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PINK1 Protects Auditory Hair Cells and Spiral Ganglion Neurons from Cisplatin-induced Ototoxicity via Inducing Autophagy and Inhibiting JNK Signaling Pathway.

Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase, which acts as a molecular sensor of mitochondrial health necessary for mitochondrial quality control. The present study was designed to examine whether PINK1 expressed in C57BL/6 murine cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, if so, to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the action of PINK1 in cisplatin-induced death of sensory hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in vitro. The expression pattern of PINK1, formation of parkin particles, and autophagy were determined by immunofluorescent staining. The expressions of PINK1, LC3B, cleaved-caspase 3 and p-JNK were measured by Western blotting. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by DCFH-DA and Mito-Sox Red staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate (TMRM) and Rhodamine 123. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by CCK8 assay, TUNEL staining and Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit, respectively. We found that PINK1 was widely expressed in the cytoplasm in HCs, SGNs, stria vascularis of C57BL/6 cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, notably, the expression level in cochlear HCs and SGNs of postnatal day 4 (P4) mice was higher than that in adult mice. Moreover, treatment with 30μM cisplatin elicited the formation of ROS, which, in turn, led to PINK1 activation, parkin recruitment, autophagy formation and JNK pathway relevant to apoptosis in HEI-OC1 cells, HCs, and SGNs. Meanwhile, co-treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or HOconsumer catalase-polyethylene glycol (PEG-catalase) inhibited parkin recruitment, alleviated autophagy formation, and mitigated JNK pathway related apoptosis. In addition, PINK1 silencing resulted in a lower level of autophagy, but, a higher mortality in HEI-OC1 cells treated with cisplatin. Taken together, data from this work reveal that PINK1 possesses the protective effect via induction of autophagy and resistance of apoptosis under cisplatin stimulus in sensory HCs and SGNs, implying that PINK1 might serve as an important regulator of cisplatin-elicited ototoxicity.

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AP-1 Reporter – HEK293 Wnt Signaling Pathway TCF Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Hh Signaling Pathway Anta Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Rat Mesenchymal Cells anti CD7 All T cells Reco anti Transferrin receptor SRE Reporter - HEK293 Cel

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Relationship of antioxidant system and reactive oxygen species with clinical semen parameters in infertile men.

To determine the correlation of antioxidant system and reactive oxygen species with clinical parameters in infertile semen samples.

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Endocrine system benign, Digestive system carcinom MarkerGeneTM Live Cell Fl Male genitourinary system Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Interferon-a Receptor Typ Integrin â3 (Ab 773) Ant Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Integrin â3 (Ab 785) Ant

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Phenotype and genotype of  lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the tiger grouperalimentary tract.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been isolated successfully from the tiger grouperintestine. However, their genus or species have not been identified. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the three isolated LAB (KSBU-12C, KSBU-5Da, and KSBU-9) based on their phenotype and genotype. The LAB phenotype was examined by observing morphological features including cell morphology, spore production and motility. The physiological tests were performed in 6.5% NaCl at the  temperatures of 10C and 45C, and the biochemical tests were evaluated based on the production of enzymes catalase, oxidase and arginine dehydrolase, following  the Standard Analytical Profile Index, API 50 CH kit.  The genotype was examined based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis , and the products were analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) NCBI database. The three isolates (KSBU-5Da, KSBU-12C, and KSBU-9) were categorized into the genus. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the isolates had 99% similarity toATCC 9790, registered in GenBank with accession number NR_075022.1. It was concluded that the three LAB isolates taken from the tiger grouperare.

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Regulation of TERRA on telomeric and mitochondrial functions in IPF pathogenesis.

Aging is a known risk factor of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the effects of advanced aging remain largely unknown. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) represents a type of long noncoding RNA. In this study, the regulatory roles of TERRA on human telomeres and mitochondria and IPF epithelial injury model were identified.

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Adrenomedullin protects Leydig cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction via MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathways.

This study aimed to explore the possible benefits of adrenomedullin (ADM) in preventing oxidative stress and inflammation by using an in vitro primary culture model of rat Leydig cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell proliferation was detected through CCK-8 and BrdU incorporation assays. ROS were determined with a DCFDA kit, and cytokine concentrations were measured with ELISA assay kits. Protein production was examined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot, and gene expression was observed through RT-qPCR. Results revealed that ADM significantly reduced LPS-induced cytotoxicity, and pretreatment with ADM significantly suppressed ROS overproduction and decreased 4-HNE and 8-OHdG expression levels and concentrations. ADM pretreatment also significantly attenuated the overactivation of enzymatic antioxidants, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. ADM supplementation reversed the significantly increased gene expression levels and concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β1, MCP-1 and MIF. ADM pretreatment significantly inhibited the gene expression and protein production of TLR-2 and 4. Furthermore, ADM pretreatment markedly reduced the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK 1/2 and p38, phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p65. Our findings demonstrated that ADM protects Leydig cells from LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, which might be associated with MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathways.

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OXI TEK (Oxidative Stress Rat Mesenchymal Cells anti CD7 All T cells Reco anti Transferrin receptor NF kB reporter (Luc) HEK2 8 Isoprostane oxidative s Transcription factors: O 129 Mouse Embryonic Stem Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cell p53 Luciferase Reporter R ECOS 101 Competent Cells ECOS™ 9-5 Competent Cel

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Pachymic acid promotes induction of autophagy related to IGF-1 signaling pathway in WI-38 cells.

The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway has spotlighted as a mechanism to elucidate aging associated with autophagy in recent years. Therefore, we have tried to screen an effective compound capable of inducing autophagy to delay aging process.

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Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.

Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway.

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Mutations in rpoB and katG genes of multidrug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis undetectable using genotyping diagnostic methods.

Tuberculosis remains the leading causes of death worldwide with frequencies of mutations in rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates varying according to geographical location. There is limited information in Zimbabwe on specific antibiotic resistance gene mutation patterns in MTB and hence, increased rate of discordant results and mortality due to inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions. The rpoB and katG genes molecular markers are used for detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance respectively. Some mutations within these gene sequences are associated with drug resistance as they directly alter gene function. The objectives of this research was to determine the drug resistance profiles in M. tuberculosis isolates that are phenotypically resistant but not detected by the GeneXpert and MTBDRplus kit and also to detect mutations in the rpoB and katG genes which are not detected by the Hain Genotype MTBDRplus kit and GeneXpert diagnosis.

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Attenuation of Sulfite-Induced Testicular Injury in Rats by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Sulfite salts, including sodium metabisulfte, are widely used as preservatives in foods and pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mediator of testicular injury. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of exposure to sodium metabisulfite by gavage without or with Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract on the rat testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ginger-treated (500 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite- (SMB-) treated (260 mg/kg/day), and SMB + ginger- (SZ-) treated groups. After 28 days, the rats were anesthetized by ether and, after laparotomy, blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then left testes and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for histological examination and sperm analysis, and right testes were removed for assessing lipid peroxidation (indexed by malondialdehyde [MDA]) and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that spermatogenesis, epididymal morphometry, and sperm parameters were affected by SMB. There was a significant increase in MDA level and a significant reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) in the SMB-treated rats compared to the control. Ginger treatment of SMB-exposed rats significantly increased testosterone level and the number of different spermatogenic cells. The level of MDA reversed to the control levels and the activities of GPx and GR were significantly increased when SMB was coadministered with ginger extract. It is concluded that coadministration of ginger, through its antioxidant and androgenic properties, exerts a protective effect against SMB-induced testicular oxidative stress.

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Degradation of Extracellular DNA by DNase1 Significantly Reduces Testicular Damage After Testicular Torsion in Rats.

To examine the effects of DNase1 treatment on testicular damage after testicular torsion (TT). It has been demonstrated that TT induces thrombus formation and that anticoagulation significantly reduces testicular damage after TT. It was hypothesized that these thrombi are dependent on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and thus NETs disintegration would reduce testicular cell damage.

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