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#12682289   2003/04/16 Save this To Up

Biologic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 antibody blockade in previously vaccinated metastatic melanoma and ovarian carcinoma patients.

A large number of cancer-associated gene products evoke immune recognition, but host reactions rarely impede disease progression. The weak immunogenicity of nascent tumors contributes to this failure in host defense. Therapeutic vaccines that enhance dendritic cell presentation of cancer antigens increase specific cellular and humoral responses, thereby effectuating tumor destruction in some cases. The attenuation of T cell activation by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) further limits the potency of tumor immunity. In murine systems, the administration of antibodies that block CTLA-4 function inhibits the growth of moderately immunogenic tumors and, in combination with cancer vaccines, increases the rejection of poorly immunogenic tumors, albeit with a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens. To gain a preliminary assessment of the biologic activity of antagonizing CTLA-4 function in humans, we infused a CTLA-4 blocking antibody (MDX-CTLA4) into nine previously immunized advanced cancer patients. MDX-CTLA4 stimulated extensive tumor necrosis with lymphocyte and granulocyte infiltrates in three of three metastatic melanoma patients and the reduction or stabilization of CA-125 levels in two of two metastatic ovarian carcinoma patients previously vaccinated with irradiated, autologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting tumor cells. MDX-CTLA4 did not elicit tumor necrosis in four of four metastatic melanoma patients previously immunized with defined melanosomal antigens. No serious toxicities directly attributable to the antibody were observed, although five of seven melanoma patients developed T cell reactivity to normal melanocytes. These findings suggest that CTLA-4 antibody blockade increases tumor immunity in some previously vaccinated cancer patients.

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#7590775   1995/11/30 Save this To Up

A monoclonal antiidiotypic antibody ACA 125 mimicking the tumor-associated antigen CA 125 for immunotherapy of ovarian cancer.

A new concept of oncological immunotherapy comprises the attempt to trigger the immune system of the host into a response against tumor cells. Antiidiotypic antibodies bearing the internal image of an antigen expressed on the surface of the tumor seem to be most suited for this purpose. We have generated a murine antiidiotypic antibody (ACA 125) functionally imitating the tumor-associated antigen CA 125, which can be detected in about 80% of ovarian carcinomas. The hybridoma cell was adapted to serum-free medium and antibody was produced in a hollow fiber cell culture system (Technomouse). ACA 125 (Ab2) shows high affinity for the paratope of Ab1 (affinity constant: 2.3 x 10(9) liters/mol) and binding of Ab2 to Ab1 is completely inhibited by the nominal antigen. Application of F(ab')2 fragments of ACA 125 to rats lead to an anti-CA 125 immunity by production of IgG and IgM antiantiidiotypic antibodies (Ab3) that bind to both ACA 125 and CA 125. Furthermore the induction of a non-MHC-restricted cell-mediated cytotoxicity for human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line NIH-OVCAR3 (expressing CA 125 on its surface) could be proved; additionally complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) as well as an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was observed. Thus, monoclonal antiidiotypic antibody ACA 125 fulfills recent criteria for an antibody, which might be successful in immunotherapy using the anti-idiotypic network approach.

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