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#28713983   2017/07/17 Save this To Up

Malformin A1 treatment alters invasive and oncogenic phenotypes of human colorectal cancer cells through stimulation of the p38 signaling pathway.

Malformin A1 (MA1), a cyclic pentapeptide isolated from Aspergillus niger, has been found to possess a range of bioactive properties including antibacterial activity. However, it is unclear whether MA1 exerts an anticancer effect or not. In this study, we conducted in vitro experiments to investigate its anticancer properties in human colorectal cancer cells. The effect of MA1 on human colorectal cancer cells, SW480 and DKO1, was examined by the WST-1 cell viability assay, inverted microscopy, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, wound healing, Transwell assays, and western blotting. MA1 treatment showed potent cytotoxic activities on human colorectal cancer cells. MA1 treatment induced apoptosis by activating the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase‑3, -7, and -9. MA1 treatment led to the increase in p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and the decrease in X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and Survivin. In addition, MA1 treatment induced cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1 phase. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z‑VAD‑FMK, attenuated these MA1-induced apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, MA1 treatment suppressed tumor cell migration and invasion. The phosphorylation level of p38 was upregulated by MA1 treatment, and the inhibitor of p38, SB203580, attenuated the MA1-induced p38 phosphorylation as well as caspase‑3 and PARP activation. These results indicate that MA1 treatment alters invasive and oncogenic phenotypes of human colorectal cancer cells through the stimulation of the p38 signaling pathway.

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#28487980   2017/05/10 Save this To Up

Combination of bortezomib and daunorubicin in the induction of apoptosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Despite advances in the treatment of T‑cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T‑ALL), the outcome of T‑ALL treatment remains unsatisfactory, therefore, more effective treatment is urgently required. The present study examined the cytotoxicities of bortezomib in combination with daunorubicin against human Jurkat and Molt‑4 T‑ALL cells and primary T‑ALL cells. Compared with treatment alone, co‑exposure of cells to bortezomib and daunorubicin resulted in a significant increase in cell death in the Jurkat cells, as evidenced by the increased percentage of Annexin V‑positive cells, the formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, the administration sequence of bortezomib and daunorubicin had an effect on cell viability. Treatment with bortezomib followed by daunorubicin treatment was more effective, compared with treatment with daunorubicin followed by bortezomib. Co-treatment with bortezomib and daunorubicin markedly enhanced the activation of caspase‑3, ‑8 and ‑9, which was reversed by the pan‑caspase inhibitor, Z‑VAD‑FMK. In addition, cotreatment with bortezomib and daunorubicin enhanced the collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and upregulated the proapoptotic protein, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), but not Bcl‑2 or Bcl‑extra large. Consistent with this, it was demonstrated that cotreatment of bortezomib and daunorubicin efficiently induced apoptosis in primary T‑ALL cells, and cell death was associated with the collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the upregulation of Bim. Taken together, these findings indicated that the combination of bortezomib and daunorubicin significantly enhanced their apoptosis‑inducing effect in T‑ALL cells, which may warrant further investigation in preclinical and clinical investigations.

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#26936128   2016/04/07 Save this To Up

mTOR signaling pathway is inhibited downstream of the cyclophilin D-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in honokiol-triggered regulated necrosis.

Honokiol (HNK) is a pharmacologically active small molecule that is isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, houpu. It may induce diversified types of regulated cell death, which are dependent on different cell types and varying concentrations of therapeutic agent. We previously reported that HNK triggers a cyclophilin D (CypD)-mediated regulated necrosis in various cell lines at certain concentrations (two‑fold higher than its half maximal inhibitory concentration). Subsequent study revealed that HNK induced cell death transition from early apoptosis to regulated necrosis in parallel with the increase of HNK dose. In the current study, a lower concentration of HNK (30 µg/ml) than previously reported also induced simplex CypD‑mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)‑associated regulated necrosis in the HEK‑293 human embryonic kidney cell line. HNK, at concentration of 30 µg/ml, induced necrotic cell death in HEK‑293 cells, which was demonstrated by positive staining for propidium iodide. No DNA ladder patterns or apoptotic bodies were detected in cells that underwent this type of necrotic cell death. Caspase‑8 and ‑3 were not activated during the process of HNK‑induced necrosis. In addition, pan‑caspase inhibitor, z‑VAD‑fmk and receptor‑interacting protein 1 inhibitor, necrostatin‑1 did not inhibit HNK‑induced necrosis. However, CypD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), blocked HNK‑induced necrosis. These findings indicate that 30 µg/ml HNK induced simplex CypD-mediated MPT‑associated regulated necrosis in HEK‑293 cells. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that during HNK-triggered regulated necrosis the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is also inhibited. Pretreatment with CsA, therefore, inhibits HNK‑triggered regulated necrosis and reverses dephosphorylation of Akt, eIF4E‑binding protein 1 and S6 kinase. This indicated that the mTOR signaling pathway is effective downstream of the CypD‑mediated MPT and before the onset of plasma membrane breakdown during the regulated necrosis process. Therefore, it has been demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that the mTOR signaling pathway was inhibited downstream of the CypD-mediated MPT in the process of HNK-induced regulated necrosis.

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#26676762   2016/02/10 Save this To Up

Sodium formate induces autophagy and apoptosis via the JNK signaling pathway of photoreceptor cells.

Incidents associated with methanol intoxication resulting from the consumption of fake wine occur not infrequently worldwide. Certain individuals are made blind due to methanol poisoning. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium formate exposure on photoreceptor cells (661W cells). The 661W cells were exposed to sodium formate for 6‑24 h and cell viability was determined using a 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyl‑2H‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Subsequently, the 661W cells were exposed to 15 or 30 mM sodium formate for 24 h. The level of apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining, visualizing the cells under a fluorescence microscope, and annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate staining, using flow cytometric analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH‑DA) staining, followed by flow cytometric analysis. Autophagy of the 661W cells was measured by monodansylcadaverine staining. The activation of phosphorylated c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (p‑JNK), B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, cleaved caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑9 and microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3 (LC3) was assessed by western blotting. The effects of Z‑VAD‑fmk (a pan‑caspase inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) on the viability of the sodium formate‑induced 661W cells were determined using an MTT assay. Sodium formate treatment induced a decrease in the viability of the 661W cells in a time‑ and a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, sodium formate at concentrations of 15 or 30 mM markedly increased the level of apoptosis and the ROS levels, as measured by DCFH‑DA staining of the 661W cells. Additionally, 661W cells exposed to sodium formate for 24 h exhibited increased levels of p‑JNK, Bax, cleaved caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑9 and LC3II (the phosphatidylethanolamine‑modified form of LC3), although the level of Bcl‑2 was decreased. Furthermore, cell cytotoxicity and autophagy were induced upon treatment with sodium formate. Z‑VAD‑fmk and SP600125 were able to effectively circumvent the effects of sodium formate on cell viability. These results suggested that the cytotoxicity induced by sodium formate induces the activation of the JNK signaling pathway, leading to caspase‑dependent apoptosis. Increased levels of autophagy were also observed during the process of 661W cell damage induced by sodium formate.

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#25435190   2014/12/22 Save this To Up

Centipedegrass extract induces apoptosis through the activation of caspases and the downregulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK phosphorylation in leukemia cells.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which involves the blood and bone marrow, is the most common type of cancer in children younger than 5 years of age. Previous studies have investigated the effects of centipedegrass extract (CGE), which is mainly composed of maysin and its derivatives, and have demonstrated that it has various biological activities, including antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory activities, pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity, anti-adipogenic activity and insecticidal activity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the anticancer effects of CGE in ALL cell lines and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects. Cell viability was measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue (MTT) assay. Apoptosis, cell cycle progression and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) were determined by flow cytometry. The effects of CGE on the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were assessed by immunoblotting. PI3K, MAPK and caspase inhibitors were used to further confirm the molecular mechanisms involved. Our results clearly demonstrated that the proliferation of the ALL cells was significantly inhibited by CGE in a dose‑dependent manner. Apoptosis was accompanied by the induction of significant G1 cell cycle arrest. The resulting alteration of the ∆Ψm increased the activity of caspase‑3/7. The induction of apoptosis was enhanced by the combined treatment of CGE with a PI3K inhibitor or an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, whereas the CGE‑induced apoptosis was inhibited in the presence of caspase inhibitors, such as z‑VAD‑fmk and z‑IETD‑fmk. Furthermore, CGE inhibited PI3K activity by decreasing the levels of phosphorylated (p‑)Akt, p‑BAD, and Bcl‑2 together with the levels of MAPKs, including p‑ERK and p‑JNK, but demonstrated no effects on p38 MAPK. Thus, our data suggest that CGE may be a novel natural compound with potential for use as an antitumor agent in ALL.

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#23751896   2013/07/12 Save this To Up

JNK activation is required for TNFα-induced apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

A frequent distinctive feature of tumors, hepatocellular carcinomas included, is resistance to apoptosis induced by a variety of agents, among which the pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF). Compared to other cell types, hepatocytes and hepatoma-derived cell lines are poorly susceptible to TNF-induced apoptosis, which is largely ascribed to activation of the prosurvival transcription factor NF-κB and can be overcome by associating TNF to low doses of protein synthesis inhibitors or other drugs.

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#23028936   2012/10/02 Save this To Up

Caspase 2 activation and ER stress drive rapid Jurkat cell apoptosis by clofibrate.

Differently from the antiapoptotic action most commonly assigned to peroxisome proliferators (PPs), we demonstrated that some of them, clofibrate (CF) in particular, display clearcut apoptogenic properties on rat hepatoma cell lines. We and others could confirm that CF as well as various other PPs can induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, including human liver, breast and lung cancer cell lines. The present study was aimed at investigating the cytotoxic action of CF on a neoplastic line of different origin, the human T leukemia Jurkat cells. We observed that CF rapidly triggers an extensive and morphologically typical apoptotic process on Jurkat cells, though not in primary T cells, which is completely prevented by the polycaspase inhibitor zVADfmk. Gene silencing studies demonstrated that CF-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells is partially dependent on activation of caspase 2. Looking for a possible trigger of caspase 2 activation, we observed increased levels of phosphorylated eIF2α and JNK in CF-treated cells. Moreover, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis was perturbed. Together, these findings are suggestive for the occurrence of ER stress, an event that is known to have the potential to activate caspase 2. The present observations demonstrate that CF induces in Jurkat cells a very fast and extensive apoptosis, that involves induction of ER stress and activation of caspases 2 and 3. Since apoptosis in Jurkat cells occurs at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of CF, the present findings encourage further in depth analysis in order to work out the potential implications of CF cytotoxcity on leukemic cells.

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#22235291   2012/01/11 Save this To Up

Pharmacological inhibition of caspase and calpain proteases: a novel strategy to enhance the homing responses of cord blood HSPCs during expansion.

Expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is a well-known strategy employed to facilitate the transplantation outcome. We have previously shown that the prevention of apoptosis by the inhibition of cysteine proteases, caspase and calpain played an important role in the expansion and engraftment of cord blood (CB) derived HSPCs. We hypothesize that these protease inhibitors might have maneuvered the adhesive and migratory properties of the cells rendering them to be retained in the bone marrow for sustained engraftment. The current study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of the homing responses of CB cells during expansion.

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#21724910   2011/08/23 Save this To Up

Ceramide-1-phosphate, a new mediator of development and survival in retina photoreceptors.

PURPOSE. Simple sphingolipids control crucial cellular processes in several cell types. Previous work demonstrated that sphingolipids, such as ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, are key mediators in the regulation of survival, differentiation, and proliferation of retina photoreceptors. Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) regulates growth and survival in several cell types; however, little is known concerning its functions in the retina. Whether C1P also participates in controlling photoreceptor development was also explored. METHODS. Rat retina neuronal cultures were supplemented with 1 to 10 μM C1P. Proliferation was determined by evaluating 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and the number of mitotic figures and differentiation by evaluating opsin and peripherin expression by immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Apoptosis was inhibited with the pan caspase inhibitor ZVADFMK and evaluated by TUNEL assay, propidium iodide/annexin V, and DAPI labeling. Preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated. RESULTS. C1P enhanced BrdU uptake and increased mitosis in retinal progenitors. C1P addition advanced photoreceptor differentiation, enhancing opsin and peripherin expression and stimulating development of the apical processes in which these proteins were concentrated. In the absence of these trophic factors, photoreceptors degenerated after 4 days in vitro, and at day 6, almost 50% of photoreceptors were apoptotic. C1P decreased photoreceptor apoptosis, reducing this percentage by half. Inhibiting caspase activity reduced photoreceptor apoptosis in the controls, but did not increase opsin expression, implying that C1P has separate effects on differentiation and survival. CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest for the first time that C1P is a novel mediator that has multiple functions in photoreceptors, initially regulating their proliferation and then promoting their survival and differentiation.

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#21701533   2011/09/19 Save this To Up

Effect of a caspase inhibitor, zVADfmk, on the inhibition of breast cancer cells by herpes simplex virus type 1.

The oncolytic effects of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) are limited, possibly because of premature death of infected cells by apoptosis, which limits the amount of progeny virus that is produced. It has been proposed that inhibition of apoptosis in infected tumor cells would allow increased viral persistence, replication and therapeutic effect. To test this hypothesis, we infected monocyte chemoattractant factor-7 (MCF-7) and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with HSV-1 strain 17(+) and 17Δγ34.5 in the presence or absence of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVADfmk), a pan-caspase inhibitor. At low doses of HSV-1 strain 17(+) and 17Δγ34.5, the growth of MCF-7 cells was reduced to 37% or 42%, respectively, of uninfected cells. However, when cells were infected in the presence of zVADfmk, cell growth was further reduced to 24 and 33%. Similar results were seen in MDA-MB-231 cells. Cells treated with zVADfmk contained roughly 10 times more infectious viral particles than cells infected without zVADfmk, as shown by both plaque-forming and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. To model the situation within an infected tumor, supernatant fluids were collected from infected and non-infected cell cultures and then passed to non-infected cells. In the presence of zVADfmk, the cell growth inhibitory effect became stronger with repeated passages and was attributed to viral replication, because it could be prevented by anti-HSV antibody. These results suggest that caspases represent a novel target for drugs that increase the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic herpes viruses against breast cancer.

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