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#28635396   2017/06/21 Save this To Up

MicroRNA-34a inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis in osteosarcoma partly by effecting C-IAP2 and Bcl-2.

Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor that occurs mainly in children and adolescents. Recent evidence has demonstrated that miR-34a is involved in the invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma. This study aims to explore the effect of biological behavior of miR-34a on osteosarcoma. First, we collect osteosarcoma and adjacent specimens, and the relative expression of miR-34a and C-IAP2 messenger RNA was quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, miR-34a stimulant is synthesized and transfected onto osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. The effect of overexpression of miR-34a on osteosarcoma was detected by colony-forming assay, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate Apoptosis Detection Kit I, Transwell assay, and animal experiment in vivo. Finally, the relative levels of C-IAP2 and Bcl-2 protein were checked by western blot, and the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was tested by spectrophotometry assay. In conclusion, miR-34a was downregulated in osteosarcoma cells. And the expression of C-IAP2 and Bcl-2 protein was drastically inhibited, and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were significantly increased after transfecting miR-34a onto osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. And the overexpression of miR-34a can inhibit cell invasion and metastasis, promote cell apoptosis, and arrest cells in G0/G1 period. And the animal experiment in vivo demonstrated that the overexpression of miR-34a could significantly inhibit the growth of osteosarcoma in animal skin. Taken together, we indicated that miR-34a can inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis in osteosarcoma, and its mechanism may be partly related to downregulating the expression of C-IAP2 and Bcl-2 protein directly or indirectly.

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#27158390   2016/05/09 Save this To Up

Chinese herb derived-Rocaglamide A is a potent inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cells.

Pancreatic cancer ranks No.1 in mortality rate worldwide. This study aims to identify the novel anti-pancreatic cancer drugs. Human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines were purchased from ATCC. CPE-based screening assay was used to examine the cell viability. Patient derived tumor xenografts in SCID mice was established. The Caspase-3 and 7 activities were measured using the Caspase Glo 3/7 Assay kit. Soft agar colony formation assay was used to evaluate the colony formation. Wound healing assay was employed to determine the cell migration. We screened a Chinese herbal product library and found three "hits" that kill cancer cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. One of these compounds, rocaglamide, was found to be potent inhibitors of a wide spectrum of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Furthermore, Rocaglamide reduced the tumor size in a patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model without noticeable toxicity in vivo. Rocaglamide also inhibits pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, these data support that Rocaglamide may be a promising anti-pancreatic cancer drug.

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#27143856   2016/05/04 Save this To Up

Autophagy inhibition enhances RAD001-induced cytotoxicity in human bladder cancer cells.

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, is known to play a central role in regulating the growth of cancer cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway enhances tumor survival and proliferation through suppressing autophagy, which sustains energy homeostasis by collecting and recycling cellular components under stress conditions. Conversely, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway such as RAD001 induce autophagy, leading to promotion of tumor survival and limited antitumor efficacy. We thus hypothesized that the use of autophagy inhibitor in combination with mTOR inhibition improves the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in bladder cancer.

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#27039073   2016/04/04 Save this To Up

Quercetin sensitizes glioblastoma to t-AUCB by dual inhibition of Hsp27 and COX-2 in vitro and in vivo.

Evidences indicate that inflammatory process plays pivotal role in tumor disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) have been shown to participate in anti-inflammation and tumorigenesis by protecting epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Although we have previously revealed some effects of t-AUCB on glioma in vitro, further investigations are needed to demonstrate its effects on glioblastoma growth in vivo and how to strengthen its antitumor effect.

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#27035222   2016/05/09 Save this To Up

Aloe-emodin-mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagy and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cell line MG‑63 through the ROS/JNK signaling pathway.

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect and mechanisms of aloe‑emodin (AE)-mediated photodynamic therapy (AE-PDT) on the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. After treatment with AE-PDT, the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was tested for levels of viability, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis and changes in cell morphology with the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK‑8), monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of proteins including LC-3, cleaved caspase-3, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, p-JNK, t-JNK and β-actin was examined with western blotting. AE-PDT significantly inhibited the viability of the MG-63 cells in an AE-concentration- and PDT energy density-dependent manner. Autophagy and apoptosis of MG-63 cells was substantially promoted in the AE-PDT group compared to the control group, the AE alone group and the light emitting diode (LED) alone group. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (5 mM) and chloroquine (CQ) (15 µM) significantly promoted the apoptosis rate and improved the sensitivity of the MG-63 cells to AE-PDT. AE-PDT was found to induce the expression of ROS and p-JNK. ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM), was able to hinder the autophagy, apoptosis and phosphorylation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor (SP600125, 10 µM) significantly inhibited the autophagy and apoptosis, and attenuated the sensitivity of MG63 cells to AE-PDT. In conclusion, AE-PDT induced the autophagy and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 through the activation of the ROS-JNK signaling pathway. Autophagy may play a protective role during the early stage following treatment of AE-PDT.

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#25758415   2015/03/25 Save this To Up

3-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylamino)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide overcomes cancer chemoresistance via inhibition of angiogenesis and P-glycoprotein efflux pump activity.

3-((Quinolin-4-yl)methylamino)-N-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (OSI-930, 1) is a potent inhibitor of c-kit and VEGFR2, currently under phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors. In order to understand the structure-activity relationship, a series of 3-arylamino N-aryl thiophene 2-carboxamides were synthesized by modifications at both quinoline and amide domains of the OSI-930 scaffold. All the synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity in a panel of cancer cell lines and for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 inhibition. Thiophene 2-carboxamides substituted with benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl and 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl groups 1l and 1m displayed inhibition of VEGFR1 with IC50 values of 2.5 and 1.9 μM, respectively. Compounds 1l and 1m also inhibited the VEGF-induced HUVEC cell migration, indicating its anti-angiogenic activity. OSI-930 along with compounds 1l and 1m showed inhibition of P-gp efflux pumps (MDR1, ABCB1) with EC50 values in the range of 35-74 μM. The combination of these compounds with doxorubicin led to significant enhancement of the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in human colorectal carcinoma LS180 cells, which was evident from the improved IC50 of doxorubicin, the increased activity of caspase-3 and the significant reduction in colony formation ability of LS180 cells after treatment with doxorubicin. Compound 1l showed a 13.8-fold improvement in the IC50 of doxorubicin in LS180 cells. The ability of these compounds to display dual inhibition of VEGFR and P-gp efflux pumps demonstrates the promise of this scaffold for its development as multi-drug resistance-reversal agents.

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#25687876   2015/10/19 Save this To Up

A Novel, Potent, Small Molecule AKT Inhibitor Exhibits Efficacy against Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

Anomalies of Akt regulation, including overexpression in lung cancer, impart resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiation, thereby implicating this kinase as a therapeutic intervention point. A novel scaffold of Akt inhibitors was developed through virtual screening of chemical databases available at Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Hyderabad, based on docking studies using Maestro. A benzothienopyrimidine derivative (BIA-6) was identified as a potential lead molecule that inhibited Akt1 enzyme activity with an IC50 of 256 nM.

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#25528169   2015/04/28 Save this To Up

Sequential combination therapy with flavopiridol and autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by amplified hTERT promoter synergistically suppresses human ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

Induction of cell apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle are very attractive for treatments of tumors including ovarian carcinoma. Flavopiridol is a potent small molecular cyclin-dependent kinase(cdk) inhibitor, but its antitumor efficacy is not satisfied yet. Caspase-3 play a major role in the transduction of apoptotic signals and the execution of apoptosis in mammalian cells. We have successfully constructed the recombinant adenovirues AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 containing autocatalytic caspase-3 (rev-caspase-3) driven by amplified hTERT promoter system (TSTA-hTERTp). In this study, we applied it with flavopiridol to investigate their antitumor effect on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo.

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#23686785   2013/09/30 Save this To Up

Anticancer activity of tolfenamic acid in medulloblastoma: a preclinical study.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignancy in children arising in the brain. Morbidities associated with intensive therapy are serious concerns in treating MB. Our aim was to identify novel targets and agents with less toxicity for treating MB. Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor regulates several genes involved in cell proliferation and cell survival including survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein. We previously showed that tolfenamic acid (TA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits neuroblastoma cell growth by targeting Sp1. We investigated the anticancer activity of TA using human MB cell lines and a mouse xenograft model. DAOY and D283 cells were treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) or TA (5-50 μg/ml), and cell viability was measured at 1-3 days posttreatment. TA inhibited MB cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MB cells were treated with vehicle or TA (10 μg/ml), and the effect on cell apoptosis was measured. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (annexin V staining), and caspase 3/7 activity was determined using Caspase-Glo kit. The expression of Sp1, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP), and survivin was determined by Western blot analysis. TA inhibited the expression of Sp1 and survivin and upregulated c-PARP. Athymic nude mice were subcutaneously injected with D283 cells and treated with TA (50 mg/kg, three times per week) for 4 weeks. TA caused a decrease of ~40 % in tumor weight and volume. The tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in Sp1 and survivin expression in tumor tissue. These preclinical data demonstrate that TA acts as an anticancer agent in MB potentially targeting Sp1 and survivin.

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#23427297   2013/05/10 Save this To Up

Tandutinib inhibits the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway to inhibit colon cancer growth.

The c-Kit receptor can activate distinct signaling pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mTOR. Aberrant c-Kit activation protects cells from apoptosis and enhances invasion of colon carcinoma cells. Tandutinib is a novel quinazoline-based inhibitor of the type III receptor tyrosine kinases including c-Kit. We determined the effect of tandutinib on colon cancer growth and identified a mechanism of action. Tandutinib inhibited phosphorylation of c-Kit, Akt, mTOR, and p70S6 kinase. In addition, tandutinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation ability of colon cancer cell lines but did not affect normal colonic epithelial cells. There were increased levels of activated caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio, coupled with a reduction in cyclin D1, suggesting apoptosis. There was also a downregulation of COX-2, VEGF, and interleukin-8 expression, suggesting effects on cancer-promoting genes. In addition, overexpressing constitutively active Akt partially suppressed tandutinib-mediated colon cancer cell growth. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of tandutinib significantly suppressed growth of colon cancer tumor xenografts. There was a reduction in CD31-positive blood vessels, suggesting that there was an effect on angiogenesis. Tandutinib treatment also inhibited the expression of cancer-promoting genes COX-2 and VEGF and suppressed the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling proteins in the xenograft tissues. Together, these data suggest that tandutinib is a novel potent therapeutic agent that can target the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis.

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