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#28877220   2017/09/06 Save this To Up

Attenuated lipotoxicity and apoptosis is linked to exogenous and endogenous augmenter of liver regeneration by different pathways.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) induce steatosis and lipo-toxicity and correlate with severity of NAFLD. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of exogenous and endogenous ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) for FFA induced ER (endoplasmatic reticulum) -stress and lipoapoptosis. Primary human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells either treated with recombinant human ALR (rhALR, 15kDa) or expressing short form ALR (sfALR, 15kDa) were incubated with palmitic acid (PA) and analyzed for lipo-toxicity, -apoptosis, activation of ER-stress response pathways, triacylglycerides (TAG), mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolizing genes. Both, exogenous rhALR and cytosolic sfALR reduced PA induced caspase 3 activity and Bax protein expression and therefore lipotoxicity. Endogenous sfALR but not rhALR treatment lowered TAG levels, diminished activation of ER-stress mediators C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) and proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and reduced death receptor 5 protein expression. Cellular ALR exerts its lipid lowering and anti-apoptotic actions by enhancing FABP1, which binds toxic FFA, increasing mitochondrial β-oxidation by elevating the mitochondrial FFA transporter CPT1α, and decreasing ELOVL6, which delivers toxic FFA metabolites. We found reduced hepatic mRNA levels of ALR in a high fat diet mouse model, and of ALR and FOXA2, a transcription factor inducing ALR expression, in human steatotic as well as NASH liver samples, which may explain increased lipid deposition and reduced β-oxidation in NASH patients. Present study shows that exogenous and endogenous ALR reduce PA induced lipoapoptosis. Furthermore, cytosolic sfALR changes mRNA and protein expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, reduces ER-stress finally impeding progression of NASH.

2177 related Products with: Attenuated lipotoxicity and apoptosis is linked to exogenous and endogenous augmenter of liver regeneration by different pathways.

Carnitine O palmitoyltran Shiga Toxin 1 antibody, M Shiga Toxin 2 antibody, M Cholera toxin antibody, M Clostridium botulinum D T Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi

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#28873083   2017/09/05 Save this To Up

SKLB188 inhibits the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing EGFR signalling.

Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in approximately 90% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, targeting EGFR is a promising strategy for treatment of HNSCC. Several small molecule EGFR inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials for treatment of HNSCC, but none of them are more effective than the current chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, it is urgently needed to develop novel EGFR inhibitors for HNSCC treatment.

2943 related Products with: SKLB188 inhibits the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing EGFR signalling.

Head and neck squamous ce Multiple head and neck sq Multiple organ squamous c Esophagus squamous cell c Esophagus squamous cell c Lung squamous cell carcin Skin malignant tumor tiss Esophagus squamous cell c Esophagus squamous cell c Esophagus squamous cell c Lung squamous cell carcin Lung squamous cell carcin

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#28698029   2017/07/12 Save this To Up

Critical role of EphA4 in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat.

Early brain injury (EBI) is reported as a primary cause of mortality in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Eph receptor A4 (EphA4) has been associated with blood-brain barrier integrity and pro-apoptosis. We aimed to investigate a role of EphA4 in EBI after SAH. One hundred and seventy-nine male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham versus endovascular perforation model of SAH groups. SAH grade, neurological score, Evans blue dye extravasation, brain water content, mortality, Fluoro-Jade staining, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot experiments were performed after SAH. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for EphA4, recombinant Ephexin-1 (rEphx-1), and Fasudil, a potent ROCK2 inhibitor, were used for intervention to study a role of EphA4 on EBI after SAH. The expression of EphA4, Ephexin-1, RhoA, and ROCK2 significantly increased after SAH. Knockdown of EphA4 using EphA4 siRNA injection intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v) reduced Evans blue extravasation, decreased brain water content, and alleviated neurobehavioral dysfunction after SAH. Additionally, the expression of Ephexin-1, RhoA, ROCK2 and cleaved caspase-3 were decreased. Tight junction proteins increased, and apoptotic neuron death decreased. The effects of EphA4 siRNA were abolished by rEphx-1. In contrast, Fasudil abolished the effects of rEphx-1. These results suggest that EphA4, a novel and promising target for treatment, exacerbates EBI through an Ephexin-1/ROCK2 pathway after SAH.

1432 related Products with: Critical role of EphA4 in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat.

Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea Beta Amyloid (42) ELISA K Beta Amyloid (40) ELISA K Sterile filtered rat ser Insulin 1 (Rat), syntheti Goat Anti-Rat MARCH10, (i Goat Anti-Mouse, Rat DLL1 Goat Anti-Human, Mouse, R Goat Anti-Human, Mouse, R Goat Anti-Rat Connexin 43 Goat Anti-Human, Rat CHRN

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#28653252   2017/06/27 Save this To Up

sIL-24 peptide, a human interleukin-24 isoform, induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human cancer cells.

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a unique cytokine in the IL-10 family that reveals tumor-suppressive activity against a broad range of cancers. Alternative splicing of human IL-24 generates several isoforms with different pro-apoptotic activities. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic properties of a recombinant smallest isoform of IL-24 (sIL-24) and the underlying molecular mechanisms in PC-3, A549, U937, and Raji cancer cells as well as normal cell line MRC-5.

1219 related Products with: sIL-24 peptide, a human interleukin-24 isoform, induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human cancer cells.

Interleukin-24 antibody S interleukin 17 receptor C Recombinant Human Interle Human normal bone and ost Goat Anti-Human RNF3 (247 Human testis cancer tissu Uroguanylin (circulating ACTH (1 24) (Human, Rat, Human Interleukin-32 alph Human Interleukin-1-alpha Goat Anti-Human Laforin ( Rabbit Anti-Human HPA-1 A

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#28526746   2017/05/20 Save this To Up

Region-specific proteolysis differentially regulates type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity.

The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is an intracellular Ca(2+) release channel expressed predominately on the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. IP3R1 can be cleaved by caspase or calpain into at least two receptor fragments. However, the functional consequences of receptor fragmentation are poorly understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that IP3R1 channels, formed following either enzymatic fragmentation or expression of the corresponding complementary polypeptide chains, retain tetrameric architecture and are still activated by IP3 binding despite the loss of peptide continuity. In this study, we demonstrate that region-specific receptor fragmentation modifies channel regulation. Specifically, the agonist-evoked temporal Ca(2+) release profile and protein kinase A modulation of Ca(2+) release are markedly altered. Moreover, we also demonstrate that activation of fragmented IP3R1 can result in a distinct functional outcome. Our work suggests that proteolysis of IP3R1 may represent a novel form of modulation of IP3R1 channel function and increases the repertoire of Ca(2+) signals achievable through this channel.

2771 related Products with: Region-specific proteolysis differentially regulates type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity.

Primary antibody IL-1RAc Primary antibody IL-1RAc IGF-1R Signaling Phospho- T-Cell Receptor Signaling 10x ELISA WASH BUFFER, Pr 10X PHOSPHATE BUFFERED SA ELISA p55,p60,Pig,Sus scr Goat Anti-Human Bradykini Goat Anti-Human, Mouse Ca Goat Anti-Rat CCKA Recept Goat Anti- collagen type Goat Anti-Rat Collagen, t

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#28499239   2017/05/12 Save this To Up

Effect of recombinant human endostatin on hypertrophic scar fibroblast apoptosis in a rabbit ear model.

Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a dermal fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and is thought to result from a cellular imbalance caused by the increased growth and reduced apoptosis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs). Our recent study demonstrated that recombinant human endostatin (rhEndostatin) plays a key role in the inhibition of HSF proliferation in vitro, with a resulting decrease in dermal thickness and scar hypertrophy. However, the effect of this protein on HSF apoptosis is unknown. The present study was undertaken to directly examine the effect of rhEndostatin on HSF apoptosis in the rabbit ear model. Transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry were used to investigate HSF apoptosis in scar tissues and cultured HSFs in vitro, respectively. The expression levels of the c-jun, c-fos, NF-κB, fas, caspase-3, and bcl-2 gene products in HSFs were quantified using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. Our data reveal that rhEndostatin (2.5 or 5mg/ml) induces HSF apoptotic cell death in scar tissue. Additionally, HSFs treated with rhEndostatin (100mg/L) in vitro accumulated in early and late apoptosis and displayed significantly decreased expression of c-jun, c-fos, NF-κB, fas, caspase-3 and bcl-2. In sum, these results demonstrate that rhEndostatin induces HSF apoptosis, and this phenotypeis partially due to downregulation of NF-κB and bcl-2. These findings suggest that rhEndostatin may have an inhibitory effect on scar hypertrophy in vivo via HSF apoptotic induction and therefore has potential therapeutic use for the treatment of HS.

2062 related Products with: Effect of recombinant human endostatin on hypertrophic scar fibroblast apoptosis in a rabbit ear model.

Rabbit Anti-Human Apoptos Fibroblast Growth Factor Fibroblast Growth Factor Interferon-a Receptor Typ Goat Anti-Human LIMP2 SCA Rabbit Anti-Human Inhibin Integrin β1 (CD29) Antib LPAM-1(Integrin α4, CD49 α-Internexin Antibody So INPP5F antibody Source Ra Interferon alpha-8 antibo Interferon alpha-6 antibo

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#28498435   2017/05/12 Save this To Up

Plumbagin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis of human leukemic Kasumi‑1 cells through upregulation of TRAIL death receptor expression, activation of caspase-8 and inhibition of cFLIP.

Although the patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a favorable prognosis compared with other non-acute promyelocytic leukemia AML patients, only ~50% patients with this relatively favorable subtype can survive for 5 years and refractory/relapse is common in clinical practice. So it is necessary to find novel agents to treat this type of AML. In this study, the effects and the mechanisms of plumbagin and recombinant soluble tumor necrosis factor‑α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rsTRAIL) on leukemic Kasumi‑1 cells were primarily investigated. Plumbagin and/or rsTRAIL could significantly inhibit the growth of Kasumi‑1 cells and induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Plumbagin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis of Kasumi‑1 cells in association with mitochondria damage, caspase activation, upregulation of death receptors (DRs) and decreased cFLIP expression. The effects of plumbagin on the expression of DR5, Bax and cFLIP could be partially abolished by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger NAC. Glutathione (GSH) depletion by plumbagin increased the production of ROS. In vivo, there was no obvious toxic pathologic change in the heart, liver and kidney tissues in any of the groups. Comparing with the control mice, a significantly increased number of apoptotic cells were observed in the combined treated mice by flow cytometry. Plumbagin also increased the expression of DR4 and DR5 in cells of xenograft tumors. Collectively, our results suggest that both plumbagin and rsTRAIL could be used as a single agent or synergistical agents to induce apoptosis of leukemic Kasumi‑1 cells in vitro and in vivo.

1444 related Products with: Plumbagin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis of human leukemic Kasumi‑1 cells through upregulation of TRAIL death receptor expression, activation of caspase-8 and inhibition of cFLIP.

Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Human TRAIL TRAIL Active Human Caspase 8100 Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Recombinant Human TRAIL P Recombinant Human TRAIL P Recombinant Human TRAIL ( Recombinant Human TRAIL ( Recombinant Human TRAIL ( TRAIL Apo2L, human recomb anti CD7 All T cells Reco anti Transferrin receptor

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#28463985   2017/05/02 Save this To Up

Palmitic acid is a toll-like receptor 4 ligand that induces human dendritic cell secretion of IL-1β.

Palmitic acid (PA) and other saturated fatty acids are known to stimulate pro-inflammatory responses in human immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for fatty acid stimulation of TLR4 remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PA functions as a ligand for TLR4 on human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Hydrophobicity protein modeling indicated PA can associate with the hydrophobic binding pocket of TLR4 adaptor protein MD-2. Isothermal titration calorimetry quantified heat absorption that occurred during PA titration into TLR4/MD2, indicating that PA binds to TLR4/MD2. Treatment of human MoDCs with PA resulted in endocytosis of TLR4, further supporting the function of PA as a TLR4 agonist. In addition, PA stimulated DC maturation and activation based on the upregulation of DC costimulatory factors CD86 and CD83. Further experiments showed that PA induced TLR4 dependent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Lastly, our experimental data show that PA stimulation of NF-κB canonical pathway activation is regulated by TLR4 signaling and that reactive oxygen species may be important in upregulating this pro-inflammatory response. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time that PA activation of TLR4 occurs in response to direct molecular interactions between PA and MD-2. In summary, our findings suggest a likely molecular mechanism for PA induction of pro-inflammatory immune responses in human dendritic cells expressing TLR4.

1758 related Products with: Palmitic acid is a toll-like receptor 4 ligand that induces human dendritic cell secretion of IL-1β.

Rabbit Anti-Nociceptin re Rabbit Anti-Nociceptin re Rabbit Anti-Nociceptin re Rabbit Anti-Nociceptin re Rabbit Anti-VIP Receptor Rabbit Anti-IL-4I1 Polycl Rabbit Anti-IL-4I1 Polycl Monoclonal antibody: Hum Anti C Reactive Protein A Mouse Anti-Human Interleu RANK Ligand Soluble, Huma IL-12 Receptor beta2 anti

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#28409545   2017/04/14 Save this To Up

High-affinity caspase-4 binding to LPS presented as high molecular mass aggregates or in outer membrane vesicles.

Caspases of the non-canonical inflammasome (caspases -4, -5, and -11) directly bind endotoxin (LOS/LPS) and can be activated in the absence of any co-factors. Models of LPS-induced caspase activation have postulated that 1:1 binding of endotoxin monomers to caspase trigger caspase oligomerization and activation, analogous to that established for endotoxin-induced activation of MD-2/TLR4. However, using metabolically radiolabeled LOS and LPS, we now show high affinity and selective binding of caspase-4 to high molecular mass aggregates of purified endotoxin and to endotoxin-rich outer membrane vesicles without formation of 1:1 endotoxin:caspase complexes. Thus, our findings demonstrate markedly different endotoxin recognition properties of caspase-4 from that of MD-2/TLR4 and strongly suggest that activation of caspase-4 (and presumably caspase-5 and caspase-11) are mediated by interactions with activating endotoxin-rich membrane interfaces rather than by endotoxin monomers.

1899 related Products with: High-affinity caspase-4 binding to LPS presented as high molecular mass aggregates or in outer membrane vesicles.

EnzyChrom™ Kinase Assay High density (495 cases 5 Cell Meter™ Annexin V B Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri Apoptosis (Human) Antibod Cytokine (Human) Antibody Cytokine (Human) Antibody Cytokine (Mouse) Antibody Growth Factor (Human) Ant Inflammation (Human) Anti Inflammation (Mouse) Anti High density multiple org

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#28398345   2017/04/11 Save this To Up

Genome-wide target specificities of CRISPR RNA-guided programmable deaminases.

Cas9-linked deaminases, also called base editors, enable targeted mutation of single nucleotides in eukaryotic genomes. However, their off-target activity is largely unknown. Here we modify digested-genome sequencing (Digenome-seq) to assess the specificity of a programmable deaminase composed of a Cas9 nickase (nCas9) and the deaminase APOBEC1 in the human genome. Genomic DNA is treated with the base editor and a mixture of DNA-modifying enzymes in vitro to produce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at uracil-containing sites. Off-target sites are then computationally identified from whole genome sequencing data. Testing seven different single guide RNAs (sgRNAs), we find that the rAPOBEC1-nCas9 base editor is highly specific, inducing cytosine-to-uracil conversions at only 18 ± 9 sites in the human genome for each sgRNA. Digenome-seq is sensitive enough to capture off-target sites with a substitution frequency of 0.1%. Notably, off-target sites of the base editors are often different from those of Cas9 alone, calling for independent assessment of their genome-wide specificities.

2244 related Products with: Genome-wide target specificities of CRISPR RNA-guided programmable deaminases.

Mouse AntiRNA polymerase Mouse AntiRNA polymerase Cytokeratin, Wide M.W. R Cytokeratin, Wide M.W. R Cytokeratin, Wide M.W. R NDFIP1 (siRNA target site mFGF 21 (siRNA target sit LacZ (siRNA target site) MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD

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