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#28265596   2017/03/07 Save this To Up

A fluorescent light-up aggregation-induced emission probe for screening gefitinib-sensitive non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Fluorescent light-up probes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics have been focused on recently. In this report, a new fluorescent probe, namely, DEVD-TPE, which consisted of the substrate peptide Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) and the AIE reporter group tetraphenylethene (TPE), was developed for detecting caspase-3 in living cells. In a slightly alkaline solution, the DEVD-TPE probe displayed almost no fluorescence owing to the dynamic rotation of the phenyl rings in solution. However, DEVD-TPE exhibited significant fluorescence when it was cleaved by caspase-3, as well as when the reporter group TPE underwent aggregation. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor gefitinib was used for determining the screening efficacy of the probe for different non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, namely, HCC827, A549 and H1650 cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis assays indicated that the three cell lines had different sensitivities to gefitinib. The results of analysis by living-cell fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry were consistent with those of the cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. This demonstrated that our probe could detect caspase-3 in living cells, which confirmed the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, our probe indicated that gefitinib was more efficient against HCC827 cells than against the other two NSCLC cell lines. This report proves that the fluorescent probe DEVD-TPE is highly sensitive to caspase-3 and has potential prospects in the rapid screening of NSCLC.

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Small cell lung carcinoma Non small cell lung carci Non small cell lung carci Lung small cell carcinoma Multiple lung carcinoma ( Non small cell lung carci Non small cell lung carci Non small cell lung carci Lung small cell carcinoma Non small cell lung carci High density non small ce Middle advanced stage lun

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#28159694   2017/02/04 Save this To Up

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-3 from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense when exposed to acute hypoxia and reoxygenation.

Caspases are present in the cytosol as inactive proenzymes but become activated when apoptosis is initiated, playing an essential role at various stages of the process. In this study, a caspase-3 (Mncaspase-3c) was cloned from gill of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and its properties were characterized. The 1730-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1566 bp, a 123-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 41-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly(A) tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (521 aa) was 56.3 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.01. The MnCaspase-3c sequence contained a predicted caspase family p20 domain and a caspase family p10 domain at positions 236-367 and 378-468 respectively. Recombinant MnCaspase-3c protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. In vitro activity assays indicated that the recombinant MnCaspase-3c hydrolyzed the substrate Ac-DEVD-pNA, suggesting a physiological role as a caspase-3. Caspase-3c gene transcripts were distributed in all M. nipponense tissues tested by quantitative RT-PCR, being especially abundant in hemocytes. Comet assays in gill tissues showed an obvious time-dependent response to hypoxia. Furthermore, Mncaspase-3c, at both the mRNA and protein levels, was demonstrated to participate in the apoptotic process in gill after stimulation by acute hypoxia. Overall, these results indicate that hypoxia triggers apoptosis in shrimp gill tissues.

1856 related Products with: Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-3 from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense when exposed to acute hypoxia and reoxygenation.

AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 5α-Androstan-3β-ol � ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β- ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β- ∆1-Androstene-3β,17β- Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,1 (3β)-Androsta-5,16-diene Androsta-3,5,16-trien-17-

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#25462457   2015/01/20 Save this To Up

Caspase-mediated apoptosis in crustaceans: cloning and functional characterization of EsCaspase-3-like protein from Eriocheir.

The caspase-3-like gene was cloned from Eriocheir sinensis, and its properties were characterized to identify the biological implications of this caspase in apoptosis in crab. Its deduced full-length protein sequence consists of 462 amino acid residues, including the prodomain and the large and small subunits. Moreover, several residues known to be critical in the caspase-3 catalytic center and binding pocket, as well as the active site pentapeptide motif Q(220)ACRG(224), were identically present in the deduced EsCaspase-3-like protein. Subsequently, the recombinant EsCaspase-3-like (rEsCaspase-3-like) protein was expressed from Escherichia coli and obtained via affinity purification. Results of the in vitro enzymatic activity assays indicated that the rEsCaspase-3-like protein is capable of hydrolyzing the substrate Ac-DEVD-pNA, suggesting a functional role in physiology. EsCaspase-3-like gene transcripts were found to be widely distributed in all tissues as detected by quantitative RT-PCR, being especially abundant in hemocytes and comparatively rare in muscles. Furthermore, EsCaspase-3-like, at both the mRNA and protein levels, was demonstrated to participate in the apoptotic process after stimulation by different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in hemocytes. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the EsCaspase-3-like protein functions as an effector caspase and contributes to immune responses against pathogens.

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Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi HIV 1 intergase antigen. Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Gro g Macrophage In Caspase-3 Inhibitor Z-DEV Caspase-3 Inhibitor Z-DEV Caspase 3 Inhibitor Z DEV Caspase 3 Inhibitor Z DEV

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#25372503   2014/12/02 Save this To Up

Chronic myeloid leukemia drug evaluation using a multisignal amplified photoelectrochemical sensing platform.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clone disease of hematopoietic stem cells. At present, the most effective therapy for CML is bone marrow transplantation, but this procedure is expensive, and it is often difficult to find appropriately matched bone marrow donors. As an alternative to marrow transplantation, a more effective anticancer drug should be developed to cure the disease; in addition, an effective system to evaluate the activity of the drug needs to be developed. Herein, we present a novel antileukemia drug evaluation method based on a multisignal amplified photoelectrochemical sensing platform that monitors the activity of caspase-3, a known marker of cell apoptosis. Manganese-doped CdS@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles (Mn:CdS@ZnS) were synthesized via a simple wet chemical method, which provided a stable photocurrent signal. A DEVD-biotin peptide and streptavidin-labeled alkaline phosphatise (SA-ALP) were immobilized successively at these nanoparticles through amide bonding and through specific interaction between biotin and streptavidin, respectively. The photocurrent of this sensing platform improved as the ALP hydrolyzed the substrate 2-phospho-l-ascorbic acid (AAP) to ascorbic acid (AA), a more efficient electron donor. The activity of caspase-3 was detected using this sensing platform, and thus, the efficacy of nilotinib for targeting K562 CML cells could be evaluated. The results indicate that nilotinib can effectively induce apoptosis of the K562 cells. This sensing platform exhibited sensitive, reproductive, and stable performance in studying the nilotinib-induced apoptosis of K562 CML cells, and the platform could be utilized to evaluate other anticancer drugs.

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#24797379   2014/05/06 Save this To Up

Use of a caspase multiplexing assay to determine apoptosis in a hypothalamic cell model.

The ability to multiplex assays in studies of complex cellular mechanisms eliminates the need for repetitive experiments, provides internal controls, and decreases waste in costs and reagents. Here we describe optimization of a multiplex assay to assess apoptosis following a palmitic acid (PA) challenge in an in vitro hypothalamic model, using both fluorescent and luminescent based assays to measure viable cell counts and caspase-3/7 activity in a 96-well microtiter plate format. Following PA challenge, viable cells were determined by a resazurin-based fluorescent assay. Caspase-3/7 activity was then determined using a luminogenic substrate, DEVD, and normalized to cell number. This multiplexing assay is a useful technique for determining change in caspase activity following an apoptotic stimulus, such as saturated fatty acid challenge. The saturated fatty acid PA can increase hypothalamic oxidative stress and apoptosis, indicating the potential importance of assays such as that described here in studying the relationship between saturated fatty acids and neuronal function.

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#24481623   2014/09/01 Save this To Up

Chemiluminescent detection of cell apoptosis enzyme by gold nanoparticle-based resonance energy transfer assay.

We report a new chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) technique, using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as efficient energy acceptor, for homogeneous measurement of cell apoptosis enzyme with high sensitivity. In the design of the CRET system, we chose the highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide catalysed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) because the CL spectrum of luminol (λ max 425 nm) partially overlaps the visible absorption bands of AuNPs. In this system, the peptide substrate (DEVD) of caspase 3 was linked to the AuNP surface by Au-S linkage. HRP was attached to the AuNP surface by means of a bridge formed by the streptavidin-biotin reaction. CRET occurred as a result of formation of AuNP-peptide-biotin-streptavidin-HRP complexes. The CL of luminol was significantly reduced, because of the quenching effect of AuNPs. The quenched CL was recovered after cleavage of DEVD by caspase 3, an enzyme involved in the apoptotic process. Experimental conditions were systematically investigated. Under the optimum conditions the increase of the CL signal was linearly dependent on caspase 3 concentration within the concentration range 25 pmol L(-1) to 800 pmol L(-1) and the detection limit of caspase 3 was as low as 20 pmol L(-1), one order of magnitude lower than for FRET sensors based on graphene oxides. Our method was successfully used to detect drug-induced apoptosis of cells. This approach is expected to be extended to other assays, i.e., using other enzymes, analytes, CL substances, and even other nanoparticles (e.g., quantum dots and graphene).

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#23881799   2013/08/14 Save this To Up

A novel reporter system for molecular imaging and high-throughput screening of anticancer drugs.

Apoptosis is irreversible programmed cell death, characterized by a cellular cascade activation of caspase 3, which subsequently degrades proteins and other components of cells with a motif sequence. Here we report a novel reporter system to detect apoptosis, growth arrest, and cell death based on controlled and self-amplified protein degradation. The key element of the reporter system is an apoptotic sensor chimerical protein which consists of three components: procaspase 3, ubiquitin (Ub), and a strong consensus sequence of N-degron. Between each of these units is a DEVD (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp) sequence, which acts as the cleavage target of caspase 3. This non-conventional signal loss approach is much more sensitive than other native methods that are based on signal gain. The superior sensitivity is demonstrated by its effective application in 386-well high-throughput screening (HTS) with low drug concentrations and a short incubation time. The HTS selection process using this reporter system is very simple and economic. The simplicity eliminates potential errors introduced by multiple steps; there is no need for any substrate. Furthermore, the cells in the assay need not be disrupted, and the morphology of the cells can provide additional information on mechanisms. After HTS, the intact cells can also be used for other analytic analysis. This system thus has a potentially important role in the discovery and development of new anticancer drugs. It also appears to be very versatile, can be used both in vitro and in vivo with different linked reporter genes, and can be used for a variety of imaging applications.

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#22502613   2012/04/16 Save this To Up

Fluorescence-quenching-based homogeneous caspase-3 activity assay using photon upconversion.

Caspase proteases are key mediators in apoptosis and thus of great interest in pharmaceutical industry. Enzyme-activity assays are commonly employed in the screening of protease inhibitors that are potential drug candidates. Conventional homogeneous fluorescence-based assays are susceptible to autofluorescence originating from biological material. This background autofluorescence can be eliminated by using upconverting phosphors (UCPs) that emit visible light upon excitation at near-infrared. In the assay energy was transferred from a UCP-donor to a conventional fluorophore acceptor that resided at one end of a caspase-3-specific substrate peptide. Attached to the other end was a quencher molecule that was used to attenuate the acceptor emission through intramolecular energy transfer in an intact peptide. In non-inhibitory conditions the enzyme reaction separated the fluorophore from the quencher and the emission of the fluorophore was recovered. The method was applied for the detection and characterization of a known caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK, and the assay gave IC(50) values of approximately 13 nM for this inhibitor. We have demonstrated the applicability of UCPs on a fluorescence-quenching-based homogeneous enzyme-activity assay for the detection of caspase-3 inhibitors. The use of near-infrared excitable UCPs enables inexpensive instrumentation and total elimination of autofluorescence, while the use of an internally quenched substrate molecule diminishes the background resulting from radiatively excited acceptor molecules. The reduction of autofluorescence and radiative background result in high signal-to-background ratios (ratios of approximately 100 were obtained). By further utilizing assay miniaturization and signal enhancement in a white microtitration plate, a significant reduction in the reagent consumption can be achieved rendering the assay applicable for high-throughput screening.

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#21983296   2011/11/01 Save this To Up

Discovery of cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic compounds against leukemia cells: Tert-butyl-4-[(3-nitrophenoxy) methyl]-2,2-dimethyloxazolidine-3-carboxylate.

We evaluated biological activity in leukemia cells lines of R and S enantiomers of tert-butyl 4-[(3-nitrophenoxy)-methyl]-2,2-dimethyloxazolidine-3-carboxylate (BNDC).

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[1-(2-Benzyloxymethyl-pyr anti CD8 T cytotoxic supr (4S,6R)-6-(Acetoxymethyl) 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty N-Acetyl-N-tert-butoxycar 5-O-Acetyl-4’-O-tert-bu N-(3-Acetylthio-2-methylp N-(3-Acetylthio-2-methylp N-L-Alanyl-L-glutamic Aci L-Alanyl-L-proline tert-B 3-Aminoazepane-1-carboxyl (3R)-3-Aminoazepane-1-car

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#21416616   2011/07/01 Save this To Up

Aminoluciferins as functional bioluminogenic substrates of firefly luciferase.

Firefly luciferase is widely used as a reporter gene in assays to study gene expression, gene delivery, and so on because of its extremely high signal-to-noise ratio. The availability of a range of bioluminogenic substrates would greatly extend the applicability of the luciferin-luciferase system. Herein, we describe a design concept for functional bioluminogenic substrates based on the aminoluciferin (AL) scaffold, together with a convenient, high-yield method for synthesizing N-alkylated ALs. We confirmed the usefulness of ALs as bioluminogenic substrates by synthesizing three probes. The first was a conjugate of AL with glutamate, Glu-AL. When Glu-AL, the first membrane-impermeable bioluminogenic substrate of luciferases, was applied to cells transfected with luciferase, luminescence was not observed; that is, by using Glu-AL, we can distinguish between intracellular and extracellular events. The second was Cy5-AL, which consisted of Cy5, a near-infrared (NIR) cyanine fluorescent dye, and AL, and emitted NIR light. When Cy5-AL reacted with luciferase, luminescence derived from Cy5 was observed as a result of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) from AL to Cy5. The NIR emission wavelength would allow a signal to be observed from deeper tissues in bioluminescence in vivo imaging. The third was biotin-DEVD-AL (DEVD = the amino acid sequence Asp-Glu-Val-Asp), which employed a caspase-3 substrate peptide as a switch to control the accessibility of the substrate to luciferase, and could detect the activity of caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. This generalized design strategy should be applicable to other proteases. Our results indicate that the AL scaffold is appropriate for a range of functional luminophores and represents a useful alternative substrate to luciferin.

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