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Chemerin reverses neurological impairments and ameliorates neuronal apoptosis through ChemR23/CAMKK2/AMPK pathway in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating neurological event that contributes to the prolonged neurodevelopmental consequences in infants. Therapeutic strategies focused on attenuating neuronal apoptosis in the penumbra appears to be promising. Given the increasingly recognized neuroprotective roles of adipokines in HIE, we investigated the potential anti-apoptotic roles of a novel member of adipokines, Chemerin, in an experimental model of HIE. In the present study, 10-day-old rat pups underwent right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h hypoxia. At 1 h post hypoxia, pups were intranasally administered with human recombinant chemerin (rh-chemerin). Here, we showed that rh-chemerin prevented the neuronal apoptosis and degeneration as evidenced by the decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, as well as the numbers of Fluoro-Jade C and TUNEL-positive neurons. Furthermore, rh-Chemerin reversed neurological and morphological impairments induced by hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats at 24 h and 4 weeks after HIE. In addition, chemerin-mediated neuronal survival correlated with the elevation of chemerin receptor 23 (chemR23), phosphorylated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2), as well as phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Specific inhibition of chemR23, CAMKK2, and AMPK abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of rh-chemerin at 24 h after HIE, demonstrating that rh-chemerin ameliorated neuronal apoptosis partially via activating chemR23/CAMKK2/AMPK signaling pathway. Neuronal apoptosis is a well-established contributing factor of pathological changes and the neurological impairment after HIE. These results revealed mechanisms of neuroprotection by rh-chemerin, and indicated that activation of chemR23 might be harnessed to protect from neuronal apoptosis in HIE.

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Effects of thrombolysis within 6 hours on acute cerebral infarction in an improved rat embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model for ischaemic stroke.

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the first-line drug for revascularization in acute cerebral infarction (ACI) treatment. In this study, an improved rat embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model for ischaemic stroke was used and the rats were killed on the first, third and seventh day after model establishment. Increases in infarct volume were significantly less in the thrombolytic group than in the conventional group at every time-point. The microvascular density (MVD) in the thrombolytic group was significantly higher than that in the conventional group at every time-point, especially on the seventh day. Increases in the expressions of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) and caspase-3 in the ischaemic region and in the nitric oxide contents, malondialdehyde contents, and inducible NOS activities in the cortex of infarct side were significantly less in the thrombolytic group than in the conventional group. Furthermore, decreases in the superoxide dismutase activities in the thrombolytic group were significantly less than those in the conventional group. In conclusion, thrombolytic rt-PA therapy within a broadened therapeutic window (6 hours) could significantly decrease the infarct volume after ACI, possibly by increasing MVD in the ischaemic region, decreasing apoptotic molecule expression, and alleviating the oxidative stress response.

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c-Myc promotes tubular cell apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury by negatively regulating c-FLIP and enhancing FasL/Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway.

c-Myc plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell apoptosis. FasL/Fas pathway is a key regulator of cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of c-Myc on the FasL/Fas pathway in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced renal injury. Rats were objected to bilateral renal ischemia for 60 min and reperfused for 24 or 48 h. NRK-52E cells were treated with hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) or FasL. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of c-Myc. Cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining. Ad-c-Myc and recombinant pcDAN 3.0 were used to overexpress c-Myc and c-FLIP, respectively. ChIP assay and luciferase assay were used to detect the binding of c-Myc to c-FLIP promoter. In I/R rats, c-Myc was increased significantly and mainly located in renal tubular epithelial cells; meanwhile, c-FLIP was decreased, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive staining cells were increased. Treatment of I/R rats with c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4 significantly attenuated the decrease in c-FLIP, the increase in cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, TUNEL-positive cells, Scr and BUN in I/R rats. In NRK-52E cells, hypoxia and reoxygen induced the increase in c-Myc and decrease in c-FLIP. ChIP and luciferase assay results indicated that c-Myc binds to the promoter region of c-FLIP gene. Overexpression of c-Myc markedly decreased c-FLIP. Overexpression of c-FLIP inhibited the increase in cleaved caspase-8 and caspase-3 induced by FasL. Data indicated that c-Myc is increased in kidneys of I/R rats and negatively regulates the expression of c-FLIP, then enhanced FasL-induced cell apoptosis in I/R stress.

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Effect of miR-21/TLR4/NF-κB pathway on myocardial apoptosis in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

The aim of the study was to investigate the influences of micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-21 and downstream Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway on myocardial apoptosis induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats.

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Domino effect of IL-15 and CD8 T cell-mediated neuronal apoptosis in experimental traumatic brain injury.

The effects of local factors on the activation of immune cells infiltrating the CNS in rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains to be defined. The cytokine IL-15 is crucial in the development and activation of CD8 T lymphocytes, a prominent lymphocytic population identified in TBI lesions. We investigated whether IL-15 originates from astrocytes as well as evoke the CD8 T lymphocyte response in TBI. We observed that astrocytes were activated in TBI rat model, with IL-15 overexpressed on the astrocytic surface. Furthermore, the infiltrating CD8 T lymphocytes in the TBI lesions were adjacent to the IL-15-expressing astrocytes. Subsequently, CD8 T lymphocytes released Gra-b, which in turn activated Caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, and ultimately induced neuronal apoptosis. Conversely, inhibition of astrocytes by fluorocitrate (FC) pretreatment resulted in the improved neurological function and memory, as well as downregulation of IL-15 and CD8 T cells, and decreased neuronal apoptosis. In contrast, recombinant rat IL-15 (rIL-15) pretreatment upregulated the levels of CD8 T cells and Gra-b, and induced neuronal apoptosis. We concluded that IL-15 could induce neuronal apoptosis by enhancing CD8 T cell function in the rat model of TBI.

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Aquaporin-3 Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Nucleus Pulposus Cell Apoptosis Through Regulating the P38 MAPK Pathway.

Previous studies have shown that oxidative damage is a main contributor to disc nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis. Aquaporin-3 (AQP-3) facilitates reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and thus alleviates oxidative injury in other cells. This study aims to investigate the role and mechanism of AQP-3 in regulating NP cell apoptosis under oxidative damage.

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Correlation between the blood level of irisin and the severity of acute myocardial infarction in exercise-trained rats.

Background Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death all over the world. Irisin is a novel myokine released after exercise. This work aimed to study the correlation between the serum irisin level and the severity of the acute myocardial infarction in the exercise-trained rats. Methods Forty-eight male rats were classified into four groups (12 for each): group I, control sedentary (C); group II, exercise-trained (EX) (swimming for 8 weeks); group III, isoprenaline-induced infarct (MI); and group IV, exercise-trained infarct (EX-MI) (swimming for 8 weeks followed by isoprenaline-induced infarction). ECG was recorded at start and end of the study, before and after induction of infarction. The serum level of irisin, lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA)], total antioxidant status (TAS), creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB), and troponin I was determined. The hearts were excised for histopathology and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3. Results The infarct rats showed significant prolongation in QTc interval and elevation in the ST segment as well as significant elevation of serum CK-MB, troponin I, and MDA, whereas TAS and serum irisin level were significantly decreased. With exercise, we observed a high positive correlation between the serum irisin and QRS duration (+0.643), amplitude (+0.860), and TAS (+0.887). In addition, there was a high negative correlation between the serum irisin and ST elevation (-0.865), QTc (-0.886), CK-MB (-0.891), troponin (-0.882), and MDA (-0.868). This was confirmed by the negative correlation between serum irisin and both collagen deposition and caspase-3 expression (-0.823 and -0.822, respectively). Conclusions We recommend regular exercise or taking recombinant irisin as a supplement to protect at-risk individuals against acute myocardial infarction.

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Neuroprotection of rhGLP-1 in diabetic rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via regulation of oxidative stress, EAAT2, and apoptosis.

Preclinical Research & Development The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of recombinant human glucagon-like peptide-1 (rhGLP-1) as well as to explore corresponding mechanisms in diabetic rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The rats were pretreated with rhGLP-1 (20 μg/kg intraperitoneally, thrice a day) for 14 days. Thereafter, the rats were subjected to MCAO 90 min/reperfusion 24 hr. At 2 and 24 hr of reperfusion, the rats were assessed for neurological deficits and subsequently executed for the evaluation of cerebral infarct volume, oxidative stress parameters, and the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and apoptotic markers. Results indicate that rhGLP-1 significantly ameliorated neurological deficits and reduced cerebral infarct volume in diabetic MCAO rats. In addition, oxidative stress parameters in ischemic penumbra were significantly alleviated in rhGLP-1-pretreated diabetic MCAO rats. rhGLP-1 significantly upregulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and EAAT2 expression and downregulated cleaved caspase-3 expression in ischemic penumbra of diabetic MCAO rats. Our results suggest that rhGLP-1 could significantly ameliorate neurological deficits and reduce cerebral infarct volume in diabetic MCAO rats, which may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis and the promotion of EAAT2 expression.

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Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor affords neuroprotection to early brain injury induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage via activating Akt-dependent prosurvival pathway and defending blood-brain barrier integrity.

This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protein on early brain injury caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the relevant mechanisms in experimental rats, expecting to understand whether MANF was a potential therapeutic target for SAH treatment. A perforation model of SAH was introduced into the study. Recombinant human MANF (rh-MANF) and protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor (MK2206) were used to explore the effect and the mechanisms. Multiple approaches for systemic assessment were employed in the research, including the Garcia test, the SAH grade, Evans blue (EB) dye leakage, brain-water content (BWC), the rotarod test, and the Morris water-navigation task, as were biotechniques, such as immunohistochemistry, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. MANF was mainly expressed in rat neurons, and its expression increased significantly at 3 h after SAH induction and peaked at 24 h. Stereotactic injection of rh-MANF into the cerebroventricle significantly increased the level of MANF, p-Akt, p-mouse double minute 2 homolog (p-MDM2), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in brain tissue, whereas it down-regulated the expression of P53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3, which indicated that neuronal apoptosis was remarkably suppressed. Expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) was also suppressed by the rh-MANF injection. Furthermore, neurologic deficits, EB dye leakage, and BWC were reduced, and long-lasting neuroprotection was noted with rh-MANF administration. The antiapoptotic and blood-brain barrier (BBB) protective effect could be offset by administering MK2206. MANF could alleviate neuronal apoptosis by activating Akt-dependent prosurvival pathway and abate BBB damage via MMP-9 suppression. MANF showed not only transient but also long-lasting neuroprotective properties. The rh-MANF as a potential drug for treating SAH might be of clinical use.-Li, T., Xu, W., Gao, L., Guan, G., Zhang, Z., He, P., Xu, H., Fan, L., Yan, F., Chen, G. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor affords neuroprotection to early brain injury induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage via activating Akt-dependent prosurvival pathway and defending blood-brain barrier integrity.

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Intranasal wnt3a Attenuates Neuronal Apoptosis through Frz1/PIWIL1a/FOXM1 Pathway in MCAO Rats.

After ischemic stroke, apoptosis of neurons is a primary factor in determining outcome. Wnt3a is a naturally occurring protein that has been shown to have protective effects in the brain for traumatic brain injury. Although wnt3a has been investigated in the phenomena of neurogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation, it has never been investigated as a therapy for stroke. We hypothesized that the potential neuroprotective agent wnt3a would reduce infarction and improve behavior following ischemic stroke by attenuating neuronal apoptosis and promoting cell survival through the Frizzled-1/PIWI1a/FOXM1 pathway in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. A total of 229 Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to male, female, and 9-month-old male MCAO or sham groups followed by reperfusion 2 h after MCAO. Animals assigned to MCAO were either given wnt3a or its control. To explore the downstream signaling of wnt3a, the following interventions were given: Frizzled-1 siRNA, PIWI1a siRNA, and PIWI1a-clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, along with the appropriate controls. Post-MCAO assessments included neurobehavioral tests, infarct volume, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Endogenous levels of wnt3a and Frizzled-1/PIWI1a/FOXM1 were lowered after MCAO. The administration of intranasal wnt3a, 1 h after MCAO, increased PIWIL1a and FOXM1 expression through Frizzled-1, reducing brain infarction and neurological deficits at 24 and 72 h. Frizzled-1 and PIWI1a siRNAs reversed the protective effects of wnt3a after MCAO. Restoration of PIWI1a after knockdown of Frizzled-1 increased FOXM1 survival protein and reduced cleaved caspase-3 levels. In summary, wnt3a decreases neuronal apoptosis and improves neurological deficits through Frizzled-1/PIWI1a/FOXM1 pathway after MCAO in rats. Therefore, wnt3a is a novel intranasal approach to decrease apoptosis after stroke. Only 5% of patients receive recombinant tissue plasminogen activator after stroke, and few qualify for mechanical thrombectomy. No neuroprotective agents have been successfully translated to promote neuronal survival in stroke. Thus, using a clinically relevant rat model of stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion, we explored a novel intranasal administration of wnt3a. wnt3a naturally occurs in the body and crosses the blood-brain barrier, supporting the clinically translatable approach of intranasal administration. Significant neuronal apoptosis occurs during stroke, and wnt3a shows promise due to its antiapoptotic effects. We investigated whether wnt3a mediates its poststroke effects via Frizzled-1 and the impact on its downstream signaling molecules, PIWI1a and FOXM1, in apoptosis. Elucidating the mechanism of wnt3a will identify additional pharmacological targets and further understanding of stroke.

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