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           Search results for: CAL-101 Mechanisms: PI3K-p110-delta-specific inhibitor   

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#28945111   2017/09/25 Save this To Up

PI3Kδ-selective and PI3Kα/δ-combinatorial inhibitors in clinical development for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

The efficacy of the prototypical phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor idelalisib for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL) has led to development of multiple compounds targeting this pathway. Areas Covered: We review the hypothesized therapeutic mechanisms of PI3K inhibitors, including abrogation of B cell receptor signaling, blockade of microenvironmental pro-survival signals, and enhancement of anti-tumor immunity. We examine toxicities of idelalisib, including bacterial infections (possibly secondary to drug-induced neutropenia), opportunistic infections (possibly attributable to on-target inhibition of T cell function), and organ toxicities such as transaminitis and enterocolitis (possibly autoimmune, secondary to on-target inhibition of p110δ in regulatory T cells). We evaluate PI3K inhibitors that have entered trials for the treatment of lymphoma, focusing on agents with selectivity for PI3Kα and PI3Kδ. Expert Opinion: PI3K inhibitors, particularly those that target p110δ, have robust efficacy in the treatment of CLL and iNHL. However, idelalisib has infectious and autoimmune toxicities that limit its use. Outside of trials, idelalisib should be restricted to CLL patients with progression on ibrutinib or iNHL patients with progression on two prior therapies. Whether newer PI3K inhibitors will demonstrate differentiated toxicity profiles in comparable patient populations while retaining efficacy remains to be seen.

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Lung squamous cell carcin Esophageal squamous cell DiscoveryPak™ Stem Cell Small cell lung carcinoma Non small cell lung carci Non small cell lung carci Lung small cell carcinoma Multiple lung carcinoma ( Lung large cell carcinoma Oral squamous cell cancer Non-small cell lung cance Cellufine Formyl , 50 ml

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#28755313   2017/07/29 Save this To Up

Targeting B Cell Signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

In recent years, a revolution in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has centered on the targeting of the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Our improved understanding of the biology of cell signaling in CLL and the development of oral kinase inhibitors directed at the BCR pathway has led to the approval of two new agents and has the potential to radically change the treatment of CLL in both the relapsed/refractory and upfront settings. In this review, we will describe the underlying biology of the BCR signaling pathway. We will discuss the landmark clinical trials resulting in the approval of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib and the PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib. We will highlight ongoing trials that are evaluating the use of combinations of these agents with standard chemotherapy. We will evaluate some of the emerging data regarding toxicity, potential off-target effects, and mechanisms of resistance to BCR signaling pathway blockade. Finally, we will highlight some of the next-generation BCR pathway inhibitors currently in development.

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#28748401   2017/07/27 Save this To Up

System Biology Approach to Identify Potential Receptor for Targeting Cancer and Biomolecular Interaction Studies of Indole[2,1-a]Isoquinoline Derivative as Anticancerous Drug Candidate Against it.

Cancer is a public health concern which is spreading throughout the world. Different approaches have been employed to combat this disease. System biology approach has been used to understand the molecular mechanisms of drugs targeting cancer cell's receptor which have opened-up a window to develop effective drugs for it. We have demonstrated biomolecular interaction studies using the rational drug design of indole[2,1-a]isoquinoline derivative as a potent inhibitor against identified cancerous protein PIK3CA -a catalytic sub-unit of PI3K family protein-and compared its affinity with FDA approved drugs for receptors such as dactolisib, idelalisib, and several others such afatinib, avastin, ceritinib and crizotinib, etc.; by docking against potential receptor to set a cutoff value for our screening. Isoquinolines are small alkaloids with a vast variety of substitution depending upon their biogenetic pattern. Isoquinoline derivatives have been reported for their antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancerous activities. The results obtained from the present studies conclude that membrane protein is an efficient drug that can be used to target cancer. Moreover, comparative study with ADMET prediction concludes that isoquinoline can be a potent drug for cancer treatment.

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MarkerGene™ Multiple Dr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rat Toll Like Receptor 2( Rat Toll Like Receptor 6( Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Cell Meter™ JC 10 Mitoc Cell Meter™ JC 10 Mitoc Cell Meter™ NIR Mitocho Cell Meter™ NIR Mitocho

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#28348046   2017/03/28 Save this To Up

B-Cell Lymphoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Models Enable Drug Discovery and Are a Platform for Personalized Therapy.

Purpose: Patients with B-cell lymphomas often relapse after frontline therapy, and novel therapies are urgently needed to provide long-term remission. We established B-cell lymphoma patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models to assess their ability to mimic tumor biology and to identify B-cell lymphoma patient treatment options.Experimental Design: We established the PDX models from 16 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, or Burkitt lymphoma by inoculating the patient tumor cells into a human bone chip implanted into mice. We subjected the PDX models to histopathologic and phenotypical examination, sequencing, and drug efficacy analysis. Primary and acquired resistance to ibrutinib, an oral covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase, were investigated to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ibrutinib resistance and to identify drug treatments to overcome resistance.Results: The PDXs maintained the same biological, histopathologic, and immunophenotypical features, retained similar genetic mutations, and produced comparable drug responses with the original patient tumors. In the acquired ibrutinib-resistant PDXs, PLC-γ2, p65, and Src were downregulated; however, a PI3K signaling pathway member was upregulated. Inactivation of the PI3K pathway with the inhibitor idelalisib in combination with ibrutinib significantly inhibited the growth of the ibrutinib-resistant tumors. Furthermore, we used a PDX model derived from a clinically ibrutinib-relapsed patient to evaluate various therapeutic choices, ultimately eliminating the tumor cells in the patient's peripheral blood.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the B-cell lymphoma PDX model is an effective system to predict and personalize therapies and address therapeutic resistance in B-cell lymphoma patients. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4212-23. ©2017 AACR.

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Human Stromal Cell-Derive Mouse Stromal Cell-Derive thymic dendritic cell-der Multiple lung carcinoma ( Diffuse large B cell lymp Diffuse large-B cell lymp Diffuse large B cell lymp Diffuse large B-cell lymp Lymphoma array, together MarkerGeneTM Fluorescent MarkerGene™ LysoLive™ Peptoid Ligand Assay Deve

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#28331288   2017/03/23 Save this To Up

Development of venetoclax for therapy of lymphoid malignancies.

B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family dysfunction and impairment of apoptosis are common in most B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Venetoclax (Venclexta™, formerly ABT-199, GDC-0199) is a highly selective BCL-2 inhibitor, which mimics its BCL-2 homology 3-domain to induce apoptosis. It was approved for treatment of previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with 17p deletion early in 2016. It has also been in clinical trials for other B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Unlike the other recently approved targeted agents idelalisib and ibrutinib, so far there has been no relapse reported in some patients. Also, unlike the other targeted agents, it is effective against tumor cells that reside in the blood marrow. Despite its promising outcome in CLL, preclinical data have already uncovered mechanistic insights underlying venetoclax resistance, such as upregulation of MCL-1 or BCL-xL expression and protective signaling from the microenvironment. In this review, we describe the role of the BCL-2 family in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, the development of venetoclax, and its current clinical outcome in CLL and other B-cell malignancies. We also discuss the resistance mechanisms that develop following venetoclax therapy, potential strategies to overcome them, and how this knowledge can be translated into clinical applications.

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#28257435   2017/03/03 Save this To Up

Idelalisib and caffeine reduce suppression of T cell responses mediated by activated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is associated with T cell dysfunction. Activated CLL cells are found within the lymphoid tumor micro-environment and overcoming immuno-suppression induced by these cells may improve anti-CLL immune responses. However, the mechanisms by which activated CLL cells inhibit T cell responses, and reagents targeting such mechanisms have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that the ability of in vitro activated CLL cells to suppress T cell proliferation is not reversed by the presence of ecto-nuclease inhibitors or blockade of IL-10, PD-1 and CTLA-4 pathways. Caffeine is both an adenosine receptor antagonist and a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, p110δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitor and, at physiologically relevant levels, significantly reversed suppression. Significant reversal of suppression was also observed with the PI3Kδ specific inhibitor Idelalisib but not with adenosine receptor specific antagonists. Furthermore, addition of caffeine or Idelalisib to activated CLL cells significantly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream kinase of PI3K, but did not affect CLL viability. These results suggest that caffeine, in common with Idelalisib, reduces the immuno-suppressive activity of activated CLL cells by inhibiting PI3Kδ. These findings raise the possibility that these compounds may provide a useful therapeutic adjunct by reducing immuno-suppression within the tumor micro-environment of CLL.

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#28185174   2017/02/10 Save this To Up

Current Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

A number of new treatment options have recently emerged for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, including the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) delta isoform inhibitor idelalisib combined with rituximab, the Bcl-2 antagonist venetoclax, and the new anti-CD20 antibodies obinutuzumab and ofatumumab. Most of these agents are already included into treatment algorithms defined by international practice guidelines, but more clinical investigations are needed to answer still remaining questions. Ibrutinib was proven as a primary choice for patients with the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, who otherwise have no active treatment available. Idelalisib with rituximab is also an active therapy, but due to increased risk of serious infections, its use in first-line treatment is limited to patients for whom ibrutinib is not an option. A new indication for ibrutinib was recently approved for older patients with comorbidities, as an alternative to the already existing indication for chlorambucil with obinutuzumab. The use of kinase inhibitors is already well established in recurrent/refractory disease. Immunochemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab (FCR) remains a major first-line option for many CLL patients without the TP53 gene deletion/mutation, and who have no significant comorbidities or history of infections, and is particularly effective in patients with favorable features including mutated IGHV status. There are a number of issues regarding novel therapies for CLL that need further investigation such as optimum duration of treatment with kinase inhibitors, appropriate sequencing of novel agents, mechanisms of resistance to inhibitors and response to class switching after treatment failure, along with the potential role of combinations of targeted agents.

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#28178345   2017/02/08 Save this To Up

PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib in combination with BTK inhibitor ONO/GS-4059 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma with acquired resistance to PI3Kδ and BTK inhibitors.

Activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma relies on B-cell receptor signaling to drive proliferation and survival. Downstream of the B-cell receptor, the key signaling kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention by agents such as ibrutinib, ONO/GS-4059, and idelalisib. Combination therapy with such targeted agents could provide enhanced efficacy due to complimentary mechanisms of action. In this study, we describe both the additive interaction of and resistance mechanisms to idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059 in a model of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Significant tumor regression was observed with a combination of PI3Kδ and Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the mouse TMD8 xenograft. Acquired resistance to idelalisib in the TMD8 cell line occurred by loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway upregulation, but not by mutation of PIK3CD. Sensitivity to idelalisib could be restored by combining idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059. Further evaluation of targeted inhibitors revealed that the combination of idelalisib and the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 inhibitor GSK2334470 or the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 could partially overcome resistance. Characterization of acquired Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance revealed a novel tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 3 mutation (TNFAIP3 Q143*), which led to a loss of A20 protein, and increased p-IκBα. The combination of idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059 partially restored sensitivity in this resistant line. Additionally, a mutation in Bruton's tyrosine kinase at C481F was identified as a mechanism of resistance. The combination activity observed with idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059, taken together with the ability to overcome resistance, could lead to a new therapeutic option in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A clinical trial is currently underway to evaluate the combination of idelalisib and ONO/GS-4059 (NCT02457598).

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DiscoveryPak™ Stem Cell Caspase Inhibitor Boc-D-F Caspase Inhibitor Boc-D-F Caspase Inhibitor Boc D F Caspase Inhibitor Boc D F GST Inhibitor 1 (Cibacron GST Inhibitor 1 (Cibacron Batimastat (MMP Inhibitor Stat3 Peptide Inhibitor, Stat3 Peptide Inhibitor, DPP IV Inhibitor, K 579; DPP IV Inhibitor, K 579;

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#28167755   2017/02/07 Save this To Up

Conformational disruption of PI3Kδ regulation by immunodeficiency mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1.

Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome (APDS) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by activating mutations in either the leukocyte-restricted p110δ catalytic (PIK3CD) subunit or the ubiquitously expressed p85α regulatory (PIK3R1) subunit of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). There are two classes of APDS: APDS1 that arises from p110δ mutations that are analogous to oncogenic mutations found in the broadly expressed p110α subunit and APDS2 that occurs from a splice mutation resulting in p85α with a central deletion (Δ434-475). As p85 regulatory subunits associate with and inhibit all class IA catalytic subunits, APDS2 mutations are expected to similarly activate p110α, β, and δ, yet APDS2 largely phenocopies APDS1 without dramatic effects outside the immune system. We have examined the molecular mechanism of activation of both classes of APDS mutations using a combination of biochemical assays and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, we find that an APDS2 mutation in p85α leads to substantial basal activation of p110δ (>300-fold) and disrupts inhibitory interactions from the nSH2, iSH2, and cSH2 domains of p85, whereas p110α is only minimally basally activated (∼2-fold) when associated with mutated p85α. APDS1 mutations in p110δ (N334K, E525K, E1021K) mimic the activation mechanisms previously discovered for oncogenic mutations in p110α. All APDS mutations were potently inhibited by the Food and Drug Administration-approved p110δ inhibitor idelalisib. Our results define the molecular basis of how PIK3CD and PIK3R1 mutations result in APDS and reveal a potential path to treatment for all APDS patients.

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#28032146   2016/12/29 Save this To Up

Effects of 31 FDA approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors on isolated rat liver mitochondria.

The FDA has approved 31 small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) for human use as of November 2016, with six having black box warnings for hepatotoxicity (BBW-H) in product labeling. The precise mechanisms and risk factors for KI-induced hepatotoxicity are poorly understood. Here, the 31 KIs were tested in isolated rat liver mitochondria, an in vitro system recently proposed to be a useful tool to predict drug-induced hepatotoxicity in humans. The KIs were incubated with mitochondria or submitochondrial particles at concentrations ranging from therapeutic maximal blood concentrations (Cmax) levels to 100-fold Cmax levels. Ten endpoints were measured, including oxygen consumption rate, inner membrane potential, cytochrome c release, swelling, reactive oxygen species, and individual respiratory chain complex (I-V) activities. Of the 31 KIs examined only three including sorafenib, regorafenib and pazopanib, all of which are hepatotoxic, caused significant mitochondrial toxicity at concentrations equal to the Cmax, indicating that mitochondrial toxicity likely contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity associated with these KIs. At concentrations equal to 100-fold Cmax, 18 KIs were found to be toxic to mitochondria, and among six KIs with BBW-H, mitochondrial injury was induced by regorafenib, lapatinib, idelalisib, and pazopanib, but not ponatinib, or sunitinib. Mitochondrial liability at 100-fold Cmax had a positive predictive power (PPV) of 72% and negative predictive power (NPV) of 33% in predicting human KI hepatotoxicity as defined by product labeling, with the sensitivity and specificity being 62% and 44%, respectively. Similar predictive power was obtained using the criterion of Cmax ≥1.1 µM or daily dose ≥100 mg. Mitochondrial liability at 1-2.5-fold Cmax showed a 100% PPV and specificity, though the NPV and sensitivity were 32% and 14%, respectively. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into KI hepatotoxicity and indicate that mitochondrial toxicity at therapeutic levels can help identify hepatotoxic KIs.

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