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           Search results for: Caspase 1 Substrate YVAD AFC1000 assays   

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#24399841   2014/01/08 Save this To Up

The teleost acute-phase inflammatory response and caspase activation by a novel alarmin-like ligand.

This study tested the hypothesis that NCAMP-1 has alarmin-like properties and activates the caspase-1-binding site in cells of the teleost bone marrow (equivalent). In mammals, alarmins have been studied extensively; however, in teleosts, little is known about their identity and functions. Similar to alarmins, NCAMP-1 has a broad spectrum of bacteriolytic activity. NCAMP-1 is constitutively present in CF serum, and levels were increased following infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri Binding to AK cells was determined with rNCAMP-1 and an anti-His-tag antibody. In vitro treatment of AK (bone marrow equivalent) or spleen cells with rNCAMP-1 increased the IL-1β message three- to fivefold at 3 h, 6 h, and 9 h post-treatment. The association of NCAMP-1 with the activities of alarmin ATP and the acute inflammatory response was demonstrated by NCAMP-1-induced P2X7R pore opening and YO-PRO-1 cellular influx. The association of NCAMP-1 binding with inflammasome activation was demonstrated by NCAMP-1 activation of the caspase-1-binding site for tetrapeptide Z-YVAD-FMK. In competition assays, this tetrapeptide competitively inhibited subsequent binding by the pan-caspase substrate tripeptide FAM-VAD-FMK. Lymphocyte-like cells from the spleen were 16%(+), and epithelial cells were also positive for NCAMP-1. IHC staining and confocal microscopy confirmed the cytosolic existence of NCAMP-1 in lymphoreticular tissue and IL-1β in AK cells. CF T cell lines G14D and 28S.3 expressed NCAMP-1 in the cytosol and in storage granules. These studies strongly suggested that NCAMP-1 is an alarmin-like ligand with similar but distinct activities to those of ATP and HMGB-1.

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#10771129   2000/06/01 Save this To Up

Cadmium induces caspase-mediated cell death: suppression by Bcl-2.

Apoptosis is a process of active cell death and is characterized by activation of caspases, DNA fragmentation, and biochemical and morphological changes. To better understand apoptosis, we have characterized the dose- and time-dependent toxic effects of cadmium in Rat-1 fibroblasts. Staining of cells with phosphatidylserine (PS)-annexin V, Hoechst 33258 or Rhodamine 123 and Tunel assays showed that incubating cells with 10 microM cadmium induced a form of cell death exhibiting typical characteristics of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, externalization of PS, loss of mitochondria membrane potential, nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Expression of Bcl-2 or CrmA each suppressed cadmium-induced cell death although Bcl-2 was somewhat more effective than CrmA. In vitro assay of caspase activity carried out using poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as a substrate as well as intracellular caspase assays using a fluorigenic caspase-3 substrate confirmed that caspase-3 is activated in Rat-1 cells undergoing cadmium-induced apoptosis. Both Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (DEVD-cho) and Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone (YVAD-cmk), selective inhibitors of caspase-3 and caspase-1, respectively, suppressed significantly cadmium-induced cell death. However, the nonselective caspase inhibitor, z-Val-Ala-Asp-floromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), was the most efficacious agent, almost completely blocking cadmium-induced cell death. Taken together, these results demonstrate that as in other forms of apoptosis, caspases play a central role in cadmium-induced cell death.

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#10088775   1999/04/05 Save this To Up

Tumor necrosis factor alpha regulation of the FAS-mediated apoptosis-signaling pathway in synovial cells.

Fas-mediated apoptosis is observed in synoviocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not in those of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The present study was conducted to elucidate the mechanisms that initiate induction of Fas-mediated apoptosis in RA synoviocytes.

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#8557034   1996/02/26 Save this To Up

Proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta by an ICE-like protease in apoptotic cells.

These studies demonstrate that treatment of human U-937 cells with ionizing radiation (IR) is associated with activation of a cytoplasmic myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase. Characterization of the kinase by gel filtration and in-gel kinase assays support activation of a 40 kDa protein. Substrate and inhibitor studies further support the induction of protein kinase C (PKC)-like activity. The results of N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified protein demonstrate identity of the kinase with an internal region of PKC delta. Immunoblot analysis was used to confirm proteolytic cleavage of intact 78 kDa PKC delta in control cells to the 40 kDa C-terminal fragment after IR exposure. The finding that both IR-induced proteolytic activation of PKC delta and endonucleolytic DNA fragmentation are blocked by Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL supports an association with physiological cell death (PCD). Moreover, cleavage of PKC delta occurs adjacent to aspartic acid at a site (QDN) similar to that involved in proteolytic activation of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE). The specific tetrapeptide ICE inhibitor (YVAD) blocked both proteolytic activation of PKC delta and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in IR-treated cells. These findings demonstrate that PCD is associated with proteolytic activation of PKC delta by an ICE-like protease.

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