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#28700121   2017/07/12 Save this To Up

Development of a bead-based multiplexed assay for simultaneous quantification of five bovine cytokines by flow cytometry.

Quantifying cytokines is extremely important in studies of host-pathogen interactions. Multiplex assays are commercially available but only for human and mouse cytokines. Here a method for the simultaneous quantification of five important bovine cytokines IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNFα in cell culture supernatants, using flow cytometry was reported. Functional beads from BD Biosciences expressing specific APC intensity were used. Commercially available antibodies against bovine cytokines were covalently coupled to beads as capture antibodies. Fixed recombinant cytokines were revealed with a second monoclonal antibody coupled with biotin, then revealed with streptavidin-PE. This complex was analyzed using a standard flow cytometer. Experiments were performed to check no cross reactions had occurred. The limits of detection ranged between 0.08 and 0.4 ng/ml depending on the cytokine, and the linearity between the lower and higher limits was remarkable (R(2)  > 99.8%). Finally, native cytokines from cell culture supernatants were tested. Results were compared using the standard ELISA test and showed that concentrations of native cytokine in cell culture supernatants were comparable with the two methods, with a wider dynamic range using beads and flow cytometry than with ELISA assays. Bovine IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNFα in culture supernatants can be now simultaneously detected in a single assay, using a standard flow cytometer for both basic and high-throughput analyses. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

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#28690061   2017/07/10 Save this To Up

Bovine miR-146a regulates inflammatory cytokines of bovine mammary epithelial cells via targeting the TRAF6 gene.

It has been reported previously that bovine miR-146a (bta-miR-146a) is significantly differentially expressed in mammary glands infected with mastitis, compared with healthy udders. This suggests that bta-miR-146a plays an important role in the regulation of mammary inflammation. However, the specifics of this function have yet to be elucidated. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) represent the first line of defense against pathogens and have important roles in initiating and regulating inflammatory responses and innate immunity during infection. In this study, a double luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm that bta-miR-146a directly targets the 3' UTR of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) gene. To elucidate the role of bta-miR-146a in innate immune responses, either a mimic or inhibitor of bta-miR-146a was transfected into bMEC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, which activates the innate immune response through the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Forty-eight hours posttransfection, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blots were used to detect the expressions of the related genes and proteins, respectively. An ELISA was used to measure the quantity of inflammatory factors in culture supernatants. The results showed that bta-miR-146a significantly inhibits both mRNA and protein expression levels of bovine TRAF6, and ultimately suppresses downstream expression of NF-κB mRNA and protein. As a result, production of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, and IL-8 are suppressed following lipopolysaccharide stimulation of bMEC. Thus, we concluded that bta-miR-146a acts as a negative feedback regulator of bovine inflammation and innate immunity through downregulation of the TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB pathway. This study presents a potential regulatory mechanism of bta-miR-146a on immune responses in bovine mammary infection and may provide a potential therapeutic target for mastitis.

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#28539717   2017/05/25 Save this To Up

Caspase-mediated Apoptotic Effects of Ebenus boissieri Barbey Extracts on Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line HeLa.

Ebenus boissieri Barbey is an Antalya, Turkey-endemic plant belonging to Fabaceae family. The aerial parts and the roots of E. boissieri Barbey were used in this study.

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#27840082   2016/11/14 Save this To Up

Effects of the stem extracts of Schisandra glaucescens Diels on collagen-induced arthritis in Balb/c mice.

Schisandra glaucescens Diels (SGD) is used in a subclass of traditional Chinese medicine known as "Tujia drugs". It has been long used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cough with dyspnea, spontaneous sweating, night sweating, chronic diarrhea, and neurasthenia. As a woody liana growing in mountain jungles at the altitudes of 750-1800m, it is mainly distributed in Sichuan and Hubei Provinces of China.

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#27393379   2016/09/29 Save this To Up

Schistosoma japonicum cystatin attenuates murine collagen-induced arthritis.

Recombinant SjCystatin (rSjCystatin), a recombinant protein of Schistosoma japonicum cystatin, has been reported to have an effect on immunoregulation mediated by IL-10 induction. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune inflammatory arthropathy, and recombinant immune-modulating drugs for RA treatment are under development. We aimed to study the putative immune regulation of rSjCystatin and its prophylactic/therapeutic effects on murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice by inoculation with bovine collagen II (CII). rSjCystatin was administered prior or post development of CIA. The severity of CIA was assessed using established clinical and histopathological scoring systems. The incidence was also determined. The CII-specific antibodies in sera and cytokines in splenocyte culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Th1/Th2/Th17 cells and Tregs development in splenocytes were monitored by flow cytometry. The inflammatory mediators in the diseased joint were semiquantitated by qPCR. Prophylactic injection of rSjCystatin attenuated paw clinical scores, incidence, and histopathology scores of joints in CIA mice. The arthritis-alleviative effects were closely associated with the augmentation of IL-4, IL-10, and collagen-specific IgG1, and with the distinct reduction of IFN-γ, collagen-specific IgG2a, and the marked decrease of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α and RANKL. The data indicate that rSjCystatin may prevent cartilage destruction and inflammation of joints in CIA mice. The effects are related to the inhibitory modulation of Th1 and Th17 and upregulation of Tregs and Th2 via a shift of cytokines profiling from Th1 to Th2 response.

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#27063996   2016/07/30 Save this To Up

Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 Impair In Vitro Migration and Induce Apoptosis of Gingival Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells, Delaying Wound Healing.

Multiple factors affect oral mucosal healing, such as the persistence of an inflammatory reaction. The present study evaluates effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 on epithelial cells (ECs) and human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) in vitro.

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#26851631   2016/03/07 Save this To Up

Zhen-wu-tang attenuates cationic bovine serum albumin-induced inflammatory response in membranous glomerulonephritis rat through inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB pathway activation.

Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT), a traditional Chinese compound formula recorded in the Treatise on Febrile Diseases, has significant inhibitory effects on inflammatory damage and oxidative lesions in rats, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore whether the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of ZWT were mediated by the AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB signaling pathway in rats with cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA)-induced membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). We found that ZWT significantly reduced the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), but enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The ELISA results showed that ZWT not only reduced the serum levels of AGEs but also decreased the release of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Meanwhile, HE staining showed that pathological kidney injury was alleviated by ZWT. In addition, ZWT suppressed the expression of RAGE1 and NF-κB p65, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. The accumulation of AGEs, oxidative lesions and inflammation damage were reduced by an AGE inhibitor. Thus, the present study demonstrates that AGEs play a role in the pathogenesis of MGN and that AGE inhibition could reduce the inflammatory reactions and oxidative lesions in MGN. In general, ZWT attenuated MGN, in part, by inhibiting the AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB pathway.

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#26460099   2015/12/01 Save this To Up

Leukocyte-Reduced Platelet-Rich Plasma Normalizes Matrix Metabolism in Torn Human Rotator Cuff Tendons.

The optimal platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy has not been determined.

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#26204835   2015/07/24 Save this To Up

14-3-3γ Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Lactation in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs and Up-Regulating mTOR Signaling.

As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of 14-3-3γ in LPS-induced DCMECs are investigated for the first time, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects are explored. The results of qRT-PCR showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that 14-3-3γ overexpression also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants. Meanwhile, CASY-TT Analyser System showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression clearly increased the viability and proliferation of cells. The results of kit methods and western blot analysis showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression promoted the secretion of triglycerides and lactose and the synthesis of β-casein. Furthermore, the expression of genes relevant to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and lactation-associated proteins were assessed by western blot, and the results suggested that 14-3-3γ overexpression inactivated the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways by down-regulating extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) phosphorylation levels, as well as by inhibiting NF-κB translocation. Meanwhile, 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the expression levels of β-casein, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), serine/threonine protein kinase Akt 1 (AKT1), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). These results suggest that 14-3-3γ was able to attenuate the LPS-induced inflammatory responses and promote proliferation and lactation in LPS-induced DCMECs by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and up-regulating mTOR signaling pathways to protect against LPS-induced injury.

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#25734788   2015/03/04 Save this To Up

TNFα transport induced by dynamic loading alters biomechanics of intact intervertebral discs.

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is an important contributor to the development of back pain, and a key factor relating pain and degeneration are the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IVD motion. There is surprisingly limited understanding of how mechanics and inflammation interact in the IVD. This study investigated interactions between mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a large animal organ culture model to address fundamental questions regarding (i.) how inflammatory mediators arise within the IVD, (ii.) how long inflammatory mediators persist, and (iii.) how inflammatory mediators influence IVD biomechanics.

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