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Modulation of apoptotic response by LAR family phosphatases-cIAP1 signaling during urinary tract morphogenesis.

The elimination of unwanted cells by apoptosis is necessary for tissue morphogenesis. However, the cellular control of morphogenetic apoptosis is poorly understood, notably the modulation of cell sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Ureter maturation, the process by which the ureter is displaced to the bladder wall, represents an exquisite example of morphogenetic apoptosis, requiring the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs): LAR and RPTPσ. Here we show that LAR-RPTPs act through cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) to modulate caspase 3,7-mediated ureter maturation. Pharmacologic or genetic inactivation of cIAP1 reverts the apoptotic deficit of LAR-RPTP-deficient embryos. Moreover, (cIAP1) inactivation generates excessive apoptosis leading to vesicoureteral reflux in newborns, which underscores the importance of apoptotic modulation during urinary tract morphogenesis. We finally demonstrate that LAR-RPTP deficiency increases cIAP1 stability during apoptotic cell death. Together these results identify a mode of cIAP1 regulation playing a critical role in the cellular response to apoptotic pathway activation in the embryo.

2388 related Products with: Modulation of apoptotic response by LAR family phosphatases-cIAP1 signaling during urinary tract morphogenesis.

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DNA damage and S phase-dependent E2F1 stabilization requires the cIAP1 E3-ubiquitin ligase and is associated with K63-poly-ubiquitination on lysine 161/164 residues.

The E2F transcription factor 1 is subtly regulated along the cell cycle progression and in response to DNA damage by post-translational modifications. Here, we demonstrated that the E3-ubiquitin ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) increases E2F1 K63-poly-ubiquitination on the lysine residue 161/164 cluster, which is associated with the transcriptional factor stability and activity. Mutation of these lysine residues completely abrogates the binding of E2F1 to CCNE, TP73 and APAF1 promoters, thus inhibiting transcriptional activation of these genes and E2F1-mediated cell proliferation control. Importantly, E2F1 stabilization in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage or during the S phase of cell cycle, as revealed by cyclin A silencing, is associated with K63-poly-ubiquitinylation of E2F1 on lysine 161/164 residues and involves cIAP1. Our results reveal an additional level of regulation of the stability and the activity of E2F1 by a non-degradative K63-poly-ubiquitination and uncover a novel function for the E3-ubiquitin ligase cIAP1.

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The SMAC mimetic birinapant attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by inhibiting the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 degradation in Kupffer cells.

It was demonstrated that second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic inhibites tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) degradation and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. However, the effect of Smac mimetic in vivo is not clear. The present study was to investigate the role of Smac mimetic in LPS-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanism. An animal model of LPS-induced liver injury was established by intraperitoneally injecting mice with 10mg/kg LPS pretreatment with or without Smac mimetic birinapant (30mg/kg body weight). Birinapant significantly improved the survival rate of endotoxemic mice (P<0.05) and attenuated LPS-induced liver pathologic damage and inflammatory response. IL-1 and TNF-α levels in the serum were markedly decreased in birinapant pretreatment mice compared with control mice (P<0.05).The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) expression in liver resident macrophage (Kupffer cells, KCs) was significantly decreased in the Birinapant group compared to the Vehicle group (P<0.05). At the same time, total TRAF3 protein abundance in KCs rapidly declined after LPS stimulation in the Vehicle group. However, it remained constant in the Birinapant group. Moreover, K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 in KCs was markedly impressed in the birinapant group compared with the control group. At last, the JNK and p38 MAPK activation in KCs was significantly inhibited by birinapant pretreatment (P<0.05). These results suggested that birinapant attenuated liver injury and improved survival rates in endotoxemic mice by inhibited the expression of cIAP1, degradation of TRAF3 and aviation of MAPK signaling pathway.

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The Role of cIAP1 and XIAP in Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family are reported to play important roles in cancer cells evading apoptosis. However, the significance of their expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells remains uncertain.

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Growth Hormone Mediates Its Protective Effect in Hepatic Apoptosis through Hnf6.

Growth hormone (GH) not only supports hepatic metabolism but also protects against hepatocyte cell death. Hnf6 (or Oc1) belonging to the Onecut family of hepatocyte transcription factors known to regulate differentiated hepatic function, is a GH-responsive gene. We evaluate if GH mediates Hnf6 activity to attenuate hepatic apoptotic injury.

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Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-1 Regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Destruction of Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine that promotes inflammation and contributes to pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Unlike other cells and tissues, intestinal epithelial cells undergo rapid cell death upon exposure to TNF, by unclear mechanisms. We investigated the roles of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in the regulation of TNF-induced cell death in the intestinal epithelium of mice and intestinal organoids.

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LCL161 increases paclitaxel-induced apoptosis by degrading cIAP1 and cIAP2 in NSCLC.

LCL161, a novel Smac mimetic, is known to have anti-tumor activity and improve chemosensitivity in various cancers. However, the function and mechanisms of the combination of LCL161 and paclitaxel in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unknown.

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Serum starvation induces anti-apoptotic cIAP1 to promote mitophagy through ubiquitination.

Mitophagy is a highly specialised type of autophagy that plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and controls cellular quality during stress. In this study, we established that serum starvation led to induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP1), which regulates mitophagy through ubiquitination. Importantly, gain and loss of function of cIAP1 resulted in concomitant alteration in mitophagy confirming the direct implication of cIAP1 in induction of mitophagy. Interestingly, it was observed that cIAP1 translocated to mitochondria to associate with TOM20, Ulk1, and LC3 to initiate mitophagy. Further, cIAP1-induced mitophagy led to dysfunctional mitochondria that resulted in abrogation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate along with the decrease in ATP levels. The ubiquitination of cIAP1 was found to be the critical regulator of mitophagy. The disruption of cIAP1-ubiquitin interaction by PYR41 ensured the abrogation of cIAP1-LC3 interaction and mitophagy inhibition. Our study revealed an important function of cIAP1 as a crucial molecular link between autophagy and apoptosis for regulation of mitochondrial dynamics to mitigate cellular stress.

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[Effects of LCL161, a Smac mimetic on the proliferation and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

To investigate the effects of LCL161, a Smac mimetic, on the proliferation and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. 


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SMAC Mimetic Birinapant plus Radiation Eradicates Human Head and Neck Cancers with Genomic Amplifications of Cell Death Genes FADD and BIRC2.

Comparison of tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) harbor the most frequent genomic amplifications of Fas-associated death domain (FADD), with or without Baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing BIRC2 (cIAP1), affecting about 30% of patients in association with worse prognosis. Here, we identified HNSCC cell lines harboring FADD/BIRC2 amplifications and overexpression by exome sequencing, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. In vitro, FADD or BIRC2 siRNA knockdown inhibited HNSCC displaying amplification and increased expression of these genes, supporting their functional importance in promoting proliferation. Birinapant, a novel SMAC mimetic, sensitized multiple HNSCC lines to cell death by agonists TNFα or TRAIL and inhibited cIAP1>XIAP>IAP2. Combination of birinapant and TNFα induced sub-G0 DNA fragmentation in sensitive lines and birinapant alone also induced significant G2-M cell-cycle arrest and cell death in UM-SCC-46 cells. Gene transfer and expression of FADD sensitized resistant UM-SCC-38 cells lacking FADD amplification to birinapant and TNFα, supporting a role for FADD in sensitization to IAP inhibitor and death ligands. HNSCC varied in mechanisms of cell death, as indicated by reversal by inhibitors or protein markers of caspase-dependent apoptosis and/or RIPK1/MLKL-mediated necroptosis. In vivo, birinapant inhibited tumor growth and enhanced radiation-induced TNFα, tumor responses, and host survival in UM-SCC-46 and -11B xenograft models displaying amplification and overexpression of FADD+/- BIRC2 These findings suggest that combination of SMAC mimetics such as birinapant plus radiation may be particularly active in HNSCC, which harbor frequent FADD/BIRC2 genomic alterations. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5442-54. ©2016 AACR.

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