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#29045388   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Inflammatory memory sensitizes skin epithelial stem cells to tissue damage.

The skin barrier is the body's first line of defence against environmental assaults, and is maintained by epithelial stem cells (EpSCs). Despite the vulnerability of EpSCs to inflammatory pressures, neither the primary response to inflammation nor its enduring consequences are well understood. Here we report a prolonged memory to acute inflammation that enables mouse EpSCs to hasten barrier restoration after subsequent tissue damage. This functional adaptation does not require skin-resident macrophages or T cells. Instead, EpSCs maintain chromosomal accessibility at key stress response genes that are activated by the primary stimulus. Upon a secondary challenge, genes governed by these domains are transcribed rapidly. Fuelling this memory is Aim2, which encodes an activator of the inflammasome. The absence of AIM2 or its downstream effectors, caspase-1 and interleukin-1β, erases the ability of EpSCs to recollect inflammation. Although EpSCs benefit from inflammatory tuning by heightening their responsiveness to subsequent stressors, this enhanced sensitivity probably increases their susceptibility to autoimmune and hyperproliferative disorders, including cancer.

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#29042061   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Analysis of selected aspects of inflammasome function in the monocytes from neonates born extremely and very prematurely.

Inflammasomes regulate activation of caspase-1, which cleaves and activates interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, the cytokines that trigger pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. There is very little known about inflammasome function in the subsets of monocytes (MO) isolated from preterm neonates born extremely and very prematurely.

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#29039099   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

Assessing NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Nanoparticles.

NLRP3 inflammasome activation is one of the initial steps in an inflammatory cascade against pathogen/danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/DAMPs), such as those arising from environmental toxins or nanoparticles, and is essential for innate immune response. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cells can lead to the release of IL-1β cytokine via caspase-1, which is required for inflammatory-induced programmed cell death (pyroptosis). Nanoparticles are commonly used as vaccine adjuvants and drug delivery vehicles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Several studies indicate that different nanoparticles (e.g., liposomes, polymer-based nanoparticles) can induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Generation of a pro-inflammatory response is beneficial for vaccine delivery to provide adaptive immunity, a necessary step for successful vaccination. However, similar immune responses for intravenously injected, drug-containing nanoparticles can result in immunotoxicity (e.g., silica nanoparticles). Evaluation of NLRP3-mediated inflammasome activation by nanoparticles may predict pro-inflammatory responses in order to determine if these effects may be mitigated for drug delivery or optimized for vaccine development. In this protocol, we outline steps to monitor the release of IL-1β using PMA-primed THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, as a model system. IL-1β release is used as a marker of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

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#29038261   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

Coadministration of Minocycline with Colistin in Critically Ill Patients Is Associated with Reduced Frequency of Acute Renal Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

Nonclinical studies have suggested oxidative damage, caspase-mediated apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of colistin (CST)-associated acute renal failure. Synergistic antibacterial activity of minocycline (MIN) with polymyxins has been demonstrated in vitro, and MIN inhibits caspase 1, caspase 3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to the hypothesis that coadministration of CST with MIN (CST-MIN) may reduce incidence of acute renal failure. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Premier Research database to examine the impact of CST-MIN on acute renal failure. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, intensive care unit admission at CST initiation, primary International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 diagnosis of pneumonia or sepsis, non-dialysis at hospital admission, and discharge between January 2010 and December 2015. ICD-9 code 584.XX or ICD-10 code N17 was used to define acute renal failure. Baseline comparisons, 1:8 propensity score matching, and confirmatory logistic regression analyses were conducted. In total, 4,817 patients received CST and met inclusion criteria; 93 received CST-MIN. Unadjusted frequency of acute renal failure was significantly lower in patients receiving CST-MIN versus CST (11.8% vs. 23.7%, P = 0.007). Similar results were seen in propensity score matching (12.0% vs. 22.3%, P = 0.031) and logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 0.403, P = 0.006). Mortality and 30-day readmission rates were similar between groups. Acute renal failure rate was not impacted by prevalence of baseline renal disease. CST-MIN in critically ill patients may reduce CST-associated acute renal failure. Further evaluation in prospective clinical studies is warranted.

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#29037260   2017/10/17 Save this To Up

A novel protein derived from lamprey supraneural body tissue with efficient cytocidal actions against tumor cells.

In previous research, we found that cell secretion from the adult lamprey supraneural body tissues possesses cytocidal activity against tumor cells, but the protein with cytocidal activity was unidentified.

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#29034737   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

Anti-allergic inflammatory effect of vanillic acid through regulating thymic stromal lymphopoietin secretion from activated mast cells.

Vanillic acid, which is well known as a benzoic acid derivative, has been used as a flavouring agent. Currently, we ascertained the therapeutic potential action of vanillic acid on allergic inflammatory reaction in human mast cell line, HMC-1. Treatment with vanillic acid resulted in a significant decrease in levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-treated HMC-1 cells. In PMACI-stimulated cells, treatment with vanillic acid also dramatically inhibited activities of caspase-1 and nuclear factor-kB (p65). Furthermore, treatment with vanillic acid suppressed phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in PMACI-treated HMC-1 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillic acid has a beneficial effect on allergic inflammatory disorders.

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#29033128   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

The DNA Inflammasome in Human Myeloid Cells Is Initiated by a STING-Cell Death Program Upstream of NLRP3.

Detection of cytosolic DNA constitutes a central event in the context of numerous infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have uncovered a bipartite mode of cytosolic DNA recognition, in which the cGAS-STING axis triggers antiviral immunity, whereas AIM2 triggers inflammasome activation. Here, we show that AIM2 is dispensable for DNA-mediated inflammasome activation in human myeloid cells. Instead, detection of cytosolic DNA by the cGAS-STING axis induces a cell death program initiating potassium efflux upstream of NLRP3. Forward genetics identified regulators of lysosomal trafficking to modulate this cell death program, and subsequent studies revealed that activated STING traffics to the lysosome, where it triggers membrane permeabilization and thus lysosomal cell death (LCD). Importantly, the cGAS-STING-NLRP3 pathway constitutes the default inflammasome response during viral and bacterial infections in human myeloid cells. We conclude that targeting the cGAS-STING-LCD-NLRP3 pathway will ameliorate pathology in inflammatory conditions that are associated with cytosolic DNA sensing.

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#29031534   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

Salidroside alleviates high glucose-induced oxidative stress and extracellular matrix accumulation in rat glomerular mesangial cells by the TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a metabolic disease characterized by mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Salidroside (SAL) is the major ingredient in Rhodiola rosea and possesses beneficial effects on DN. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of SAL on high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress and ECM accumulation and the underlying mechanism. Rat glomerular mesangial cells HBZY-1 were induced by high glucose (HG) in the presence or absence of SAL. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were detected to evaluate oxidative stress. The expression levels of ECM proteins including fibronectin (FN) and type IV collagen (Coll IV) were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. The expressions of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), and caspase-1 were assessed by western blot. Si-TXNIP or si-NC was transfected into HBZY-1 cells to inhibit TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. The results showed that SAL treatment alleviated HG-induced cell proliferation. SAL reduced the levels of ROS and MDA, and induced the SOD activity. Besides, the mRNA and protein expressions of FN and Coll IV were decreased by SAL. The expression levels of TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were reduced in the SAL treated cells. In addition, TXNIP knockdown inhibited TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome activation and suppressed HG-induced cell proliferation, oxidative stress, and ECM accumulation. In conclusion, SAL alleviated HG-induced oxidative stress and ECM accumulation in rat glomerular mesangial cells by the TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

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#29030458   2017/10/14 Save this To Up

A noncanonical function of cGAMP in inflammasome priming and activation.

Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns by host cells is an important step in innate immune activation. The DNA sensor cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) binds to DNA and produces cGAMP, which in turn binds to stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to activate IFN-I. Here we show that cGAMP has a noncanonical function in inflammasome activation in human and mouse cells. Inflammasome activation requires two signals, both of which are activated by cGAMP. cGAMP alone enhances expression of inflammasome components through IFN-I, providing the priming signal. Additionally, when combined with a priming signal, cGAMP activates the inflammasome through an AIM2, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 dependent process. These two cGAMP-mediated functions, priming and activation, have differential requirements for STING. Temporally, cGAMP induction of IFN-I precedes inflammasome activation, which then occurs when IFN-I is waning. In mice, cGAS/cGAMP amplify both inflammasome and IFN-I to control murine cytomegalovirus. Thus, cGAMP activates the inflammasome in addition to IFN-I, and activation of both is needed to control infection by a DNA virus.

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#29030114   2017/10/14 Save this To Up

Impairment of energy sensors, SIRT1 and AMPK, in lipid induced inflamed adipocyte is regulated by Fetuin A.

Although several reports demonstrated that accumulation of excess lipid in adipose tissue produces defects in adipocyte which leads to the disruption of energy homeostasis causing severe metabolic problems, underlying mechanism of this event remains yet unclear. Here we demonstrate that FetuinA (FetA) plays a critical role in the impairment of two metabolic sensors, SIRT1 and AMPK, in inflamed adipocytes of high fat diet (HFD) mice. A linear increase in adipocyte hypertrophy from 10 to 16 week was in tandem with the increase in FetA and that coincided with SIRT1 cleavage and decrease in pAMPK which adversely affects PGC1α activation. Knock down (KD) of FetA gene in HFD mice could significantly improve this situation indicating FetA's contribution in the damage of energy sensors in inflamed adipocyte. However, FetA effect was not direct, it was mediated through TNF-α which again is dependent on FetA as FetA augments TNF-α expression. FetA being an upstream regulator of TNF-α, its suppression prevented TNF-α mediated Caspase-1 activation and cleavage of SIRT1. FetA induced inactivation of PGC1α due to SIRT1 cleavage decreased PPARϒ, adiponectin, NRF1 and Tfam expression. All these together caused a significant fall in mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics that disrupted energy homeostasis resulting loss of insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our findings revealed a new dimension of FetA, it not only induced inflammation in adipocyte but also acts as an upstream regulator of SIRT1 cleavage and AMPK activation. Intervention of FetA may be worthwhile to prevent metabolic imbalance that causes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

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