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#28578345   2017/06/04 Save this To Up

Calcium Channel Opening Rather than the Release of ATP Causes the Apoptosis of Osteoblasts Induced by Overloaded Mechanical Stimulation.

Stress fracture is one of the most common overuse injuries in athletes. Overloaded mechanical stimulation is an important factor affecting stress fractures, but the mechanism is unclear.

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#26141531   2015/08/28 Save this To Up

Analysis of porcine granulosa cell death signaling pathways induced by vinclozolin.

Recent studies suggest that disturbing androgen-signaling pathways in porcine ovarian follicles may cause granulosa cell (GC) death. For this reason, we investigated which apoptotic pathway is initiated after GC exposure to an environmental antiandrogen, vinclozolin (Vnz), in vitro. Immunocytochemistry, Western blots, and fluorometric assays were used to quantify caspase-3 and -9 expression and activity. To elucidate the specific mechanism of Vnz action and toxicity, GCs were assessed for viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptotic activity using the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. To further determine the mechanism of GC death induced by Vnz, we used the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In response to Vnz stimulus, we found an increased level of caspase-3 protein expression (P ≤ 0.001) and an increase in caspase-3 proteolytic activity (P ≤ 0.001), confirming that Vnz is a potent proapoptotic factor. The strong immunoreaction of caspase-9 after Vnz treatment (P ≤ 0.001) suggests that intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was activated during GC death. On the other hand, caspase-8, being a part of the extrinsic receptor pathway, was also activated (P ≤ 0.001). Therefore, it is possible that Vnz induces porcine granulosal apoptosis also through a parallel pathway. Activation of these two pathways was confirmed by the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In conclusion, it is possible that the intrinsic signaling pathway may not act as an initial trigger for GC apoptosis but might contribute to the amplification and propagation of apoptotic cell death in the granulosa layer after treatment with this antiandrogen. Moreover, Vnz disturbs the physiological process of programmed cell death. Consequently, this could explain why atretic follicles are rapidly removed and suggests that normal function of the ovarian follicle may be destroyed.

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#24510345   2014/05/05 Save this To Up

PTPN6 expression is epigenetically regulated and influences survival and response to chemotherapy in high-grade gliomas.

The prognosis of high-grade glioma patients is poor, and the tumors are characterized by resistance to therapy. The aims of this study were to analyze the prognostic value of the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6, also referred to as SHP1) in high-grade glioma patients, the epigenetic regulation of the expression of PTPN6, and the role of its expression in chemotherapy resistance in glioma-derived cells. PTPN6 expression was analyzed with immunohistochemistry in 89 high-grade glioma patients. Correlation between PTPN6 expression and overall survival was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis and Cox regression multivariate analysis. Differences in drug sensitivity to a panel of 16 chemotherapeutic drugs between PTPN6-overexpressing clones and control clones were analyzed in vitro with the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Cell cycle analysis was done with Krishan staining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was analyzed with a cell death detection ELISA kit as well as cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 Western blotting. Autophagy was analyzed with LC3B Western blotting. Methylation of the PTPN6 promoter was analyzed with bisulfite pyrosequencing, and demethylation of PTPN6 was done with decitabine treatment. The PTPN6 expression correlated in univariate analysis to poor survival for anaplastic glioma patients (p = 0.026). In glioma-derived cell lines, overexpression of PTPN6 caused increase resistance (p < 0.05) to the chemotherapeutic drugs bortezomib, cisplatin, and melphalan. PTPN6 expression did not affect bortezomib-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or autophagy. Low PTPN6 promoter methylation correlated to protein expression, and the protein expression was increased upon demethylation in glioma-derived cells. PTPN6 expression may be a factor contributing to poor survival for anaplastic glioma patients, and in glioma-derived cells, its expression is epigenetically regulated and influences the response to chemotherapy.

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#21473903   2011/05/23 Save this To Up

Apoptogenic activity of 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is mediated via mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase cascade regulated by Bcl-2 in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells.

The dried spikes of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina (Labiatae) have been used for traditional herbal medicine to treat fever, inflammation, dropsy, gonorrhea and cancer in Korea, Japan and China. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (DHURS), purified from the dried spikes on human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells.

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#19159073   2009/01/22 Save this To Up

Extracellular adenosine induces apoptosis in Caco-2 human colonic cancer cells by activating caspase-9/-3 via A(2a) adenosine receptors.

Extracellular adenosine has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cells via an intrinsic pathway linked to adenosine uptake into cells and the ensuing signaling cascades and an extrinsic pathway linked to adenosine receptors. The present study was designed to understand the mechanism underlying adenosine-induced apoptosis of Caco-2 human colonic cancer cells.

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#12451262   2002/11/26 Save this To Up

17beta-Estradiol protects isolated human pancreatic islets against proinflammatory cytokine-induced cell death: molecular mechanisms and islet functionality.

Proinflammatory cytokines (PIC) (interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) are released after intraportal islet transplantation lead to functional suppression and islet apoptosis. Estradiol has been shown to promote survival of cells undergoing PIC-induced apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of estradiol on isolated human pancreatic islet (IHPI) survival after exposure to PIC and analyzed potential mechanisms of action.

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