Search results for: Caspase 9 (dn)
#28414198 2017/04/17 Save this To Up
LY333531, a PKCβ inhibitor, attenuates glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis in the early stage of mouse diabetic nephropathy via down-regulating swiprosin-1.Glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) injury plays an important role in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Previous studies show that a PKCβ inhibitor is effective for treating DN. In the current study we further explored the effects and molecular mechanisms of PKCβ inhibitors on GEC apoptosis in DN in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice in vivo and high glucose- or PMA-treated human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) in vitro. In the diabetic mice, hyperglycemia caused aggravated nephropathy and GEC apoptosis accompanied by significantly increased expression of swiprosin-1, a potentally pro-apoptotic protein. Administration of LY333531 (1 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) for 8 weeks) significantly attenuated both GEC apoptosis and swiprosin-1 upregulation in the diabetic mice. Similar results were observed in high glucose- or PMA-treated HRGECs in vitro. The pro-apoptotic role of swiprosin-1 was further examined using HRGECs treated with lentivirus mediating RNA interference or over-expression and swiprosin-1-knockout mice. Over-expression of swiprosin-1 in HRGECs resulted in increases in apoptosis and in caspase-9, caspase-3 and Bax expression. In contrast, knockdown of swiprosin-1 attenuated high glucose- or PMA-induced HRGECs apoptosis. Furthermore, over-expression of swiprosin-1 promoted interaction between swiprosin-1 and caspase-9 and increased the formation of apoptosomes. In diabetic swiprosin-1(-/-) mice, the kidney/body weight, urinary albumin, glomerular hypertrophy, mitochondrial apoptotic-associated proteins and GEC apoptosis were significantly attenuated as compared with those in diabetic swiprosin-1(+/+) mice. These results demonstrate that swiprosin-1 is up-regulated by PKCβ in the early stage of DN, and that PKCβ facilitates GEC apoptosis through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
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#27470548 2016/07/29 Save this To Up
SIRT1 activator ameliorates the renal tubular injury induced by hyperglycemia in vivo and in vitro via inhibiting apoptosis.We aimed to explore the role of SIRT1 in apoptosis in human kidney proximal tubule epithelial (HK-2) cells, and to determine whether resveratrol (RSV, a SIRT1 activator) could ameliorate apoptosis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or in high glucose (HG, 30mM) - stimulated HK-2 cells. Rats were distributed randomly into three groups: 1) control group, 2) DM group, and 3) DM with RSV group (DM+RSV; rats treated with 30mg/kg/d of RSV for 16 weeks). The physical, biochemical, and morphological parameters were then examined. Additionally, the deacetylase activity of SIRT1, and the expression levels of SIRT1 and of representative apoptosis markers, such as p53, acetylated p53, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleaved PARP, were measured. HK-2 cells were stimulated by HG for different lengths of time to study the effect of HG on apoptosis. HK-2 cells were treated with or without RSV (25μM) to investigate if RSV has a protective effect on HG-induced apoptosis. A gene-specific small interfering RNA against SIRT1 was used to study the role of SIRT1 in apoptosis. More apoptosis was found in the DM rats than in the control rats. Similarly, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and acetylated p53 were significantly higher, and the level of SIRT1 was significantly lower, in the HK-2 cells that were cultured under HG conditions than those in the HK-2 cells that were cultured under low glucose (5.5mM) conditions. Notably, treatment with RSV lessened the HG-induced changes in the levels of apoptosis indicators, and this inhibition of HG-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells by RSV treatment was abolished by SIRT1 silencing. Our study showed that hyperglycemia contributes to apoptosis in rat kidney and HK-2 cells. SIRT1 activation by RSV can reduce urinary albumin excretion and proximal tubule epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Based on our study, SIRT1/p53 axis played an important role in the hyperglycemia induced apoptosis. These findings indicated that the increased expression of SIRT1, mediated by RSV, is a possible mechanism by which RSV prevents renal tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN). So RSV has great clinical significance and could provide the basis for the new way to effective treatment to contain the morbidity and mortality associated with DN.
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#27229883 2016/09/17 Save this To Up
β-Ecdysterone Protects SH-SY5Y Cells Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis via Mitochondria-Dependent Mechanism: Involvement of p38(MAPK)-p53 Signaling Pathway.Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder pathologically characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. No curative therapy is available for PD. We recently found that phytoestrogen β-ecdysterone (β-Ecd) is able to reduce MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. This study investigated the potential of β-Ecd to protect against SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis induced by the PD-related neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the underlying mechanism for this cytoprotection. In the present study, pretreatment with β-Ecd significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by a mitochondria-dependent pathway, as indicated by downregulation of Bax and PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression, suppressing ΔΨm loss, inhibiting cytochrome c release, and attenuating caspase-9 activation. Furthermore, we showed that the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK))-dependent p53 promoter activity contributed to the protection of SH-SY5Y cells from apoptosis, which was validated by the use of SB203580 or p38β dominant negative (DN) mutants. Additionally, knock-down apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) by specific shRNA and blockade reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pharmacological inhibitor competently prevented β-Ecd-mediated inhibition of p38(MAPK) and ASK1 phosphorylation, respectively. These data provide the first evidence that β-Ecd protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, possibly through mitochondria protection and p53 modulation via ROS-dependent ASK1-p38(MAPK) pathways. The neuroprotective effects of β-Ecd make it a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent for PD.
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#24691542 2014/04/02 Save this To Up
Emodin suppresses hyperglycemia-induced proliferation and fibronectin expression in mesangial cells via inhibiting cFLIP.As one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and a major cause of end stage renal disease, diabetic nephropathy (DN) is calling for effective treatment strategies. Here, we provide evidence that hyperglycemia can induce proliferation and decreasing apoptosis of mesangial cells (MCs) and subsequent renal dysfunction by up-regulating cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP). Treatment with emodin significantly turns down the accelerated cell cycle and proliferation of MCs cultured in high glucose (HG) via inhibiting cFLIP. In vitro, knockdown of cFLIP can arrest cell cycle and accelerate cell death by activating caspase-8, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and down-regulate proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Our results also suggest that emodin regulates cFLIP expression in transcriptional level. Importantly, emodin lessens proteinuria and fibronectin expression in early-stage of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate that emodin represent a promising strategy to prevent renal dysfunction in early-stage of diabetes mellitus.
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#23640457 2013/05/03 Save this To Up
ATM-NFκB axis-driven TIGAR regulates sensitivity of glioma cells to radiomimetics in the presence of TNFα.Gliomas are resistant to radiation therapy, as well as to TNFα induced killing. Radiation-induced TNFα triggers Nuclear factor κB (NFκB)-mediated radioresistance. As inhibition of NFκB activation sensitizes glioma cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis, we investigated whether TNFα modulates the responsiveness of glioma cells to ionizing radiation-mimetic Neocarzinostatin (NCS). TNFα enhanced the ability of NCS to induce glioma cell apoptosis. NCS-mediated death involved caspase-9 activation, reduction of mitochondrial copy number and lactate production. Death was concurrent with NFκB, Akt and Erk activation. Abrogation of Akt and NFκB activation further potentiated the death inducing ability of NCS in TNFα cotreated cells. NCS-induced p53 expression was accompanied by increase in TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) levels and ATM phosphorylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TIGAR abrogated NCS-induced apoptosis. While DN-IκB abrogated NCS-induced TIGAR both in the presence and absence of TNFα, TIGAR had no effect on NFκB activation. Transfection with TIGAR mutant (i) decreased apoptosis and γH2AX foci formation (ii) decreased p53 (iii) elevated ROS and (iv) increased Akt/Erk activation in cells cotreated with NCS and TNFα. Heightened TIGAR expression was observed in GBM tumors. While NCS induced ATM phosphorylation in a NFκB independent manner, ATM inhibition abrogated TIGAR and NFκB activation. Metabolic gene profiling indicated that TNFα affects NCS-mediated regulation of several genes associated with glycolysis. The existence of ATM-NFκB axis that regulate metabolic modeler TIGAR to overcome prosurvival response in NCS and TNFα cotreated cells, suggests mechanisms through which inflammation could affect resistance and adaptation to radiomimetics despite concurrent induction of death.
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#23313147 2013/05/06 Save this To Up
FcRγ promotes T cell apoptosis in Fas-deficient mice.Deficiency of Fas or its ligand leads to lymphocyte accumulation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmunity in mice and humans. Although the Fas pathway is important for limiting the number of peripheral T cells, inactivation of other pro-apoptotic molecules can also perturb T cell homeostasis independently of and/or in concert with Fas deficiency. Here, we show that combined deficiency of Fas and the Fc receptor common γ signaling chain (FcRγ) results in worsened T cell accumulation in comparison with mice lacking Fas alone, with a particularly marked increase in the number of TCRαβ(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells. LPR FcRγ(-/-) mice exhibited reduced survival due to progressive lymphadenopathy. We further investigated the mechanisms whereby FcRγ deficiency promotes lymphoproliferative disease in Fas-mutant mice. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in T cell proliferation between LPR FcRγ(+/+) and LPR FcRγ(-/-) mice in vivo and in vitro. However, FcRγ deletion resulted in significantly decreased peripheral T cell apoptosis. Importantly, the observed increase in apoptosis was restricted to a subset of FcRγ(+) T cells. These T cells, but not those lacking FcRγ expression, exhibited increased activation of caspases 3 and 9, indicating a role for FcRγ in driving their apoptosis. FcRγ(+) DN T cells also showed enhanced sensitivity to TCR restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) despite lacking Fas, suggesting that TCR stimulation of autoreactive T cells in vivo may serve to eliminate FcRγ(+) T cells and thus exert partial control over lymphoproliferative disease. Hence, our data reveal a novel role for FcRγ in promoting peripheral T cell apoptosis in Fas-deficient mice, which may be of significant value in understanding autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes.
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#23159925 2013/02/01 Save this To Up
Caspase-8 and caspase-9 mediate thymocyte apoptosis in Trypanosoma cruzi acutely infected mice.Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection leads to thymic atrophy, largely as a result of death of immature DP T cells. In a second vein, the glucocorticoid hormone imbalance promotes DP T cell apoptosis in infected mice. Herein, we assessed the involvement of caspase signaling in thymocyte death during T. cruzi acute infection. BALB/c mice were infected i.p. with 10(2) trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and analyzed from 7 to 19 dpi. Thymocyte apoptosis was observed in early stages of infection, increasing along with time postinfection. Immature DN and DP as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes from infected mice showed increased activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. In vitro treatment of thymocytes from infected mice with a general caspase inhibitor or the combination of caspase-8- and caspase-9-specific inhibitors increased the number of living thymocytes. Intrathymic injection of the general caspase inhibitor, but not caspase-8 or -9 inhibitors individually, prevented thymic atrophy and thymocyte depletion in infected mice. Moreover, blockade of glucocorticoid receptor activity with RU486 prevented DP thymocyte apoptosis, together with caspase-8 and -9 activation. These findings indicate that DP T cell apoptosis following experimental T. cruzi acute infection is dependent on glucocorticoid stimulation, promoting caspase-8 and -9 activation.
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#22974127 2012/12/14 Save this To Up
Simultaneous modulation of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways by simvastatin in mediating prostate cancer cell apoptosis.Recent studies suggest the potential benefits of statins as anti-cancer agents. Mechanisms by which statins induce apoptosis in cancer cells are not clear. We previously showed that simvastatin inhibit prostate cancer cell functions and tumor growth. Molecular mechanisms by which simvastatin induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is not completely understood.
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#22226830 2012/02/13 Save this To Up
Apaf-1 deficiency confers resistance to ultraviolet-induced apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by disrupting reactive oxygen species amplification production and mitochondrial pathway.Apoptosis requires tightly regulated cell death pathways. The signaling pathways that trigger a cell to undergo apoptosis after UV radiation are cell type specific and are currently being defined. Here, we have used pharmacological and genetic tools to demonstrate the decisive part of the mitochondrial pathway in UVC-induced apoptosis in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). UVC-induced apoptosis proceeded independent of the activation of death receptor components. In contrast, soon after UV radiation, MAPK activation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased, followed by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release, as well as activation of caspase-9 and -3 and the upregulation of p47-phox. Deficiency of apaf-1, a critical member of the apoptosome, dramatically abolished all the UV-induced signal deterioration and cell death. In parallel, UVC-induced apoptosis was largely attenuated by either DN-caspase-9 or Bcl-X(L) overexpression. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine or catalase but not Tempol decreased UVC-induced MAPK activation and apoptosis. Inhibition of JNK and caspase attenuated p47-phox upregulation. Altogether, we have for the first time demonstrated the critical role of Apaf-1 in the regulation of MAPK, ROS, and MMP in UVC-radiated MEFs and propose that the amplification feedback loop among mitochondrial signal molecules culminates in the demise of the cell.
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#21305519 2011/06/30 Save this To Up
Inhibition of the catalytic function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase promotes apoptosis of germinal center B cells in BXD2 mice.To determine whether functional suppression of the catalytic domain of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) can suppress the hyperreactive germinal center (GC) responses in BXD2 mice.
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