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#25424384   2015/09/19 Save this To Up

Biomarkers in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that inhibits cognitive functions and has no cure. This report reviews the current diagnostic standards for AD with an emphasis on early diagnosis using the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid-beta, t-tau, and p-tau and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging. Abnormal levels of these CSF biomarkers and decreased cerebral uptake of glucose have recently been used in the early diagnosis of AD in experimental studies. These promising biomarkers can be measured using immunoassays performed in singleplex or multiplex formats. Although presently, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) for early detection of AD, a multiplex immunoassay measuring a panel of promising AD biomarkers in CSF may be a likely IVD candidate for the clinical AD diagnostic market. Specifically, the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 immunoassay kit, performed using bead arrays on the xMAP Luminex analyzer, allows simultaneous quantification of amyloid-beta, t-tau, and p-tau biomarkers. AD biomarkers can also be screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that are offered as laboratory-developed tests.

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#25024322   2014/09/17 Save this To Up

Cerebrospinal fluid level of YKL-40 protein in preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

An increase in YKL-40 levels seems to correlate with disease severity and poor prognosis in many diseases, including several neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, YKL-40 protein is increased in mild AD with respect to controls, both in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma.

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#23844122   2013/07/11 Save this To Up

A Luminex assay detects amyloid β oligomers in Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid.

Amyloid beta (aβ) protein assembles into larger protein aggregates during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there is increasing evidence that soluble aβ oligomers are a critical pathologic species. Diagnostic evaluations rely on the measurement of increased tau and decreased aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients and evidence for oligomeric aβ in patient CSF is conflicting. In this study, we have adapted a monoclonal single antibody sandwich ELISA assay to a Luminex platform and found that this assay can detect oligomerized aβ42 and sAPPα fragments. We evaluated oligomeric aβ reactivity in 20 patients with AD relative to 19 age matched controls and compared these values with a commercially available Alzbio3 kit that detects tau, phosphorylated tau and aβ42 on the same diagnostic platform. We found that CSF samples of patients with AD had elevated aβ oligomers compared to control subjects (p < 0.05) and the ratio of aβ oligomers to aβ42 was also significantly elevated (p < 0.0001). Further research to develop high sensitivity analytical platforms and rigorous methods of developing stable assay standards will be needed before the analysis of oligomeric aβ becomes a routine diagnostic assay for the evaluation of late onset AD patients.

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#23622690   2013/04/29 Save this To Up

CSF biomarker variability in the Alzheimer's Association quality control program.

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are used increasingly for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and patient management. However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements among and within laboratories.

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#23302661   2013/03/21 Save this To Up

Validation of assays for measurement of amyloid-β peptides in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma specimens from patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with solanezumab.

The aim of this study was to validate new assays for measurement of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma specimens in clinical studies of solanezumab according to current regulatory recommendations. Four assays based on the INNOTEST® β-AMYLOID(1-42) and prototype INNOTEST β-AMYLOID(1-40) kits were developed and validated. To render these assays 'solanezumab-tolerant', excess drug was added to calibrators, quality control, and test samples via a 2-fold dilution with kit diluent. Validation parameters were evaluated by repeated testing of human CSF and EDTA-plasma pools containing solanezumab. Calibration curve correlation coefficients for the four assays were ≥0.9985. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 were ≤13 and ≤15%, respectively for both matrices. Dilutional linearity, within and between assays, was demonstrated for both analytes in CSF and plasma at clinically relevant dilution factors. This dilution regimen was successfully applied during Phase 3 clinical sample analysis. Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 were stable in CSF and plasma containing solanezumab at 2-8°C and room temperature for up to 8 h and during 5 additional freeze-thaw cycles from ≤-20 and ≤-70°C. Results of parallel tests on stored clinical samples using INNOTEST methods and proprietary ELISA methods were closely correlated (r2 > 0.9), although bias in reported concentrations was observed between assays. In conclusion, the modified INNOTEST assays provided (relatively) accurate and precise quantification of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in CSF and plasma containing solanezumab according to established consensus validation criteria. The clinical experience with these assays post validation has shown them to be robust and reliable.

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#22552903   2012/06/21 Save this To Up

Development and advanced validation of an optimized method for the quantitation of Aβ42 in human cerebrospinal fluid.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been extensively utilized in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterization of progression. One important CSF biomarker is the amyloid beta 42 (Aβ(42)) peptide, a key player in AD pathogenesis. The INNOTEST® Aβ(42) ELISA kit has been widely used but an advanced level of method development and validation has not been reported. To support a clinical trial in AD, we successfully completed a Good Laboratory Practices (GLP)-level validation of the method to establish the parameters of precision, accuracy, parallelism, selectivity, specificity, and linearity of dilution of the assay in CSF matrix, as well as CSF storage stability. Several modifications were required to optimize the assay and ensure consistent results in a clinical-trial setting. These included the use of additional calibrators, an adjusted standard curve range, a minimum required dilution (MRD) of CSF by 6-fold to avoid matrix interference and mitigation of analyte adsorption to labware by the addition of Tween-20. The optimized method displayed a quantitative range of 375-4,500 pg/mL. The inter-assay precision was ≤12.1 % CV and the inter-assay relative accuracy was ≤10.9 % absolute bias, bringing the total error of the assay to ≤23 %. The intra-assay precision of the assay at the high validation standard and below was ≤5.5 % CV; this enables sensitive detection of biomarker changes across a therapeutic regime. The INNOTEST® Aβ(42) ELISA kit, modified as reported here, may be appropriate for many applications, including regulatory agency acceptable clinical diagnosis and pharmacodynamic assessment.

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#22216291   2012/01/04 Save this To Up

Association between IgM anti-herpes simplex virus and plasma amyloid-beta levels.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation has been identified as a possible risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) levels might be considered as possible biomarkers of the risk of AD. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between anti-HSV antibodies and plasma Aβ levels.

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#21784349   2011/07/25 Save this To Up

The Alzheimer's Association external quality control program for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers.

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories. The Alzheimer's Association has initiated a global quality control program to estimate and monitor variability of measurements, quantify batch-to-batch assay variations, and identify sources of variability. In this article, we present the results from the first two rounds of the program.

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#21047883   2011/01/06 Save this To Up

CSF amyloid β38 as a novel diagnostic marker for dementia with Lewy bodies.

The clinical distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is sometimes difficult, particularly in mild cases. Although CSF markers such as amyloid β42 (Aβ42) and P-tau can distinguish between AD and normal controls, their ability to distinguish between AD and DLB is not adequate.

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#20522869   2010/06/04 Save this To Up

Differential levels of alpha-synuclein, beta-amyloid42 and tau in CSF between patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

The clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is made on the basis of consensus criteria; however, the sensitivity of the criteria is relatively low. There are no generally accepted biomarkers to distinguish DLB from other dementias. Here the utility of quantification of alpha-synuclein, beta-amyloid42 (Abeta42) and tau in the CSF of patients with DLB, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias was examined.

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