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           Search results for: CD4 antibody, Monoclonal Antibodies, Host Mouse, Isotype IgG1   

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CD83 Antibody Inhibits Human B Cell Responses to Antigen as well as Dendritic Cell-Mediated CD4 T Cell Responses.

Anti-CD83 Ab capable of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity can deplete activated CD83 human dendritic cells, thereby inhibiting CD4 T cell-mediated acute graft-versus-host disease. As CD83 is also expressed on the surface of activated B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that anti-CD83 would also inhibit B cell responses to stimulation. We found that anti-CD83 inhibited total IgM and IgG production in vitro by allostimulated human PBMC. Also, Ag-specific Ab responses to immunization of SCID mice xenografted with human PBMC were inhibited by anti-CD83 treatment. This inhibition occurred without depletion of all human B cells because anti-CD83 lysed activated CD83 B cells by Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and spared resting (CD83) B cells. In cultured human PBMC, anti-CD83 inhibited tetanus toxoid-stimulated B cell proliferation and concomitant dendritic cell-mediated CD4 T cell proliferation and expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A, with minimal losses of B cells (<20%). In contrast, the anti-CD20 mAb rituximab depleted >80% of B cells but had no effect on CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine expression. By virtue of the ability of anti-CD83 to selectively deplete activated, but not resting, B cells and dendritic cells, with the latter reducing CD4 T cell responses, anti-CD83 may be clinically useful in autoimmunity and transplantation. Advantages might include inhibited expansion of autoantigen- or alloantigen-specific B cells and CD4 T cells, thus preventing further production of pathogenic Abs and inflammatory cytokines while preserving protective memory and regulatory cells.

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Enhanced humoral and CD8+ T cell immunity in mice vaccinated by DNA vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus through targeting the encoded F protein to dendritic cells.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised population. There is no licensed vaccine against RSV until now. It has been reported that targeting antigen to DEC205, a phagocytosis receptor on dendritic cells (DCs), could induce enhanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in mice. To develop RSV DNA vaccine and target the encoded antigen protein to DCs, the ectodomain of fusion glycoprotein (sF, amino acids: 23-524) of RSV was fused with anti-DEC205 single-chain Fv fragment (scDEC) and designated scDECF. Following successful expression from the recombinant plasmid of pVAX1/scDECF, the recombinant protein of scDECF was found capable of specifically binding to DEC205 receptor on CHOmDEC205 cells, and facilitating uptake of RSV F by DC2.4 cells in vitro. Furthermore, the higher levels of RSV-specific IgG antibody responses and neutralization antibody titers, as well as RSV F-specific CD8+ T cell responses were induced in mice immunized intramuscularly by pVAX1/scDECF than by the control plasmid of pVAX1/scISOF encoding sF protein fused with isotype matched control single-chain Fv fragment (scISO). Compared with pVAX1/scISOF, both the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1, >1, and the enhanced IFN-γ cytokine were induced in mice following pVAX1/scDECF immunization, which exhibited a Th1 dominant response in pVAX1/scDECF vaccinated mice. Notably, the elevated efficiency of RSV F protein bound by DCs in vivo could also be observed in mice inoculated by pVAX1/scDECF. Collectively, these results demonstrate the enhanced IgG and CD8 T cell immune responses have been induced successfully by DNA vaccine against RSV by targeting F antigen to DCs via the DEC205 receptor, and this DC-targeting vaccine strategy merits further investigation.

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Common tolerance mechanisms, but distinct cross-reactivities associated with gp41 and lipids, limit production of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10.

Developing an HIV-1 vaccine has been hampered by the inability of immunogens to induce broadly neutralizing Abs (BnAbs) that protect against infection. Previously, we used knockin (KI) mice expressing a prototypical gp41-specific BnAb, 2F5, to demonstrate that immunological tolerance triggered by self-reactivity of the 2F5 H chain impedes BnAb induction. In this study, we generate KI models expressing H chains from two other HIV-1 Abs, 4E10 (another self-/polyreactive, anti-gp41 BnAb) and 48d (an anti-CD4 inducible, nonpolyreactive Ab), and find a similar developmental blockade consistent with central B cell deletion in 4E10, but not in 48d VH KI mice. Furthermore, in KI strains expressing the complete 2F5 and 4E10 Abs as BCRs, we find that residual splenic B cells arrest at distinct developmental stages, yet exhibit uniformly low BCR densities, elevated basal activation, and profoundly muted responses to BCR ligation and, when captured as hybridoma mAb lines, maintain their dual (gp41/lipid) affinities and capacities to neutralize HIV-1, establishing a key role for anergy in suppressing residual 2F5- or 4E10-expressing B cells. Importantly, serum IgGs from naive 2F5 and 4E10 KI strains selectively eliminate gp41 and lipid binding, respectively, suggesting B cells expressing 2F5 or 4E10 as BCRs exhibit specificity for a distinct spectrum of host Ags, including selective interactions by 2F5 BCR(+) B cells (i.e., and not 4E10 BCR(+) B cells) with those mimicked by its gp41 neutralization epitope.

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Two doses of humanized anti-CD25 antibody in renal transplantation: a preliminary comparative study.

HuCD25mAb is a humanized anti-CD25 antibody which has the same amino acid sequence as daclizumab (Zenapax, Roche). HuCD25mAb is expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells while daclizumab is expressed in the NSO myeloma cell line. A comparative study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between huCD25mAb and daclizumab in a two-dose regimen incorporating triple immunosuppressant treatment regimens (MMF, CsA and steroids). Fifteen patients were enrolled and randomized to receive intravenous infusion of either huCD25mAb (n = 10) or daclizumab (n = 5) at a dosage of 1 mg.kg(-1) on operation day 0 and post-operation day 14. Serum concentrations of huCD25mAb and daclizumab were measured by a validated competitive ELISA. Subgroups of CD3(+), CD25(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes were monitored periodically by flow cytometry. The concentration-time curves of huCD25mAb and daclizumab were found to fit well to a one-compartment model. A significant decline of proportion (%) of CD3-CD25(+) and CD3(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes was observed 30 min after first infusion on day 0 (3.40 +/- 1.83 to 0.03 +/- 0.07, 3.35 +/- 2.02 to 0.37 +/- 0.49), and these levels remained low for at least 70 days (0.03 +/- 0.05, 0.31 +/- 0.47). All pharmacokinetic parameters of huCD25mAb seemed similar to those of daclizumab. The two-dose huCD25mAb regimen was as effective as daclizumab in rapidly achieving high therapeutic concentration in the treated patients, and a significant decrease of CD3(-)CD25(+) and CD3(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes was demonstrated. This suggests that two-dose regimen is feasible in maintaining host immunosuppression and may provide an effective and economical strategy for reducing incidence of acute graft rejection.

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Concurrent infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppresses anti-Plasmodium yoelii protection partially by induction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg in mice.

Malaria and intestinal nematode infection are widespread and co-infection frequently occurs. We investigated whether co-infected intestinal nematodes modulate immunity against co-existing malaria parasites. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py) was transient and self-limiting, but preceding infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp), a mouse intestinal nematode, exacerbated malaria resulting in higher parasite burdens and poor survival of the mice. Co-infection with Hp led to reduced Py-responsive proliferation and IFN-gamma production of spleen cells, and higher activation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg. In vivo depletion of Treg recovered anti-Py immunity and rescued co-infected mice from exacerbated malaria. However, we did not observe any obvious ex vivo activation of Treg by either Hp products or living worms. Our results suggest that intestinal nematodes moderate host immune responses during acute malaria infection by aggressive activation of Treg. Elucidation of the mechanisms of Treg activation in situ is a target for future analyses.

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Enforced covalent trimerisation of soluble feline CD134 (OX40)-ligand generates a functional antagonist of feline immunodeficiency virus.

The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) targets activated CD4-positive helper T cells preferentially, inducing an AIDS-like immunodeficiency in its natural host species, the domestic cat. The primary receptor for FIV is CD134, a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and all primary viral strains tested to date use CD134 for infection. To investigate the effect of the natural ligand for CD134 on FIV infection, feline CD134L was cloned and expressed in soluble forms. However, in contrast to murine or human CD134L, soluble feline CD134L (sCD134L) did not bind to CD134. Receptor-binding activity was restored by enforced covalent trimerisation following the introduction of a synthetic trimerisation domain from tenascin (TNC). Feline and human TNC-CD134Ls retained the species-specificity of the membrane-bound forms of the ligand while murine TNC-CD134L displayed promiscuous binding to feline, human or murine CD134. Feline and murine TNC-CD134Ls were antagonists of FIV infection; however, potency was both strain-specific and substrate-dependent, indicating that the modulatory effects of endogenous sCD134L, or exogenous CD134Lbased therapeutics, may vary depending on the viral strain.

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Depletion of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibits local tumour growth in a mouse model of B cell lymphoma.

Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) may inhibit immunity against cancer. Induction and expansion of T(regs) in the immunosuppressive microenvironment created by a growing tumour appear to be one of the mechanisms by which it can evade host defence. We studied the impact of CD25+ T(regs) in a B cell lymphoma model in which Rag2-/- mice received adoptive transfer of wild-type spleen cells with or without CD25+ cells, and concurrently subcutaneous inoculation of the B cell lymphoma cell line A20. We also examined the effect of engaging the glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR) - an approach reported previously to abrogate the suppressive effects of T(regs). Mice that received spleen cells depleted of CD25+ T(regs) showed significantly slower tumour growth and increased survival compared with mice that received unsorted spleen cells. The T(reg)-depleted group also had significantly more CD8+ T cells infiltrating the tumours and higher levels of serum immunoglobulin G subclasses. The anti-GITR treatment had no significant effect on tumour growth, survival or immunoglobulin production. In the CD25-depleted group four of 10 mice developed clinical signs of autoimmunity, in contrast to none in the non-depleted group. Forkhead box P3+ T cells were found in tumour-draining lymph nodes in mice in the CD25-depleted group, suggesting an in vivo induction or expansion of rare transferred donor T(regs). Thus, our study showed that removal of CD25+ T(regs) enhanced anti-tumour immunity against local growth of a B cell lymphoma and that induction or expansion of T(regs) could be one mechanism by which the growing tumour evades immune surveillance.

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The relative importance of CD4+ and CD8+T cells in immunity to pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis.

Protective immunity in paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is believed to be mediated by cellular immunity, but the role of T cell subsets has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize the function of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the immunity developed by susceptible, intermediate and resistant mice after P. brasiliensis infection. In susceptible mice, depletion of CD4+ T cells did not alter disease severity and anergy of cellular immunity but diminished antibody production. Anti-CD8 treatment led to increased fungal loads, but restored DTH reactivity. In resistant mice, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells control fungal burdens and cytokines although only the former regulate DTH reactions and antibody production. In the intermediate strain, deficiency of whole T and CD8+ T cells but not of CD4+ T or B cells led to increased mortality rates. Thus, in pulmonary PCM: (a) irrespective of the host susceptibility pattern, fungal loads are mainly controlled by CD8+ T cells, whereas antibody production and DTH reactions are regulated by CD4+ T cells; (c) CD4+ T cells play a protective role in the resistant and intermediate mouse strains, whereas in susceptible mice they are deleted or anergic; (d) genetic resistance to PCM is associated with concomitant CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity secreting type 1 and type 2 cytokines.

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Marginal zone B-cell depletion impairs murine host defense against Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

Marginal zone B (MZB) cells are a B-cell subset that produces T-cell-independent antibodies to blood-borne antigens. In this study, we examined the effects of MZB cell depletion on the immune response to the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, an extracellular pathogen for which T-cell-independent antibody is an important host defense. MZB cell depletion of C3H/HeJ mice using monoclonal antibody to LFA-1 and alpha(4)beta(1) integrins reduced B. burgdorferi-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) titers, enhanced pathogen burden, and led to more severe arthritis assessed within the first 2 weeks of infection. In addition, MZB cell-depleted mice had reduced levels of B. burgdorferi-specific IgG, which correlated with diminished splenic CD4+ T-cell-activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. Passive transfer of immune mouse serum from infected control mice into infected MZB cell-depleted mice reduced pathogen burden but did not alter the expression of T-cell activation markers on splenic CD4+ T cells. These findings demonstrate that MZB cells not only are a source of pathogen-specific IgM important for limiting spirochete burden and pathology but also play a prominent role in the priming of splenic T-cell responses to a blood-borne pathogen.

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NK1.1+ cells and T-cell activation in euthymic and thymectomized C57Bl/6 mice during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

Natural killer (NK) cells may provide the basis for resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection, because the depletion of NK1.1 cells causes high levels of parasitemia in young C57Bl/6 mice infected with T. cruzi. Indeed, NK1.1 cells have been implicated in the early production of large amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma, an important cytokine in host resistance. The NK1.1 marker is also expressed on special subpopulations of T cells. Most NK1.1+ T cells are of thymic origin, and their constant generation may be prevented by thymectomy. This procedure, by itself, decreased parasitemia and increased resistance in young mice. However, the depletion of NK1.1+ cells by the chronic administration of a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (PK-136) did not increase the parasitemia or mortality in thymectomized C57Bl/6 mice infected with T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain). To study the cross-talk between NK1.1+ cells and conventional T cells in this model, we examined the expression of activation/memory markers (CD45RB) on splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from young euthymic or thymectomized mice with or without depletion of NK1.1+ cells and also in aged mice during acute infection. Resistance to infection correlated with the amount of CD4+ T cells that are already activated at the moment of infection, as judged by the number of splenic CD4+ T cells expressing CD45RB(-). In addition, the specific antibody response to T. cruzi antigens was precocious and an accumulation of immunoglobulin (Ig)M with little isotype switch occurred in euthymic mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells. The data presented here suggest that NK1.1+ cells have important regulatory functions in euthymic, but not in thymectomized mice infected with T. cruzi. These regulatory functions include a helper activity in the generation of effector or activated/memory T cells.

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