptide bonds. Collectively, the results suggest that the surface-modified Mg provides a strong bio-interface, and enhances the proliferation and differentiation of pre-osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells through a protein-lipid interaction. We therefore conclude that the technique we describe provides a cost-effective and scalable way to generate chemically stable Mg surface that inherits a biological advantage in orthopedic and dental implants in clinical applications.

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Morphometric analysis of sperm used for IVP by three different separation methods with spatial light interference microscopy.

The goal of this study was to characterize sperm populations resulting from three different methods of sperm selection used for bovine fertilization. We compared sperm selection with discontinuous Percoll gradients, Swim-Up, and electro-channel. Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) was used to evaluate the morphology of the spermatozoa and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the motility behavior of the sperm. Using these two technologies, we analyzed morphometric parameters and the kinetic (motility) patterns of frozen-thawed Holstein bull spermatozoa after sperm selection. For the first time, we have shown that these methods used to select viable spermatozoa for fertilization (IVF) result in very different sperm subpopulations. Almost every parameter evaluated resulted in statistical differences between treatment groups. One novel observation was that the dry mass of the sperm head is heavier in spermatozoa selected with the electro-channel than in sperm selected by the other methods. These results show the potential of SLIM microscopy in reproductive biology. SLIM: spatial light interference microscopy; CASA: computer aided sperm analysis; IVF: in vitro fertilization; BSA: bovine serum albumin; QPI: quantitative phase imaging; IVEP: in vitro embryo production; IACUC: institutional animal care and use committee; CSS: Certified Semen Services; AI: artificial insemination; TALP: Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate; MEC: medium for electro-channel; PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane; EC: electro-channel; TM, %: total motility; PM, %: progressive motility; RM, %: percentage of rapid sperm motility; VAP, μm/s: average path velocity; VSL, μm/s: straight-line velocity; VCL, μm/s: curvilinear velocity; ALH, μm: amplitude of lateral head displacement; BCF, Hz: beat cross frequency; STR, %: straightness; LIN, %: and linearity; GLS: generalized least squares; ANOVA: analysis of variance; LSD: Least Significant Difference; SPSS: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences; PCA: principal components analysis.

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