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#25791936   2015/03/31 Save this To Up

Involvement of Bim in Photofrin-mediated photodynamically induced apoptosis.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising noninvasive technique, which has been successfully applied to the treatment of human cancers. Studies have shown that the Bcl-2 family proteins play important roles in PDT-induced apoptosis. However, whether Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) is involved in photodynamic treatment remains unknown. In this study, we attempt to determine the effect of Bim on Photofrin photodynamic treatment (PPT)-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma ASTC-a-1 cells.

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#27919034   2016/12/05 Save this To Up

Analysis of the minimal specificity of caspase-2 and identification of Ac-VDTTD-AFC as a caspase-2-selective peptide substrate.

Caspase-2 is an evolutionarily conserved but enigmatic protease whose biological role remains poorly understood. To date, research into the functions of caspase-2 has been hampered by an absence of reagents that can distinguish its activity from that of the downstream apoptotic caspase, caspase-3. Identification of protein substrates of caspase-2 that are efficiently cleaved within cells may also provide clues to the role of this protease. We used a yeast-based transcriptional reporter system to define the minimal substrate specificity of caspase-2. The resulting profile enabled the identification of candidate novel caspase-2 substrates. Caspase-2 cleaved one of these proteins, the cancer-associated transcription factor Runx1, although with relatively low efficiency. A fluorogenic peptide was derived from the sequence most efficiently cleaved in the context of the transcriptional reporter. This peptide, Ac-VDTTD-AFC, was efficiently cleaved by purified caspase-2 and auto-activating caspase-2 in mammalian cells, and exhibited better selectivity for caspase-2 relative to caspase-3 than reagents that are currently available. We suggest that this reagent, used in parallel with the traditional caspase-3 substrate Ac-DEVD-AFC, will enable researchers to monitor caspase-2 activity in cell lysates and may assist in the determination of stimuli that activate caspase-2 in vivo.

1653 related Products with: Analysis of the minimal specificity of caspase-2 and identification of Ac-VDTTD-AFC as a caspase-2-selective peptide substrate.

Caspase-3 Substrate DEVD- Caspase 3 Substrate DEVD Caspase 3 Substrate DEVD Caspase-8 Substrate IETD- Caspase 8 Substrate IETD Caspase 8 Substrate IETD Caspase-6 Substrate VEID- Caspase 6 Substrate VEID Caspase 6 Substrate VEID Caspase-2 Substrate VDVAD Caspase 2 Substrate VDVAD Caspase 2 Substrate VDVAD

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#21116965   2010/11/30 Save this To Up

Monitoring nanoparticle-treated hepatocarcinoma cells for apoptosis.

This chapter describes a method for monitoring nanoparticle treated human hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep G2) for apoptosis. The protocol utilizes a fluorescent method to determine the degree of caspase-3 activation.

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#17478109   2007/06/04 Save this To Up

Influence of cytochrome c on apoptosis induced by Anagrapha (Syngrapha) falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AfMNPV) in insect Spodoptera litura cells.

We investigated the influence of cytochrome c on apoptosis induced by Anagrapha (Syngrapha) falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AfMNPV). Microscopic observation revealed that infection of SL-1 cells with AfMNPV resulted in apoptosis, displaying apoptotic bodies in fluorescent-stained nuclei of AfMNPV-infected SL-1cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that AfMNPV-induced apoptosis in insect SL-1 cells was significantly inhibited by cyclosporin A which blocked a translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. As determined by using AC-DEVD-AFC as substrate, the activity of caspase-3 in AfMNPV-induced cells was detected as early as 4h post infection, gradually increased with time extension, and reached a highest level after 16h of infection. However, activity of caspase-3 in apoptotic cells decreased in the presence of cyclosporin A (30microM), indicating that activation of caspase-3 in SfaMNPV-induced cells was dependent on the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. In addition, cyclosporin A could markedly inhibit mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim) disruption in undergoing apoptotic cells. These data indicate that cytochrome c plays a key role in AfMNPV-induced apoptosis in S. litura cells and may be required for caspase activation during the induction of apoptosis.

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#15965096   2005/06/20 Save this To Up

Cadmium toxicity toward caspase-independent apoptosis through the mitochondria-calcium pathway in mtDNA-depleted cells.

Mitochondria are believed to be integrators and coordinators of programmed cell death in addition to their respiratory function. Using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted osteosarcoma cells (rho0 cells) as a cell model, we investigated the apoptogenic signaling pathway of cadmium (Cd) under a condition of mitochondrial dysfunction. The apoptotic percentage was determined to be around 58.0% after a 24-h exposure to 25 microM Cd using flow cytometry staining with propidium iodine (PI). Pretreatment with Z-VAD-fmk, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, failed to prevent apoptosis following Cd exposure. Moreover, Cd was unable to activate caspase 3 using DEVD-AFC as a substrate, indicating that Cd induced a caspase-independent apoptotic pathway in rho0 cells. JC-1 staining demonstrated that mitochondrial membrane depolarization was a prelude to apoptosis. On the other hand, the intracellular calcium concentration increased 12.5-fold after a 2-h exposure to Cd. More importantly, the apoptogenic activity of Cd was almost abolished by ruthenium red, a mitochondrial calcium uniporter blocker. This led us to conclude that mtDNA-depleted cells provide an alternative pathway for Cd to conduct caspase-independent apoptosis through a mitochondria-calcium mechanism.

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#12397210   2002/10/24 Save this To Up

Caspase activity and apoptotic markers in ejaculated human sperm.

The objectives of this study were to determine if human ejaculated sperm exhibit active caspases and if caspase-dependent apoptosis markers are identifiable. Sperm from fertile donors and infertile patients were examined after gradient separation into leukocyte-free fractions of high and low motility. Sperm were evaluated for motion parameters, morphology, caspase activation, and apoptosis markers including phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation (annexin V binding) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL). Active caspase-3 was detected by immunofluorescent microscopy in a small proportion of sperm in situ, in fractions of high and low motility sperm of patients and donors, but low motility fractions had significantly higher numbers of positive sperm. Immunoblot analysis detected inactive procaspase-3 (32 kDa) in all fractions of low sperm motility from patients and donors, while active caspase-3 (17 kDa) was only detected by immunoblotting in a limited number of low motility fractions from patients and in even fewer fractions from donors. Caspase enzymatic activity, as measured using the fluorogenic substrate DEVD-afc, was higher in patients than in donors in both low and high motility fractions. Annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation were detected in a proportion of sperm, with a higher frequency in the low motility fractions. A significant positive correlation between in-situ active caspase-3 in the sperm midpiece and DNA fragmentation was observed in the low motility fractions of patients, suggesting that caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanisms could originate in the cytoplasmic droplet or within mitochondria and function in the nucleus. These data suggest that in some ejaculated sperm populations, caspases are present and may function to increase PS translocation and DNA fragmentation.

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#12374211   2002/10/10 Save this To Up

Influence of gangliosides on the IL-2- and IL-4-dependent cell proliferation.

Ganglioside-induced apoptosis in the cells of IL-2-dependent cytotoxic murine cell line CTLL-2 was shown to be caspase dependent: GM1-, GM2-, and GD3-induced suppression of cell proliferation was cancelled by a general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Ganglioside-induced apoptosis pathways are different for different individual glycolipids; the differences exist both at the initiation and effector stages of the caspase cascade. Only for GM1-induced process, molecular mechanisms of signal transduction coincide with the ones for CD95 and TNFalpha: the participation of both the main initiation caspases 8, 1, and 4, and caspases 3 and 9 as well, has been shown. Caspase 3 participates in the pathway induced by GM3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, but not by GM2. As morphological features show, tumor-associated ganglioside GM2 is also a stimulus of programmed cell death (PCD) for CTLL-2 cell line: addition of GM2 into cell culture has resulted in appearance of annexin V-positive cells and in accumulation of DNA breaks (shown by the TUNEL direct dyeing of the open ends). But a caspase 3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK did not restore the cell proliferation suppressed by GM2, and addition of a fluorescent substrate of caspase 3 Ac-DEVD-AFC did not result in the fluorescence development. So caspase 3 does not participate in downstream pathways of GM2-induced cell apoptosis, and a PCD-effector system other than the apoptosome-mediated one is involved here.

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#11388664   2001/06/04 Save this To Up

Disparate cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) and a synthetic tetrapeptide, DEVD, by apoptotic cells.

In the present investigations, we have shown differential cleavage of cellular PARP and a caspase 3-selective synthetic tetrapeptide substrate, Z-DEVD-AFC or Ac-DEVD-AMC using a T lymphoblastoid cell line Jurkat, and its variant clone E6.1(J-E6). Anti-Fas antibody-mediated apoptosis resulted in DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage in both Jurkat and J-E6 cells. However, unlike Jurkat, J-E6 cells did not cleave a synthetic tetrapeptide substrate efficiently. The failure to cleave the DEVD tetrapeptide by apoptotic J-E6 cells was not due to insufficient expression or processing of caspase 3 in J-E6 cells. Interestingly, when the J-E6 cells were transiently transfected with a cDNA encoding caspase 3, efficient cleavage of Z-DEVD-AFC was achieved. The observations that apoptotic J-E6 cells barely cleaved a synthetic DEVD tetrapeptide, but efficiently cleaved endogenous PARP, potentially at the most preferred DEVD site, suggest that active caspases may have disparate characteristics to recognize substrates presented in different context.

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#11279547   2001/03/30 Save this To Up

Apoptosis induced by dithiothreitol in HL-60 cells shows early activation of caspase 3 and is independent of mitochondria.

Previous studies have shown that under certain conditions some thiol-containing compounds can cause apoptosis in a number of different cell lines. Herein, we investigated the apoptotic pathways in HL-60 cells triggered by dithiothreitol (DTT), used as a model thiol compound, and tested the hypothesis that thiols cause apoptosis via production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during thiol oxidation. The results show that, unlike H2O2, DTT does not induce apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway. This is demonstrated by the absence of early cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol, the lack of mitochondrial membrane depolarization at early times, and the minor role of caspase 9 in DTT-induced apoptosis. The first caspase activity detectable in DTT-treated cells is caspase 3, which is increased significantly 1 - 2 h after the start of DTT treatment. This was shown by following the cleavage of both a natural substrate, DFF-45/ICAD, and a synthetic fluorescent substrate, z-DEVD-AFC. Cleavage of substrates of caspases 2 and 8, known as initiator caspases, does not start until 3 - 4 h after DTT exposure, well after caspase 3 has become active and at a time when apoptosis is in late stages, as shown by the occurrence of DNA fragmentation to oligonucleosomal-sized pieces. Although oxidizing DTT can produce H2O2, data presented here indicate that DTT-induced apoptosis is not mediated by production of H2O2 and occurs via a novel pathway that involves activation of caspase 3 at early stages, prior to activation of the common 'initiator' caspases 2, 8 and 9.

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#11078888   2000/12/05 Save this To Up

Mechanism of nitric oxide-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

We have attempted to elucidate the precise mechanism of nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Enzymatic cleavages of DEVD-AFC, VDVAD-AFC, and LEHD-AFC (specific substrates for caspase-3-like protease (caspase-3 and -7), caspase-2, and caspase-9, respectively) were observed by treatment with NO. Western blot analysis showed that pro-forms of caspase-2, -3, -6, and -7 are decreased during apoptosis. Interestingly, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3-like protease inhibitor, blocked not only the decreases in caspase-2 and -7, but also the formation of p17 from p20 in caspase-3 induced by NO, suggesting that caspase-3 exists upstream of caspase-2 and -7. Bongkrekic acid, a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, specifically blocked both the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequent DNA fragmentation in response to NO. Thus, NO results in neuronal apoptosis through the sequential loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase activation, and degradation of inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) (CAD activation).

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