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           Search results for: Carfilzomib (PR-171) Mechanisms: Proteasome inhibitor   

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#28918995   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Cutaneous Adverse Events of Targeted Therapies for Hematolymphoid Malignancies.

The identification of oncogenic drivers of liquid tumors has led to the rapid development of targeted agents with distinct cutaneous adverse event (AE) profiles. The diagnosis and management of these skin toxicities has motivated a novel partnership between dermatologists and oncologists in developing supportive oncodermatology clinics. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of clinical presentation, mechanisms, and management of the most common and significant cutaneous AEs observed during treatment with targeted therapies for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. We systematically review according to drug-targeting pathway the cutaneous AE profiles of these drugs, and offer insight when possible into whether pharmacologic target versus immunologic modulation primarily underlie presentation. We include discussion of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib, ponatinib), blinatumomab, ibrutinib, idelalisib, anti-B cell antibodies (rituximab, ibritumomab, obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, tositumomab), immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), alemtuzumab, brentuximab, and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, ixazomib). We highlight skin reactions seen with antiliquid but not solid tumor agents, draw attention to serious cutaneous AEs that might require therapy modification or cessation, and offer management strategies to permit treatment tolerability. We emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to minimize disruptions to care, optimize prognosis and quality of life, and promptly address life-threatening skin or infectious events. This evolving partnership between oncologists and dermatologists in the iterative characterization and management of skin toxicities will contribute to a better understanding of these drugs' cutaneous targets and improved patient care.

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#28841232   2017/08/25 Save this To Up

Inhibiting heat shock protein 90 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway impairs metabolic homeostasis and leads to cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells.

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway play crucial roles in the homeostasis of pancreatic cancer cells. This study combined for the first time the HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib (Gan) and the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Carf) to target key mechanisms of homeostasis in pancreatic cancer. It was hypothesized that Gan plus Carf would elicit potent antitumor activity by modulating complementary homeostatic processes.

1716 related Products with: Inhibiting heat shock protein 90 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway impairs metabolic homeostasis and leads to cell death in human pancreatic cancer cells.

Heat Shock Protein 90, hu Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Anti C Reactive Protein A Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula Recombinant Human HGF [fr Recombinant Human HGF [fr Recombinant Human HGF [fr Recombinant Human IL-4 [f Recombinant Human IL-6 (I Recombinant Human OPG TNF

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#28747306   2017/07/27 Save this To Up

How I treat myeloma with new agents.

At present, multiple classes of agents with distinct mechanisms of action are available for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), including alkylators, steroids, immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), proteasome inhibitors (PIs), histone deacetylase inhibitors (DACIs), and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Over the last 5 years, several new agents, such as the third-generation IMiD pomalidomide, the second-generation PIs carfilzomib and ixazomib, the DACI panobinostat, and 2 mAbs, elotuzumab and daratumumab, have been approved, incorporated into clinical guidelines, and have transformed our approach to the treatment of patients. These agents may be part of doublet or triplet combinations, or incorporated into intensive strategies with autologous stem cell transplantation. In this review, I discuss the different treatment options available today for the treatment of MM in frontline and relapse settings.

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#28685863   2017/07/07 Save this To Up

Efficacy and tolerability of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat in clinical practice.

The histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat has shown efficacy in phase-II and phase-III trials for multiple myeloma and has recently received market approval in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone. Here, we retrospectively report our single center experience with panobinostat/bortezomib/dexamethasone (FVD) in a heavily pretreated patient population (n = 24) with a high degree of refractoriness to proteasome inhibitors (PI) and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD). Median age was 67 years (range 49-87) and the median number of prior therapies was 5 (range 2-17). Fourteen patients (58%) had high-risk cytogenetic aberrations. Thirteen (54%) and 21 (88%) patients were refractory to PIs and IMiDs, respectively. Twelve patients (50%) were refractory to bortezomib and 7 (29%) to carfilzomib; 6 patients (25%) were refractory to both bortezomib and carfilzomib. In 21 patients evaluable for response, overall response rate (ORR; ≥PR) was 33% (7/21) and 81% (17/21) achieved at least stable disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 3.5 and 9.8 months, respectively. Significant differences between bortezomib-sensitive and -refractory patients were observed. In bortezomib-sensitive patients, median PFS was 6.3 months compared to 2.3 months in bortezomib-refractory patients (P < .001). Median overall survival was not reached vs 4.8 months (P = .046) in bortezomib-sensitive and bortezomib-refractory patients, respectively. The only patient refractory to carfilzomib but sensitive to bortezomib achieved very good partial remission and PFS of 6.3 months, suggesting discrete mechanisms of resistance to different PIs. As expected, thrombocytopenia and fatigue/asthenia occurred in nearly all patients (96% and 83%, respectively). Diarrhea was observed in only 19% of patients which compares favorably with the high rates of diarrhea reported in the PANORAMA trials. With panobinostat dose reductions in 67% of patients, FVD was tolerated by the majority of patients. In conclusion, FVD showed efficacy in a heavily pretreated, high-risk multiple myeloma population with a high degree of patients refractory to novel agents including PIs.

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#28545322   2017/05/26 Save this To Up

Cardiovascular events during carfilzomib therapy for relapsed myeloma: practical management aspects from two case studies.

Objectives and importance: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities due to disease burden and treatment-related risk factors. Proteasome inhibitors, including bortezomib and carfilzomib, are effective and generally well tolerated anti-MM agents. However, cardiovascular-related toxicities have been reported with this class of agents, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. We discuss the practical management of cardiovascular events during carfilzomib therapy for relapsed MM.

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#28504554   2017/05/15 Save this To Up

How is patient care for multiple myeloma advancing?

Treatment of multiple myeloma has undergone profound changes in the past years thanks to the increased understanding of the biology of the disease and the new treatment options. New drugs and effective approaches are currently available for the treatment of multiple myeloma, including immunomodulatory agents, proteasome inhibitors and autologous stem cell transplantation. Areas covered: We have described the recent updated criteria to start treatment in multiple myeloma and summarized clinical data from major studies including most recent agents. Particularly, results with pomalidomide, carfilzomib, ixazomib, monoclonal antibodies such as elotuzumab, daratumumab, and checkpoint inhibitors have been reported. Both transplant and non-transplant settings have been covered. Expert commentary: Despite the successful improvement in overall survival and time to relapse, multiple myeloma still remains incurable. Therefore, there is still an unmet need for new treatment strategies with novel mechanisms of action, like monoclonal antibodies, novel immunomodulators, and novel proteasome inhibitors. Implementation of these novel drugs in rationally designed therapies with a good balance of efficacy and safety should be carefully considered in order to improve outcome.

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#28415782   2017/04/18 Save this To Up

Glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 synergizes with carfilzomib in resistant multiple myeloma cells.

Curative responses in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) are limited by the emergence of therapeutic resistance. To address this problem, we set out to identify druggable mechanisms that convey resistance to proteasome inhibitors (PIs; e.g., bortezomib), which are cornerstone agents in the treatment of MM. In isogenic pairs of PI sensitive and resistant cells, we observed stark differences in cellular bioenergetics between the divergent phenotypes. PI resistant cells exhibited increased mitochondrial respiration driven by glutamine as the principle fuel source. To target glutamine-induced respiration in PI resistant cells, we utilized the glutaminase-1 inhibitor, CB-839. CB-839 inhibited mitochondrial respiration and was more cytotoxic in PI resistant cells as a single agent. Furthermore, we found that CB-839 synergistically enhanced the activity of multiple PIs with the most dramatic synergy being observed with carfilzomib (Crflz), which was confirmed in a panel of genetically diverse PI sensitive and resistant MM cells. Mechanistically, CB-839 enhanced Crflz-induced ER stress and apoptosis, characterized by a robust induction of ATF4 and CHOP and the activation of caspases. Our findings suggest that the acquisition of PI resistance involves adaptations in cellular bioenergetics, supporting the combination of CB-839 with Crflz for the treatment of refractory MM.

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#28333868   2017/03/23 Save this To Up

Proteasome inhibitor-induced gastrointestinal toxicity.

Gastrointestinal toxicities are commonly reported following treatment with proteasome inhibitors. The first-generation proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, induces significant gastrointestinal side effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and constipation, occurring in up to 84% of patients. Despite the development of safer proteasome inhibitors, such as carfilzomib, gastrointestinal toxicities remain some of the most common side effects. This review aims to summarize the previous literature on proteasome inhibitor-induced gastrointestinal toxicities, report on recent updates in the field, and investigate possible mechanisms of this toxicity.

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#28280367   2017/03/10 Save this To Up

Clarifying the molecular mechanism associated with carfilzomib resistance in human multiple myeloma using microarray gene expression profile and genetic interaction network.

Carfilzomib is a Food and Drug Administration-approved selective proteasome inhibitor for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies indicate that MM cells still develop resistance to carfilzomib, and the molecular mechanisms associated with carfilzomib resistance have not been studied in detail. In this study, to better understand its potential resistant effect and its underlying mechanisms in MM, microarray gene expression profile associated with carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 and its parental cell line was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Raw fluorescent signals were normalized and differently expressed genes were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays method. Genetic interaction network was expanded using String, a biomolecular interaction network JAVA platform. Meanwhile, molecular function, biological process and signaling pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Totally, 27 upregulated and 36 downregulated genes were identified and a genetic interaction network associated with the resistant effect was expanded basing on String, which consisted of 100 nodes and 249 edges. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways were aberrant in carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 cells. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that carfilzomib potentially conferred drug resistance to KMS-11 cells by cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways, which may provide some potential molecular therapeutic targets for drug combination therapy against carfilzomib resistance.

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DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Human Epstein-Barr Virus Carfilzomib (PR-171) Mech AEE-788 Mechanisms: Multi Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Multiple myeloma tissue m Multiple human normal org Multiple organ tumor tiss Multiple organ tumor tiss Multiple organ tumor tiss

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#28244987   2017/02/28 Save this To Up

Capzimin is a potent and specific inhibitor of proteasome isopeptidase Rpn11.

The proteasome is a vital cellular machine that maintains protein homeostasis, which is of particular importance in multiple myeloma and possibly other cancers. Targeting of proteasome 20S peptidase activity with bortezomib and carfilzomib has been widely used to treat myeloma. However, not all patients respond to these compounds, and those who do eventually suffer relapse. Therefore, there is an urgent and unmet need to develop new drugs that target proteostasis through different mechanisms. We identified quinoline-8-thiol (8TQ) as a first-in-class inhibitor of the proteasome 19S subunit Rpn11. A derivative of 8TQ, capzimin, shows >5-fold selectivity for Rpn11 over the related JAMM proteases and >2 logs selectivity over several other metalloenzymes. Capzimin stabilized proteasome substrates, induced an unfolded protein response, and blocked proliferation of cancer cells, including those resistant to bortezomib. Proteomic analysis revealed that capzimin stabilized a subset of polyubiquitinated substrates. Identification of capzimin offers an alternative path to develop proteasome inhibitors for cancer therapy.

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