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#28715732   2017/07/17 Save this To Up

Proteasome inhibitor-induced cleavage of HSP90 is mediated by ROS generation and caspase 10-activation in human leukemic cells.

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that supports the stability of client proteins. The proteasome is one of the targets for cancer therapy, and studies are underway to use proteasome inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we found that HSP90 was cleaved to a 55kDa protein after treatment with proteasome inhibitors including MG132 in leukemia cells but was not cleaved in other tissue-derived cells. HSP90 has two major isoforms (HSP90α and HSP90β), and both were cleaved by MG132 treatment. MG132 treatment also induced a decrease in HSP90 client proteins. MG132 treatment generated ROS, and the cleavage of HSP90 was blocked by a ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). MG132 activated several caspases, and the activation was reduced by pretreatment with NAC. Based on an inhibitor study, the cleavage of HSP90 induced by MG132 was dependent on caspase 10 activation. Furthermore, active recombinant caspase 10 induced HSP90 cleavage in vitro. MG132 upregulated VDUP-1 expression and reduced the GSH levels implying that the regulation of redox-related proteins is involved. Taken all together, our results suggest that the cleavage of HSP90 by MG132 treatment is mediated by ROS generation and caspase 10 activation. HSP90 cleavage may provide an additional mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effects of proteasome inhibitors.

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#22926077   2012/09/17 Save this To Up

Trauma patients' elevated tumor necrosis related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) contributes to increased T cell apoptosis.

Immunosuppression resulting from excessive post-trauma apoptosis of hyperactivated T cells is controversial. TRAIL mediated T cell apoptosis decreases highly activated T cells' responses. Caspase-10, a particular TRAIL target, was increased in trauma patients' T cells with concomitantly elevated plasma TRAIL levels. These patients' T cells developed anergy, implicating increased TRAIL-mediated T cell apoptosis in post-trauma T cell anergy. Control T cells cultured with patients' sera containing high TRAIL levels increased their caspase-10 activity and apoptosis. Stimulated primary T cells are TRAIL apoptosis resistant. Increased plasma thrombospondin-1 and T cell expression of CD47, a thrombospondin-1 receptor, preceded patients' T cell anergy. CD47 triggering of T cells increased their sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Augmentation of T cell TRAIL-induced apoptosis was secondary to CD47 triggered activation of the Src homology-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and was partially blocked by a SHP-1 inhibitor. We suggest that combined post-trauma CD47 triggering, SHP-1 mediated NFκB suppression, and elevated TRAIL levels increase patients' CD47 expressing T cell apoptosis, thus contributing to subsequent T cell anergy.

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#22528489   2012/06/18 Save this To Up

Cathepsin D primes caspase-8 activation by multiple intra-chain proteolysis.

During the resolution of inflammatory responses, neutrophils rapidly undergo apoptosis. A direct and fast activation of caspase-8 by cathepsin D was shown to be crucial in the initial steps of neutrophil apoptosis. Nevertheless, the activation mechanism of caspase-8 remains unclear. Here, by using site-specific mutants of caspase-8, we show that both cathepsin D-mediated proteolysis and homodimerization of caspase-8 are necessary to generate an active caspase-8. At acidic pH, cathepsin D specifically cleaved caspase-8 but not the initiator caspase-9 or -10 and significantly increased caspase-8 activity in dimerizing conditions. These events were completely abolished by pepstatin A, a pharmacological inhibitor of cathepsin D. The cathepsin D intra-chain proteolysis greatly stabilized the active site of caspase-8. Moreover, the main caspase-8 fragment generated by cathepsin D cleavage could be affinity-labeled with the active site probe biotin-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone, suggesting that this fragment is enzymatically active. Importantly, in an in vitro cell-free assay, the addition of recombinant human caspase-8 protein, pre-cleaved by cathepsin D, was followed by caspase-3 activation. Our data therefore indicate that cathepsin D is able to initiate the caspase cascade by direct activation of caspase-8. As cathepsin D is ubiquitously expressed, this may represent a general mechanism to induce apoptosis in a variety of immune and nonimmune cells.

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#22426257   2012/04/27 Save this To Up

The role of BCL11B in regulating the proliferation of human naive T cells.

The effect of the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 11B gene (BCL11B) on human T-cell regulation remains unclear. To characterize the functions of BCL11B, recombinant BCL11B and BCL11B siRNA were transfected into human naive T cells to overexpress or knock down BCL11B expression, respectively. After BCL11B overexpression, the proliferation ability and the T-helper (Th) subset were increased, whereas no significant alteration in the expression pattern and clonality of the T-cell receptor Vβ subfamilies was observed. After BCL11B knockdown, a similar distribution of Vβ subfamilies was detected in the naive T cells; however, the proliferation capacity substantially decreased. Global gene expression profiling revealed that the dysregulated genes were mainly involved in T-cell activation and proliferation. BCL11B could selectively promote Th-cell differentiation because of increased CXCL10 and CXCL11 expression. BCL11B suppression may inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may relate to changes in the expression of CFLAR-CASP8-CASP10 in the mitochondrial pathways. In conclusion, BCL11B is required for T-cell survival; its overexpression could effectively increase the T-cell activation and proliferation abilities and Th-cell differentiation as well.

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#22205156   2012/02/29 Save this To Up

Delineation of apoptotic genes for synergistic apoptosis of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in human renal cell carcinoma cells by polymerase chain reaction array.

Lexatumumab, a human agonistic monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2), is a promising molecular-targeted therapeutic agent. Our past study indicated that low concentrations of doxorubicin sensitized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis. The present study was designed to examine the cellular and molecular effects of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in RCC cells. The treatment of human RCC cells with lexatumumab in combination with anthracyclines, epirubicin, and pirarubicin had a synergistic cytotoxicity. A marked synergistic apoptosis was induced by lexatumumab in combination with epirubicin or pirarubicin. Epirubicin and pirarubicin significantly increased the TRAIL-R2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels. The combination-induced cytotoxicity was significantly suppressed by the human recombinant DR5:Fc chimeric protein. To further explore the molecular mechanisms in this synergistic cytotoxicity with lexatumumab and anthracyclines, the changes in 84 apoptosis-related genes were evaluated by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Among these genes, 18 (CD40LG, FASLG, LTA, TNSF7, FAS, BAG3, BAK1, BAX, BID, BIK, BCL10, caspase-1, caspase-5, caspase-6, caspase-10, TNF receptor-associated factor 1, PYCARD, and CIDEA) were significantly upregulated and eight (TNF receptor-associated factor 4, TNFRSF11B, TNF, BCL2, BCL2L1, BNIP3L, caspase-9, and DAPK1) were downregulated at mRNA levels in RCC cells cotreated with lexatumumab and epirubicin. Furthermore, the upregulation of mRNA levels of PYCARD and CIDEA was confirmed using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. The present study demonstrates that anthracylines sensitize RCC cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis by inducing TRAIL-R2 expression, and the utility of PCR array to elucidate the mechanism of synergistic apoptosis.

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#20042496   2010/02/22 Save this To Up

The capsid proteins of Aleutian mink disease virus activate caspases and are specifically cleaved during infection.

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is currently the only known member of the genus Amdovirus in the family Parvoviridae. It is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. We have previously shown that a small protein with a molecular mass of approximately 26 kDa was present during AMDV infection and following transfection of capsid expression constructs (J. Qiu, F. Cheng, L. R. Burger, and D. Pintel, J. Virol. 80:654-662, 2006). In this study, we report that the capsid proteins were specifically cleaved at aspartic acid residue 420 (D420) during virus infection, resulting in the previously observed cleavage product. Mutation of a single amino acid residue at D420 abolished the specific cleavage. Expression of the capsid proteins alone in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells reproduced the cleavage of the capsid proteins in virus infection. More importantly, capsid protein expression alone induced active caspases, of which caspase-10 was the most active. Active caspases, in turn, cleaved capsid proteins in vivo. Our results also showed that active caspase-7 specifically cleaved capsid proteins at D420 in vitro. These results suggest that viral capsid proteins alone induce caspase activation, resulting in cleavage of capsid proteins. We also provide evidence that AMDV mutants resistant to caspase-mediated capsid cleavage increased virus production approximately 3- to 5-fold in CrFK cells compared to that produced from the parent virus AMDV-G at 37 degrees C but not at 31.8 degrees C. Collectively, our results indicate that caspase activity plays multiple roles in AMDV infection and that cleavage of the capsid proteins might have a role in regulating persistent infection of AMDV.

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#18476767   2008/07/23 Save this To Up

TRAIL recombinant adenovirus triggers robust apoptosis in multidrug-resistant HL-60/Vinc cells preferentially through death receptor DR5.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic because of its highly selective apoptosis-inducing action on neoplastic versus normal cells. However, some cancer cells express resistance to recombinant soluble TRAIL. To overcome this problem, we used a TRAIL adenovirus (Ad5/35-TRAIL) to induce apoptosis in a drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant variant of HL-60 leukemia cells and determined the molecular mechanisms of Ad5/35-TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Ad5/35-TRAIL did not induce apoptosis in normal human lymphocytes, but caused massive apoptosis in acute myelocytic leukemia cells. It triggered more efficient apoptosis in drug-resistant HL-60/Vinc cells than in HL-60 cells. Treating the cells with anti-DR4 and anti-DR5 neutralizing antibodies (particularly anti-DR5) reduced, whereas anti-DcR1 antibody enhanced, the apoptosis triggered by Ad5/35-TRAIL. Whereas Ad5/35-TRAIL induced apoptosis in both cell lines through activation of caspase-3 and caspase-10, known to link the cell death receptor pathway to the mitochondrial pathway, it triggered increased mitochondrial membrane potential change (m) only in HL-60/Vinc cells. Ad5/35-TRAIL also increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, using Ad5/35-TRAIL may be an effective therapeutic strategy for eliminating TRAIL-resistant malignant cells and these studies may provide clues to treat and eradicate acute myelocytic leukemias.

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#17479112   2007/07/19 Save this To Up

Ectopic expression of the serine protease inhibitor PI9 modulates death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

Apoptosis is a highly controlled process, whose triggering is associated with the activation of caspases. Apoptosis can be induced via a subgroup of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, which recruit and activate pro-caspase-8 and -10. Regulation of apoptosis is achieved by several inhibitors, including c-FLICE-inhibitory protein, which prevents apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic activation of upstream caspases. Here we show that the human intracellular serine protease inhibitor (serpin), protease inhibitor 9 (PI9), inhibits TNF-, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- and Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in certain TNF-sensitive cell lines. The reactive center P1 residue of PI9 was required for this inhibition since PI9 harboring a Glu --> Ala mutation in its reactive center failed to impair death receptor-induced cell death. This suggests a classical serpin-protease interaction. Indeed, PI9 inhibited apoptotic death by directly interacting with the intermediate active forms of caspase-8 and -10. This indicates that PI9 can regulate pro-apoptotic apical caspases.

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#15790545   2005/03/25 Save this To Up

Lessons from TRAIL-resistance mechanisms in colorectal cancer cells: paving the road to patient-tailored therapy.

Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Intrinsic, as well as acquired, resistance to chemotherapy remains a major problem in the treatment of this disease. It is, therefore, of great importance to develop new, patient-tailored, treatment strategies for colorectal cancer patients. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) acts through the pro-apoptotic DR4 and DR5 receptors in tumor cells without harming normal cells and will soon be tested in clinical trials as a novel anti-cancer agent. However, not all human colon cancer cell lines are sensitive to TRAIL due to intrinsic or acquired TRAIL-resistance. This review discusses the mechanisms and modulation of TRAIL-resistance in colon cancer cells. Cell sensitivity to TRAIL can be affected by TRAIL-receptor expression at the cell membrane, DR4/DR5 ratio and functionality of TRAIL-receptors. Additional intracellular factors leading to TRAIL-resistance affect the caspase 8/c-FLIP ratio, such as loss of caspase 8 and caspase 10 due to mutations or gene methylation, CARP-dependent degradation of active caspase 8 and changes in caspase 8 or c-FLIP expression levels. Further downstream in the TRAIL apoptotic pathway, Bax mutations, or increased expression of IAP family members, in particularly XIAP and survivin, also cause resistance. Chemotherapeutic drugs, NSAIDs, interferon-gamma and proteasome inhibitors can overcome TRAIL-resistance by acting on TRAIL-receptor expression or changing the expression of pro- or anti-apoptotic proteins.

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#15772077   2005/05/17 Save this To Up

Caspase-10 triggers Bid cleavage and caspase cascade activation in FasL-induced apoptosis.

In contrast to caspase-8, controversy exists as to the ability of caspase-10 to mediate apoptosis in response to FasL. Herein, we have shown activation of caspase-10, -3, and -7 as well as B cell lymphoma-2-interacting domain (Bid) cleavage and cytochrome c release in caspase-8-deficient Jurkat (I9-2) cells treated with FasL. Apoptosis was clearly induced as illustrated by nuclear and DNA fragmentation. These events were inhibited by benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor, indicating that caspases were functionally and actively involved. Benzyloxycarbonyl-AEVD-fluoromethyl ketone, a caspase-10 inhibitor, had a comparable effect. FasL-induced cell death was not completely abolished by caspase inhibitors in agreement with the existence of a cytotoxic caspase-independent pathway. In subpopulations of I9-2 cells displaying distinct caspase-10 expression levels, cell sensitivity to FasL correlated with caspase-10 expression. A robust caspase activation, Bid cleavage, and DNA fragmentation were observed in cells with high caspase-10 levels but not in those with low levels. In vitro, caspase-10, as well as caspase-8, could cleave Bid to generate active truncated Bid (p15). Altogether, our data strongly suggest that caspase-10 can serve as an initiator caspase in Fas signaling leading to Bid processing, caspase cascade activation, and apoptosis.

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