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           Search results for: Candida albicans antibody, Monoclonal Antibodies, Host Mouse, Isotype IgG2a   

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#23716675   2013/06/12 Save this To Up

Antibody to a conserved antigenic target is protective against diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens.

Microbial capsular antigens are effective vaccines but are chemically and immunologically diverse, resulting in a major barrier to their use against multiple pathogens. A β-(1→6)-linked poly-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) surface capsule is synthesized by four proteins encoded in genetic loci designated intercellular adhesion in Staphylococcus aureus or polyglucosamine in selected Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. We report that many microbial pathogens lacking an identifiable intercellular adhesion or polyglucosamine locus produce PNAG, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens, as well as protozoa, e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Plasmodium berghei, and sporozoites and blood-stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Natural antibody to PNAG is common in humans and animals and binds primarily to the highly acetylated glycoform of PNAG but is not protective against infection due to lack of deposition of complement opsonins. Polyclonal animal antibody raised to deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG and a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that both bind to native and deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG mediated complement-dependent opsonic or bactericidal killing and protected mice against local and/or systemic infections by Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, Candida albicans, and P. berghei ANKA, and against colonic pathology in a model of infectious colitis. PNAG is also a capsular polysaccharide for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and nontypable Hemophilus influenzae, and protects cells from environmental stress. Vaccination targeting PNAG could contribute to immunity against serious and diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, and the conserved production of PNAG suggests that it is a critical factor in microbial biology.

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#19399183   2009/04/28 Save this To Up

Protection by anti-beta-glucan antibodies is associated with restricted beta-1,3 glucan binding specificity and inhibition of fungal growth and adherence.

Anti-beta-glucan antibodies elicited by a laminarin-conjugate vaccine confer cross-protection to mice challenged with major fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. To gain insights into protective beta-glucan epitope(s) and protection mechanisms, we studied two anti-beta-glucan monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with identical complementarity-determining regions but different isotypes (mAb 2G8, IgG2b and mAb 1E12, IgM). C. albicans, the most relevant fungal pathogen for humans, was used as a model.Both mAbs bound to fungal cell surface and to the beta1,3-beta1,6 glucan of the fungal cell wall skeleton, as shown by immunofluorescence, electron-microscopy and ELISA. They were also equally unable to opsonize fungal cells in a J774 macrophage phagocytosis and killing assay. However, only the IgG2b conferred substantial protection against mucosal and systemic candidiasis in passive vaccination experiments in rodents. Competition ELISA and microarray analyses using sequence-defined glucan oligosaccharides showed that the protective IgG2b selectively bound to beta1,3-linked (laminarin-like) glucose sequences whereas the non-protective IgM bound to beta1,6- and beta1,4-linked glucose sequences in addition to beta1,3-linked ones. Only the protective IgG2b recognized heterogeneous, polydisperse high molecular weight cell wall and secretory components of the fungus, two of which were identified as the GPI-anchored cell wall proteins Als3 and Hyr1. In addition, only the IgG2b inhibited in vitro two critical virulence attributes of the fungus, hyphal growth and adherence to human epithelial cells.Our study demonstrates that the isotype of anti-beta-glucan antibodies may affect details of the beta-glucan epitopes recognized, and this may be associated with a differing ability to inhibit virulence attributes of the fungus and confer protection in vivo. Our data also suggest that the anti-virulence properties of the IgG2b mAb may be linked to its capacity to recognize beta-glucan epitope(s) on some cell wall components that exert critical functions in fungal cell wall structure and adherence to host cells.

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#11466376   2001/07/23 Save this To Up

Complement is essential for protection by an IgM and an IgG3 monoclonal antibody against experimental, hematogenously disseminated candidiasis.

The incidence of life-threatening, hematogenously disseminated candidiasis, which is predominantly caused by Candida albicans, parallels the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system. Limited antifungal drug choices and emergence of drug-resistant C. albicans strains indicate the need for novel prevention and therapeutic strategies. We are developing vaccines and Abs that enhance resistance against experimental candidiasis. However, the prevalence of serum anti-Candida Abs in candidiasis patients has led to the misconception that Abs are not protective. To explain the apparent discrepancy between such clinical observations and our work, we compared functional activities of C. albicans-specific protective and nonprotective mAbs. Both kinds of Abs are agglutinins that fix complement and are specific for cell surface mannan, but the protective Abs recognize beta-mannan, and the nonprotective Ab is specific for alpha-mannan. By several indirect and direct measures, the protective mAbs more efficiently bind complement factor C3 to the yeast cell than do nonprotective Ab. We hypothesize that the C3 deposition causes preferential association of blood-borne fungi with host phagocytic cells that are capable of killing the fungus. We conclude from these results that the protective potential of Abs is dependent on epitope specificity, serum titer, and ability to rapidly and efficiently fix complement to the fungal surface. The mechanism of protection appears to be associated with enhanced phagocytosis and killing of the fungus.

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