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           Search results for: Carfilzomib (PR-171) Mechanisms: Proteasome inhibitor   

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Management of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma: novel agents, antibodies, immunotherapies and beyond.

Despite enormous advances, management of multiple myeloma (MM) remains challenging. Multiple factors impact the decision to treat or which regimen to use at MM relapse/progression. Recent major randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed widely varying progression-free survivals (PFS), ranging from a median of 4 months (MM-003) to 23.6 months (ASPIRE). Based on these RCTs, next-generation proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib and ixazomib), next-generation immunomodulatory agent (pomalidomide), and monoclonal antibodies (elotuzumab and daratumumab) were approved for relapsed and refractory MM. Daratumumab, targeting CD38, has multiple mechanisms of action including modulation of the immunosuppressive bone marrow micro-environment. In addition to the remarkable single agent activity in refractory MM, daratumumab produced deep responses and superior PFS in MM when combined with lenalidomide/dexamethasone, or bortezomib/dexamethasone. Other anti-CD38 antibodies, such as isatuximab and MOR202, are undergoing assessment. Elotuzumab, targeting SLAMF7, yielded superior response rates and PFS when combined with lenalidomide/dexamethasone. New combinations of these next generation novel agents and/or antibodies are undergoing clinical trials. Venetoclax, an oral BH3 mimetic inhibiting BCL2, showed single agent activity in MM with t(11;14), and is being studied in combination with bortezomib/dexamethasone. Selinexor, an Exportin-1 inhibitor, yielded promising results in quad- or penta-refractory MM including patients resistant to daratumumab. Pembrolizumab, an anti-PD1 check-point inhibitor, is being tested in combination with lenalidomide/dexamethasone or pomalidomide/dexamethasone. Chimeric antigen receptor-T cells targeting B-cell maturation antigen have yielded deep responses in RRMM. Finally, salvage autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains an important treatment in MM relapsing/progressing after a first ASCT. Herein, the clinical trial data of these agents are summarized, cautious interpretation of RCTs highlighted, and algorithm for salvage treatment of relapse/refractory MM proposed.Leukemia advance online publication, 19 December 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.329.

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Curcumin ameliorates the in vitro efficacy of carfilzomib in human multiple myeloma U266 cells targeting p53 and NF-κB pathways.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant B-cell neoplasm with accumulation of malignant plasma cells in bone marrow. Pharmacological therapy improves response frequency even if with various associated toxicities. Herein, we investigated if combination of curcumin with carfilzomib (CFZ) can induce a better cytotoxic effect on in vitro cultured U266 cells. Cell viability data showed that curcumin significantly ameliorates CFZ cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, curcumin alone did not affect proteasome at the tested dose, confirming the involvement of different mechanisms in the observed effects. U266 cells exposure to curcumin or CFZ increased reactive species (RS) levels, although their production did not appear further potentiated following drugs combination. Interestingly, NF-κB nuclear accumulation was reduced by treatment with CFZ or curcumin, and was more deeply decreased in cells treated with CFZ-curcumin combinations, very likely due to the different mechanisms through which they target NF-κB. Our results confirmed the induction of p53/p21 axis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in anticancer activities of both drugs, an effect more pronounced for the CFZ-curcumin tested combinations. Furthermore, curcumin addition enhanced CFZ proapoptotic effect. These findings evidence that curcumin can ameliorate CFZ efficacy, and lead us to hypothesize that this effect might be useful to optimize CFZ therapy in MM patients.

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Positioning of proteasome inhibitors in therapy of solid malignancies.

Targeting of the protein degradation pathway, in particular, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, has emerged as an attractive novel cancer chemotherapeutic modality. Although proteasome inhibitors have been most successfully applied in the treatment of hematological malignancies, they also received continuing interest for the treatment of solid tumors. In this review, we summarize the current positioning of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of common solid malignancies (e.g., lung, colon, pancreas, breast, and head and neck cancer), addressing topics of their mechanism(s) of action, predictive factors and molecular mechanisms of resistance.

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Improving the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma by combination with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protease inhibitors lopinavir or nelfinavir.

To assess the potential of second-generation proteasome inhibition by carfilzomib and its combination with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (HIV-PIs) lopinavir and nelfinavir in vitro for improved treatment of clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC).

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Cutaneous Adverse Events of Targeted Therapies for Hematolymphoid Malignancies.

The identification of oncogenic drivers of liquid tumors has led to the rapid development of targeted agents with distinct cutaneous adverse event (AE) profiles. The diagnosis and management of these skin toxicities has motivated a novel partnership between dermatologists and oncologists in developing supportive oncodermatology clinics. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of clinical presentation, mechanisms, and management of the most common and significant cutaneous AEs observed during treatment with targeted therapies for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. We systematically review according to drug-targeting pathway the cutaneous AE profiles of these drugs, and offer insight when possible into whether pharmacologic target versus immunologic modulation primarily underlie presentation. We include discussion of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib, ponatinib), blinatumomab, ibrutinib, idelalisib, anti-B cell antibodies (rituximab, ibritumomab, obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, tositumomab), immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), alemtuzumab, brentuximab, and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, ixazomib). We highlight skin reactions seen with antiliquid but not solid tumor agents, draw attention to serious cutaneous AEs that might require therapy modification or cessation, and offer management strategies to permit treatment tolerability. We emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to minimize disruptions to care, optimize prognosis and quality of life, and promptly address life-threatening skin or infectious events. This evolving partnership between oncologists and dermatologists in the iterative characterization and management of skin toxicities will contribute to a better understanding of these drugs' cutaneous targets and improved patient care.

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Inhibiting heat shock protein 90 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway impairs metabolic homeostasis and leads to cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells.

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway play crucial roles in the homeostasis of pancreatic cancer cells. This study combined for the first time the HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib (Gan) and the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Carf) to target key mechanisms of homeostasis in pancreatic cancer. It was hypothesized that Gan plus Carf would elicit potent antitumor activity by modulating complementary homeostatic processes.

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How I treat myeloma with new agents.

At present, multiple classes of agents with distinct mechanisms of action are available for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), including alkylators, steroids, immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), proteasome inhibitors (PIs), histone deacetylase inhibitors (DACIs), and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Over the last 5 years, several new agents, such as the third-generation IMiD pomalidomide, the second-generation PIs carfilzomib and ixazomib, the DACI panobinostat, and 2 mAbs, elotuzumab and daratumumab, have been approved, incorporated into clinical guidelines, and have transformed our approach to the treatment of patients. These agents may be part of doublet or triplet combinations, or incorporated into intensive strategies with autologous stem cell transplantation. In this review, I discuss the different treatment options available today for the treatment of MM in frontline and relapse settings.

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Efficacy and tolerability of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat in clinical practice.

The histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat has shown efficacy in phase-II and phase-III trials for multiple myeloma and has recently received market approval in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone. Here, we retrospectively report our single center experience with panobinostat/bortezomib/dexamethasone (FVD) in a heavily pretreated patient population (n = 24) with a high degree of refractoriness to proteasome inhibitors (PI) and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD). Median age was 67 years (range 49-87) and the median number of prior therapies was 5 (range 2-17). Fourteen patients (58%) had high-risk cytogenetic aberrations. Thirteen (54%) and 21 (88%) patients were refractory to PIs and IMiDs, respectively. Twelve patients (50%) were refractory to bortezomib and 7 (29%) to carfilzomib; 6 patients (25%) were refractory to both bortezomib and carfilzomib. In 21 patients evaluable for response, overall response rate (ORR; ≥PR) was 33% (7/21) and 81% (17/21) achieved at least stable disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 3.5 and 9.8 months, respectively. Significant differences between bortezomib-sensitive and -refractory patients were observed. In bortezomib-sensitive patients, median PFS was 6.3 months compared to 2.3 months in bortezomib-refractory patients (P < .001). Median overall survival was not reached vs 4.8 months (P = .046) in bortezomib-sensitive and bortezomib-refractory patients, respectively. The only patient refractory to carfilzomib but sensitive to bortezomib achieved very good partial remission and PFS of 6.3 months, suggesting discrete mechanisms of resistance to different PIs. As expected, thrombocytopenia and fatigue/asthenia occurred in nearly all patients (96% and 83%, respectively). Diarrhea was observed in only 19% of patients which compares favorably with the high rates of diarrhea reported in the PANORAMA trials. With panobinostat dose reductions in 67% of patients, FVD was tolerated by the majority of patients. In conclusion, FVD showed efficacy in a heavily pretreated, high-risk multiple myeloma population with a high degree of patients refractory to novel agents including PIs.

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Cardiovascular events during carfilzomib therapy for relapsed myeloma: practical management aspects from two case studies.

Objectives and importance: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities due to disease burden and treatment-related risk factors. Proteasome inhibitors, including bortezomib and carfilzomib, are effective and generally well tolerated anti-MM agents. However, cardiovascular-related toxicities have been reported with this class of agents, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. We discuss the practical management of cardiovascular events during carfilzomib therapy for relapsed MM.

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How is patient care for multiple myeloma advancing?

Treatment of multiple myeloma has undergone profound changes in the past years thanks to the increased understanding of the biology of the disease and the new treatment options. New drugs and effective approaches are currently available for the treatment of multiple myeloma, including immunomodulatory agents, proteasome inhibitors and autologous stem cell transplantation. Areas covered: We have described the recent updated criteria to start treatment in multiple myeloma and summarized clinical data from major studies including most recent agents. Particularly, results with pomalidomide, carfilzomib, ixazomib, monoclonal antibodies such as elotuzumab, daratumumab, and checkpoint inhibitors have been reported. Both transplant and non-transplant settings have been covered. Expert commentary: Despite the successful improvement in overall survival and time to relapse, multiple myeloma still remains incurable. Therefore, there is still an unmet need for new treatment strategies with novel mechanisms of action, like monoclonal antibodies, novel immunomodulators, and novel proteasome inhibitors. Implementation of these novel drugs in rationally designed therapies with a good balance of efficacy and safety should be carefully considered in order to improve outcome.

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