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#28993171   2017/10/10 Save this To Up

Cross-sectional study of MERS-CoV-specific RNA and antibodies in animals that have had contact with MERS patients in Saudi Arabia.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerged coronavirus that is associated with a severe respiratory disease in humans in the Middle East. The epidemiological profiles of the MERS-CoV infections suggest zoonotic transmission from an animal reservoir to humans.

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#28979351   2017/10/05 Save this To Up

Neospora caninum Suspects as One of the Most Important Causes of Abortion in Large Dairy Farms in Isfahan, Iran.

This study aimed to reveal the serological prevalence of Neospora caninum in large dairy farms in Isfahan Province, central Iran.

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#28965320   2017/10/01 Save this To Up

Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA and anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG antibodies in precolostral blood samples of stillborn calves in an endemically infected Holstein dairy herd.

Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an intracellular zoonotic bacterium causing Q fever, occurs widely in cattle herds. After invasion of the pregnant uterus and initial localization in the placenta, active C. burnetii infections may spread to the fetus hematogenously or by the amniotic-oral route and thus may cause abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth, and weak offspring (APSW) complex. In a case-control study, we investigated precolostral blood samples of 56 stillborn calves and 30 live births from a dairy herd endemically infected with C. burnetii "C-cluster" strains and an increased stillbirth rate in primiparous cows. Within the group of the stillborn calves, four precolostral blood samples (7.1%) were tested positive for C. burnetii DNA by PCR and one serum sample (1.8%) positive for anti-C. burnetii IgG antibodies by a commercial ELISA test, respectively. Neither C. burnetii DNA nor anti-C. burnetii IgG antibodies were detected in the samples of calves being born alive. In conclusion, we demonstrated that coxiellaemia and precolostral seroconversion occurred sporadically in stillborn calves from this endemically infected herd. Due to the low detection rates, C. burnetii could not be confirmed to be the cause of the increased stillbirth rate.

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#28955943   2017/09/28 Save this To Up

The low molecular weight fraction of human serum albumin upregulates COX2, prostaglandin E2, and prostaglandin D2 under inflammatory conditions in osteoarthritic knee synovial fibroblasts.

The ability to decrease inflammation and promote healing is important in the intervention and management of a variety of disease states, including osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). Even though cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) has an established pro-inflammatory role, evidence suggests it is also critical to the resolution that occurs after the initial activation phase of the immune response. In this study, we investigated the effects of the low molecular weight fraction of 5% human serum albumin (LMWF-5A), an agent that has proven to decrease pain and improve function in OAK patients after intra-articular injection, on the expression of COX2 and its downstream products, prostaglandins (PGs).

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#28946116   2017/09/25 Save this To Up

Polyvalent immunoglobulin binding is an obstacle to accurate measurement of specific antibodies with ELISA despite inclusion of blocking agents.

Specific antibody concentrations are frequently measured in serum (and plasma and intravenous immunoglobulin) samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The standard negative control involves incubation of buffer alone on antigen-coated wells. The immunoreactivity that develops in antigen-coated wells in which diluted serum has been incubated is assumed to represent specific antibody binding. This approach can result in marked overestimation of specific antibody levels, because serum contains specific polyvalent antibodies which bind, primarily with low affinity, to multiple antigens (including those on ELISA plates) despite the use of blocking agents. Non-denaturing purification of serum IgG, followed by assessment of the antigen binding or antigen-binding affinity of this purified IgG, can reduce but not eliminate the problem of polyvalent antibody binding in indirect ELISAs. Alternatively, polyvalent antibody binding can be estimated by incubating a diluted serum sample on wells coated with an irrelevant protein (such as bovine serum albumin or a scrambled peptide sequence) or buffer alone, then subtracting this reactivity from the sample's binding to wells coated with the antigen of interest. Polyvalent binding of immunoglobulins must be accounted for in order to obtain accurate ELISA measurements of serum, plasma, or intravenous immunoglobulin antibodies.

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#28748837   2017/07/27 Save this To Up

The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Erzincan, Turkey: Identification of the risk factors and their relationship with geographical features.

Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) bacterium, the causative agent of Q fever has regained importance due to the increasing cases of infections and outbreaks. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in human populations of Erzincan province located in the eastern Turkey, identify the risk factors, and to explore the relationship between geographical features.

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#28727057   2017/07/20 Save this To Up

Effects of feeding pregnant beef cows selenium-enriched alfalfa hay on selenium status and antibody titers in their newborn calves.

In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding beef cows Se-enriched alfalfa () hay during the last 8 to 12 wk of gestation on passive transfer of antibodies to calves. At 10 wk ± 16 d before calving, 45 cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 3 pens (5 cows/pen) per treatment: Control cows were fed non-Se-fortified alfalfa hay plus a mineral supplement containing 120 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite, Med-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 45.0 g Se/ha as sodium selenate, and High-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 89.9 g Se/ha as sodium selenate; both the Med-Se and the High-Se groups received mineral supplement without added Se. Colostrum and whole blood (WB) were collected from cows at calving, and WB was collected from calves within 2 h of calving and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h of age. Concentrations of IgG1 and J-5 antibody in cow colostrum and calf serum were quantified using ELISA procedures. Selenium concentrations linearly increased in WB ( < 0.001) and colostrum ( < 0.001) of cows and in WB of newborn calves ( < 0.001) with increasing Se concentration in alfalfa hay. Colostrum concentrations of IgG1 ( = 0.03) were increased in cows fed Se-biofortified alfalfa hay, but J-5 antibody ( = 0.43) concentrations were not. Calf serum IgG1 ( = 0.43) and J-5 antibody ( = 0.44) concentrations during the first 48 h of age were not affected by prior Se treatment of cows. These data suggest that feeding Se-biofortified alfalfa hay promotes the accumulation of Se and antibodies in colostrum but does not affect short-term serum antibody concentrations in calves.

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#28719259   2017/07/18 Save this To Up

Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Cattle, Mali, West Africa.

AbstractCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus). CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with high-case fatality rates in humans. CCHFV has a wide geographic range and has been described in around 30 countries in the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and Africa including Mali and neighboring countries. To date, little is known about the prevalence rates of CCHFV in Mali. Here, using banked bovine serum samples from across the country, we describe the results of a seroepidemiological study for CCHFV aimed at identifying regions of circulation in Mali. In total, 1,074 serum samples were tested by a modified in-house CCHFV-IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with confirmatory testing by commercial ELISA and immunofluorescence assay. Overall, 66% of samples tested were positive for CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies. Regional seroprevalence rates ranged from 15% to 95% and seemed to correlate with cattle density. Our results demonstrate that CCHFV prevalence is high in many regions in Mali and suggest that CCHFV surveillance should be established.

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#28605299   2017/06/12 Save this To Up

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus-Specific Antibody Detection in Cattle in Mauritania.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in Mauritania in 1983 and several CCHFV outbreaks were reported in the following years. The last human case was diagnosed in 2015. However, no recent data exist about the prevalence of CCHFV in animals, although it is already described that prevalence studies in animals serve as good risk indicators. CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate in humans. Therefore, a precise risk assessment on the basis of updated data is very important. This article gives an overview about the current CCHFV prevalence in cattle in Mauritania.

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#28514225   2017/05/17 Save this To Up

Vector and Serologic Survey for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Poland.

In contrast to animals, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) causes a severe disease in humans with a high mortality rate. The etiological agent, CCHF virus (CCHFV), can be transmitted by argasid and ixodid ticks, but arachnids of the genus Hyalomma, followed by Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor serve as the major vectors of this virus. The goal of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of CCHFV infection in cattle in south-east Poland, and survey for potential tick vector species. A total of 592 bovine blood samples from animals located in the southernmost region in Poland were tested by IgG sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ticks (n = 993) from south-east Poland were collected from dogs, cats, cattle, and horses and tested by RT-PCR. All 592 serum samples were negative for IgG antibodies to CCHFV. Of the ticks collected, 125 were Dermacentor reticulatus and 868 represented Ixodes ricinus, both species are regarded as potential vectors of CCHFV. All tick samples were negative for the presence of CCHFV. Considering the zoonotic nature, public health importance, and the virus increasing spread, it was prudent to assess the seroprevalence of CCHFV in the south-east area of Poland, bordering with CCHFV endemic areas. It seems unlikely that CCHFV infection will suddenly spread in Poland, but considering the multiple possibilities of the virus introduction, serosurveys and vector biosurveillance should be conducted at regular intervals.

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