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Phosphatidylcholine causes adipocyte-specific lipolysis and apoptosis in adipose and muscle tissues.Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) formula has been therapeutically used to reduce areas of localized fat. However, no single research has been carried out on its effect on a variety of cells in adipose and muscle tissues. Herein, the current study aimed to explore the activity of PPC on different cells in adipose and muscle tissues and to investigate the molecular mechanisms contributing to the effects of PPC on lipolysis and apoptosis. mRNA expression levels of various genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein expression levels were observed through Western blotting and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Lipolysis and caspase 3 activity assay were performed using commercial kits. PPC induces lipolysis and apoptosis in adipocytes (3T3-L1), but not in the other tested cells, including skeletal muscle cells (C2C12 myocytes), endothelial cells (HUVEC), and fibroblasts (BJ). The possible role of TNFα and IL-1β-mediated pathways on the effects of PPC was also revealed. We confirmed that treatment with PPC caused lipolysis and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (only in 3T3-L1 adipocytes). The effect of PPC observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was not evident in C2C12 myocytes, HUVEC, and fibroblasts. PPC also increased TNFα and IL-1β expression and release in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent fashion, but not in C2C12 myocytes, HUVEC, and BJ. Suppression of TNFα or IL-1β reversed PPC-induced lipolysis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that PPC could promote adipocyte-specific lipolysis and apoptosis through TNFα and IL-1β-mediated signaling. We conclude that the specific activity of PPC on adipocyte in adipose without other tissue damages can be an effective approach for melting lipid.
1566 related Products with: Phosphatidylcholine causes adipocyte-specific lipolysis and apoptosis in adipose and muscle tissues.Apoptosis antibody array Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi Cancer Apoptosis Phospho- Apoptosis (Human) Antibod Apoptosis (Human) Antibod Rat Visceral adipose spec Actin, Muscle Specific; Actin, Muscle Specific; Actin, Muscle Specific; Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge
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Induced pluripotent stem cell-conditional medium inhibits H9C2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis via autophagy flux and Wnt/β-catenin pathway.Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) could improve cell viability in many types of cells and may be a better alternative for the treatment of myocardial infarction. This study aimed to examine the influence of iPS-CM on anti-apoptosis and the proliferation of H9C2 cardiomyocytes and investigate the underlying mechanisms. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to 200 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H O ) for 24 hours with or without pre-treatment with iPS-CM. The ratio of apoptotic cells, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm) and the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species were analysed by flow cytometric analysis. The expression levels of BCL-2 and BAX proteins were analysed by Western blot. Cell proliferation was assessed using cell cycle and EdU staining assays. To study cell senescence, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining was conducted. The levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione were also quantified using commercially available enzymatic kits. The results showed that iPS-CM containing basic fibroblast growth factor significantly reduced H O -induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis by activating the autophagy flux pathway, promoted cardiomyocyte proliferation by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inhibited oxidative stress and cell senescence. In conclusion, iPS-CM effectively enhanced the cell viability of H9C2 cardiomyocytes and could potentially be used to inhibit cardiomyocytes apoptosis to treat myocardial infarction in the future.
2299 related Products with: Induced pluripotent stem cell-conditional medium inhibits H9C2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis via autophagy flux and Wnt/β-catenin pathway.Human Stem Cell Factor SC Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Mouse Stem Cell Factor SC Cell Meter™ Cell Viabil Cell Meter™ Cell Viabil Cell Meter™ Cell Viabil Cell Meter™ Cell Viabil Cell Meter™ Cell Viabil Cell Meter™ Phosphatidy
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The antidepressant effects of hesperidin on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced mice.Hesperidin, a kind of citrus bioflavonoid distributed in foods including grapefruits, oranges and lemons, has many pharmacological activities. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-depressant-like effect of hesperidin on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced mice. Depressive-like behavior was detected by the sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). A 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to assess the cell viability of corticosterone-induced PC12 cells. The serum, hippocampal and cell supernatant concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kits. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE)/NF-κB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway in the hippocampus and corticosterone-induced PC12 cells were detected by Western blot. Our results showed that hesperidin (100, 200 mg/kg) significantly relieved depressive-like behaviors, including decreased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test (SPT), immobility in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test, and locomotor activity in the open field test (OFT). Hesperidin reduced inflammatory cytokine levels by attenuating the HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB signaling pathway and BDNF/TrkB pathway both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, hesperidin possessed efficient neuroprotective effects on depression, which was associated with neuroinflammation mediated by the HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB and BDNF/TrkB pathways.
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Sufentanil Preconditioning Protects Against Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Inflammation.BACKGROUND Inflammation is one of the most significant mechanisms of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Sufentanil has a protective effect against liver injury by reducing inflammatory response. In this study, we used a cellular hepatic ischemic/reoxygenated (IR) model to determine whether sufentanil preconditioning protects against hepatic IRI. MATERIAL AND METHODS The human normal liver cells line L-O2 was studied. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malonaldehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured using corresponding assay kits. The protein levels of total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, and the expression of p65 and COX2 genes, were measured by Western blotting. The levels of inflammatory factors were examined by ELISA. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to determine if the viability of L-O2 cells was affected by sufentanil. The effects of sufentanil on IR-induced cell apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. RESULTS IR-induced caused L-O2 cells to become rounded and to have a lower adhesive rate than normal cells. The levels of AST, LDH, and MDA were higher but the level of SOD was lower in the IR group than in the control group. The phosphorylated protein levels of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, along with the expression of p65 and COX2, were upregulated in the IR group compared to the normal group. In addition, a variety of inflammatory factors were secreted in L-O2 cells after IR. The viability of L-O2 cells decreased and cell apoptosis increased significantly after IR treatment. All indexes of cell injury were reversed by sufentanil in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS Sufentanil stimulation triggers downregulation of inflammatory factors such as HIF-1alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-1ß, and IL-6, possibly through suppressing the p38/ERK/JNK/NF-kappaB-p65/COX2 pathways, and thereby reduces the damage to IR hepatic cells.
1107 related Products with: Sufentanil Preconditioning Protects Against Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Inflammation.Human Ischemia Modified A Inflammation (Human) Anti Inflammation (Mouse) Anti Inflammation (Human) Anti Inflammation (Human) Anti Inflammation (Human) Anti Inflammation (Mouse) Anti Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Mouse) Quan Inflammation (Rat) Quanti
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In vitro immunomodulatory effect of nisin on porcine leucocytes.Nisin, a lantibiotic bacteriocin, has been used for years as a natural food preservative. In addition to its antimicrobial activity, nisin also shows immunomodulatory properties, and the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strain has been successfully tested as a probiotic in weaned piglets. However, the impact of nisin on porcine immune cells has not yet been explored. The objective of the present study was to examine the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of nisin on porcine peripheral blood leucocytes. The whole heparinized blood samples or freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with different nisin concentrations (0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 µg/ml) for 1, 24, 48 or 72 hr. Escherichia coli bacteria were used to stimulate blood phagocytes, while concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide from E. coli were used as mitogens. Control cells remained unstimulated. MTT colorimetric assay was used to evaluate PBMCs viability and mitogenic response. Phagocyte activity and T-cell proliferation were measured by flow cytometry. Flow cytometer was also used for immunophenotyping of T cells. Cytokine levels in the culture media were determined using commercial immunoassay (ELISA) kits. The highest concentration of nisin exhibited proliferative activity (p ˂ 0.05), stimulated interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production (both at p ˂ 0.001), and increased the percentage of CD4 CD8 T cells (p ˂ 0.001) among unstimulated leucocytes. After cell stimulation, however, the highest nisin concentration showed antiproliferative activity (p ˂ 0.05), decreased phagocytic functions (p ˂ 0.05) and inhibited the synthesis of IL-6 (time- and concentration-dependent effect). As a typical bacterial product, nisin had a stronger impact on innate immune cells, and its effect on T cells was likely a consequence of the modulation of the activity of antigen-presenting cells. Nisin may be a good candidate as an immunomodulator in pig breeding.
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Aggravates High Glucose- and Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury through Activating ROS-Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Pyroptosis in H9C2 Cardiomyocytes.Diabetes aggravates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury because of the combination effects of changes in glucose and lipid energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammatory response. Studies have indicated that myocardial I/R may coincide and interact with sepsis and inflammation. However, the role of LPS in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in cardiomyocytes under high glucose conditions is still unclear. Our objective was to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could aggravate high glucose- (HG-) and hypoxia/reoxygenation- (H/R-) induced injury by upregulating ROS production to activate NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to HG (30 mM) condition with or without LPS, along with caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK), inflammasome inhibitor (BAY11-7082), ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or not for 24 h, then subjected to 4 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h of reoxygenation (H/R). The cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase-1 activity, and intracellular ROS production were detected by using assay kits. The incidence of pyroptosis was detected by calcein-AM/propidium iodide (PI) double staining kit. The concentrations of IL-1 and IL-18 in the supernatants were assessed by ELISA. The mRNA levels of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were detected by qRT-PCR. The protein levels of NF-B p65, NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1 (p10), IL-1, and IL-18 were detected by western blot. The results indicated that pretreatment LPS with 1 g/ml not 0.1 g/ml could efficiently aggravate HG and H/R injury by activating NLRP3 inflammasome to mediate pyroptosis in H9C2 cells, as evidenced by increased LDH release and decreased cell viability in the cells, and increased expression of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase-1 (p10), IL-1, and IL-18. Meanwhile, Ac-YVAD-CMK, BAY11-7082, or NAC attenuated HG- and H/R-induced H9C2 cell injury with LPS stimulated by reversing the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. In conclusion, LPS could increase the sensitivity of H9C2 cells to HG and H/R and aggravated HG- and H/R-induced H9C2 cell injury by promoting ROS production to induce NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis.
2444 related Products with: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Aggravates High Glucose- and Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury through Activating ROS-Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Pyroptosis in H9C2 Cardiomyocytes.Insulin Glucose Phospho-S Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Human Epstein-Barr Virus Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Mouse Epstein-Barr Virus TGF beta induced factor 2
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Neuroprotective effects of Scrophularia buergeriana extract against glutamate-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti‑apoptotic activities, as well as the underlying mechanisms of action, of Scrophularia buergeriana (S. buergeriana) extract (SBE) in glutamate‑induced SH‑SY5Y cell death. The roots of S. buergeriana were extracted with 70% ethanol, and standardized SBE was used in this study. To induce cytotoxicity, the SH‑SY5Y cells were exposed to glutamate for 3 h, or pre‑treated with SBE for 1 h, and subsequently incubated with glutamate for 3 h. The neuroprotective effects were assessed by measuring cell viability and the total glutathione contents using commercial kits. The antioxidant and anti‑apoptotic mechanisms of action of SBE were evaluated by western blot analysis. The results confirmed that glutamate‑induced toxicity was caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, thus leading to cell death. However, treatment of the SH‑SY5Y cells with SBE significantly increased the viability of the cells exposed to glutamate by upregulating the levels of antioxidant proteins, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase‑1 (GPx‑1), and directly enhancing the total glutathione contents. Furthermore, SBE attenuated DNA impairment and decreased B‑cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein (Bax), cleaved caspase‑3 and cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)‑ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. In addition, SBE upregulated Bcl‑2 expression via p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs). On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrated that SBE exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate‑induced cell toxicity through its antioxidant and anti‑apoptotic activities.
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Dichloroacetic acid upregulates apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells by regulating mitochondrial function.Metabolic reprogramming is a characteristic of tumor cells and is considered a potential therapeutic target. Even under aerobic conditions, tumor cells use glycolysis to produce energy, a phenomenon called the "Warburg effect". Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) is a key factor linking glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) reverses the Warburg effect by inhibition of PDK1 to switch cytoplasmic glucose metabolism to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).
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Resveratrol attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced aging through upregulation of autophagy in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.Resveratrol (RESV; trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has emerged as a potential new therapeutic for age-related atherosclerotic diseases. However, the effect of RESV on cellular aging and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether RESV can delay cellular aging through upregulation of autophagy.
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Protective effect of 7,3',4'-flavon-3-ol (fisetin) on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in clinic. Fisetin (FST) is a phenolic compound that has been isolated from many natural products.
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