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Low-picomolar, label-free procalcitonin analytical detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor based electronic immunosensor.

Herein a label-free immunosensor based on electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) was developed for the detection of procalcitonin (PCT), a sepsis marker. Antibodies specific to PCT were immobilized on the poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface through direct physical adsorption followed by a post-treatment with bovine serum albumin (BSA) which served as the blocking agent to prevent non-specific adsorption. Antibodies together with BSA (forming the whole biorecognition layer) served to selectively capture the procalcitonin target analyte. The entire immunosensor fabrication process was fast, requiring overall 45min to be completed before analyte sensing. The EGOFET immunosensor showed excellent electrical properties, comparable to those of bare P3HT based EGOFET confirming reliable biosensing with bio-functional EGOFET immunosensor. The detection limit of the immunosensor was as low as 2.2pM and within a range of clinical relevance. The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration data points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips (reproducibility error) was below 7%. The developed immunosensor showed high selectivity to the PCT analyte which was evident through control experiments. This report of PCT detection is first of its kind among the electronic sensors based on EGOFETs. The developed sensor is versatile and compatible with low-cost fabrication techniques.

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Estradiol up-regulates L-type Ca2+ channels via membrane-bound estrogen receptor / Phosphoinositide-3kinase / Akt / cAMP response element-binding protein signaling pathway.

In long QT type-2 (LQT2), women are more prone to lethal arrhythmias called Torsade de Pointes (TdP) than men. We previously reported that 17-β-estradiol (E2) upregulates L-type Ca2+-channels and current (ICa,L) (∼30%) in rabbit ventricular myocytes by a classical genomic-mechanism mediated by estrogen-receptor-α (ER)α. In LQT2 ( IKr-blockade or bradycardia), the higher Ca2+ influx via ICa,L, causes Ca2+-overload, spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-release, and re-activation of ICa,L that trigger early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and TdP.

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Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A as putative biomarker candidates of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in dairy calves.

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in dairy calves. Identification of reliable biomarkers of naturally occurring BRD is essential for ensuring early diagnosis and treatment of calves and monitoring treatment efficacy. This need is punctuated, especially in mild to moderate cases that would greatly help to decrease recurrence and the overall prevalence of BRD. The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hpt) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and association between oxidative stress and acute phase proteins (APPs) in BRD. Hpt and SAA levels significantly increased (P < .01) in BRD stressed calves as compared to healthy subjects. There was a significant decrease (P < .01) in serum albumin (Alb) concentration of infected calves as compared to controls. The oxidative stress markers revealed a significant (P < .01) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a concurrent decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (R-GSH) and catalase (CAT) in BRD. A significant correlation among APPs, extent of oxidative stress and clinical score (CS) of calves was depicted. A stepwise decrease in Hpt and SAA and increase in Alb was observed in infected calves post-treatment. These results suggest implication of oxidative stress in enhancing APPs and monitoring of APPs as a potential complement to clinical assessment of treatment in calves with naturally occurring BRD. Hpt may be useful as the most sensitive biomarker in BRD. However, the combined use of Hpt and oxidative stress biomarkers would greatly improve the diagnostic accuracy.

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Impact of dietary induced precocious gut maturation on cecal microbiota and its relation to the blood-brain barrier during the postnatal period in rats.

Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.

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Mutant Huntingtin Secretion in Neuro2A Cells and Rat Primary Cortical Neurons.

Quantitative analysis of proteins secreted from the cells poses a challenge due to their low abundance and the interfering presence of a large amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the cell culture media. We established assays for detection of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) secreted from Neuro2A cell line stably expressing mHtt and rat primary cortical neurons by Western blotting. Our protocol is based on reducing the amounts of BSA in the media while maintaining cell viability and secretory potential, and concentrating the media prior to analysis by means of ultrafiltration.

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Amphotericin B-albumin conjugates: Synthesis, toxicity and anti-fungal activity.

Amphotericin B (AmB), a hydrophobic drug with negligible aqueous solubility was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) via amide bond coupling to give 6 to 8 wt% drug payload. The resulting conjugate was characterized using SDS-PAGE and UV-visible, FTIR and CD spectroscopy. The conjugate was water-soluble to the extent of 150 mg/ml, was non-toxic to HEK 293 T cells at a concentration of 500 μg/ml (equivalent to ~30 μg AmB) and showed hemolysis of <5% at 200 μg/ml (equivalent to ~12 μg AmB) against human erythrocytes in vitro. In vitro release studies at 37 °C demonstrated steady release of AmB up to 20% from the conjugate with little burst effect in phosphate buffered saline whereas thrice the amount was released in human plasma in 72 h. AmBisome® used as a reference showed a very similar release profile in plasma. The conjugate exhibited potential anti-fungal activity against yeast strains such as C. albicans, C. neoformans and C. parapsilosis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) equivalent to AmB ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 μg/ml while AmBisome® and AmB alone showed the MIC between 0.78 and 1.5 and 0.53-0.78 μg/ml respectively. Although AmB has been conjugated to various natural and synthetic polymers to improve its solubility and reduce its toxicity, the results obtained in this study using the model protein BSA as a carrier point to the possibility of taking this pro-drug approach to human clinical use using human serum albumin (HSA) as the carrier, since HSA has emerged as a versatile drug carrier for treating diabetes and cancer and improving the pharmacokinetic profile of many drugs with US FDA approving HSA as a drug carrier for the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (Abraxane®) for human use.

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Bifunctional monomer magnetic imprinted nanomaterials for selective separation of tetracyclines directly from milk samples.

Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted nanomaterials (DA + BSA-MMIPs) were prepared adopting bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dopamine as bifunctional monomers for the first time. Besides the role of assistant functional monomer, BSA can exclude the proteins with like charges and promote low molecular weight tetracyclines to be adsorbed. Thus, the DA + BSA-MMIPs could fulfil the selective separation of tetracyclines directly from milk samples. The characteristics, polymerization conditions, and adsorption performances of the resultant nanomaterials were investigated in detail. In addition of uniform imprinting layers, stable crystalline phase, and good magnetism of the DA + BSA-MMIPs, they have rapid binding kinetic, high adsorption capacity, and favorable reusability. The imprinted nanomaterials were coupled with HPLC to selectively extract and determine trace tetracyclines from untreated milk samples. The recoveries of tetracyclines are in the range of 84.1-95.8% with relative standard deviations of less than 6.7%. The developed method is especially suitable for the selective enrichment and detection of target compounds directly from a complex sample with proteins.

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In Vivo Models for Inflammatory Arthritis.

In vivo mouse models of inflammatory arthritis are extensively used to investigate pathogenic mechanisms governing inflammation-driven joint damage. Two commonly utilized models include collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). These offer unique advantages for modeling different aspects of human disease. CIA involves breach of immunological tolerance resulting in systemic autoantibody-driven arthritis, while AIA results in local resolving inflammatory flares and articular T cell-mediated damage. Despite limitations that apply to all animal models of human disease, CIA and AIA have been instrumental in identifying pathogenic mediators, immune cell subsets and stromal cell responses that determine disease onset, progression, and severity. Moreover, these models have enabled investigation of disease phases not easily studied in patients and have served as testing beds for novel biological therapies, including cytokine blockers and small molecule inhibitors of intracellular signaling that have revolutionized rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

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Dillenia indica L. attenuates diabetic nephropathy via inhibition of advanced glycation end products accumulation in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

The present study was aimed to evaluate advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibitory activity of alcohol and hydro-alcohol extract (DAE and DHE) of Dillenia indica L. (Family: Dilleniaceae) and its potential in treatment of diabetic nephropathy by targeting markers of oxidative stress. D. indica was evaluated for its in vitro inhibitory activity against formation of AGEs by using bovine serum albumin. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg i.p.) 15 min after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Diabetic rats were treated with different doses of extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) to analyze their nephroprotective effect. Tissue antioxidant enzymes level was measured along with the formation of AGEs in kidney to assess the effect of D. indica in ameliorating oxidative stress. D. indica showed significant inhibition of AGEs formation in vitro. D. indica produced significant attenuation in the glycemic status, renal parameter, lipid profile and level of antioxidant enzymes proving efficacy in diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, D. indica produced significant reduction in the formation of AGEs in kidneys. The present study concludes that D. indica as a possible therapeutic agent against diabetic nephropathy.

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The interaction between BSA and DOTAP at the air-buffer interface.

In this article, the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) at the air-buffer interface was investigated at different subphase's pH values (pH = 3, 5 and 10). Surface pressure measurements (π - A) and penetration kinetics process (π - t) were carried out to reveal the interaction mechanism and the dynamical behavior. The data showed that π - A isotherms moved towards larger mean molecular area when the concentration of BSA ([BSA]) increased, the amount of BSA adsorbed onto DOTAP monolayer reached a threshold value at a [BSA] of 5 × 10-8 M, and BSA desorbed from the lipid monolayer as time goes by. The results revealed that the association of BSA with DOTAP at the air-buffer interface was affected by the subphase's pH value. When pH = 10, the interaction mechanism between them was a combination of hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic attraction, so BSA molecules could be well separated and purified from complex mixtures. AFM images demonstrated that pH value and [BSA] could affect the morphology feature of DOTAP monolayer and the adsorption and desorption processes of BSA. So the study provides an important experimental basis and theoretical support for learning the interaction mechanism among biomolecules in separation and purification of biomolecules and biosensor.

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